Article 6 Administrative Development Standards under Permanent Peace


Who is betraying our future? Who repeatedly carries out constitutional ‘reform’ to consolidate dictatorship? Who is plundering the resources of the present and future generations? Who is the enemy of our permanent peaceful development? The answer is not ‘others, it is our ' own ' party government, a government supported by the hard-earned money of our taxpayers.


The Charter for Permanent Peace / Human Constitutional Standards / All-powerful Strategic Constitution is based on the definitions of the UN Global Governance Council: super-national level, national level, sub-national level, and the design outlines an administrative co-opetitive system down to the village and community.

The national system is a modified semi-presidential system [1] . The legislature has 12 standing committees and a number of ad hoc committees in the cabinet. The prime minister and ministers are elected by the National Legislature to form elected members in the various professional committees. The central government is responsible to the legislature and is closely linked to the system design.

To implement global governance and humanity, elected agency heads in government are not limited by nationality, but must be citizens of fully democratic countries. The heads of the three key bureaus in local governments are also elected by the people. The "three-in-one / one-vote single-choice system" is adopted to systematically encourage third forces to enter the system.

This Constitution requires the government to increase wisdom, pursue truth, create happiness, and honor value; the constitution thus guarantees [Taiwan] will be an administrative example of permanent peace and contribute to the people of the whole world.

This set of national systems pursues the best administrative quality, efficacy and efficiency through various systems and comparisons with countries, and analyzes the results. Such a mechanism has none of the fatal shortcomings found in all contemporary systems, plus its advantages are unprecedented. See Appendix Table 24: List of the advantages of the world's major semi-presidential countries; Appendix Table 25: List of shortcomings of the world's major semi-presidential countries;, Appendix Table 26: Summary of the world's major presidential state operations; Appendix Table 27: World Presidents List of Disadvantages of National Operational Operations; Appendix Table 28: List of Advantages of National Major Parliamentary Countries; Appendix Table 29: List of Disadvantages of National Major Parliamentary Countries; Appendix Table 30: List of National Operational Advantages of Major Member States; Appendix Table 31: World Commission Schedule of Disadvantages of State Operation; Appendix Table 32: A list of the unique advantages of the Permanent and Charter compared to the current state. The shortcomings of others cannot be found in this charter, while the advantages of this charter can serve as a model for all countries, allowing them to fully repair the shortcomings of global administration, and demonstrating to the world the advantages of striving for the minimum standards for leading humankind.

To this end, the people of [Taiwan] and those oppressed around the world have nothing to lose but the iron curtains and walls, violence and lies that constrain them, while others will lose nothing, rather gaining prosperity under permanent peace.


Figure 6-1: National administration shall comply with rolling reform to meet more than 20,000 international standards (ISO), and then be integrated into administrative constitutional standards for permanent peace and sustainable development through standardization:


Section 1. Permanent Peace Standards 6.1 (Global co-opetition in authorization)

1. We hereby recognize the co-opetitive and administrative power of a global international government, confirming that the state administrative organization is an executive agency entrusted by the international government to guarantee international participation in administration and building a community for human destiny [2] . This is an obligation that the state cannot change or waive. (See the Preface for details)

2. The state now faces global administrative organizations (such as the UN and various professional international organizations [3] ) that do not exercise their executive powers in accordance with international law, and have administrative powers within unexercised areas. Competition and cooperation are based on the principle of global competition and cooperation (§5.1) and administration is carried out according to law.

3. On the basis of the world unity and -global governance, the state has independent, equal, self-jurisdictional, self-defending, environmental, peaceful, developmental, and neutral rights over other nations.

4. The state shall not interfere in the affairs of other nations, refrain from inciting domestic chaos, respect human rights, abide by international law [4] , resolve disputes peacefully, and refrain from using war as a tool for implementing national policies.

5. The administrative power of the [Taiwanese] people is entrusted to the elected executive heads at all levels; and implementation of international administrative norms is exercised by various administrative organs at various levels as determined or entrusted by the Constitution.

6. In order to maintain peace, the state may join collective security systems or collective defense systems for mutual protection; to this end, the state may agree to restrict its sovereignty in order to establish and ensure a lasting peace between the region and the rest of the world [5] .

7. Sub-national level government departments may entrust their sovereignty to surrounding international organizations within the scope of their authority to exercise state power and perform national tasks, with the consent of the central government.

8. In order to resolve international disputes, the state and subnational levels mentioned in the preceding paragraph (§ 4.7.2) may join in universal, general and mandatory international arbitration agreements [6] .

9. In order to achieve lasting peace, consolidate the ideals of a global republic (the purpose of the UN Charter) and implement the concept of one human family (Human Rights Standard §1), all fully democratic countries that conform to the basic principles and general principles of the Constitution must be a part of unity [7] and share in the global village of the world.

10. Withdrawal of any paragraph in this block shall be subject to the approval of more than 3/5 of all taxpayers [8] . (60 points meets the concept of passing grade, closer to public opinion; 1%~5% is within the margin of error and easy to handle)

Section 2. Permanent Peace Standards 6.2 (National positioning ~ World capital at the super-national level)

1. For the purpose of serving the people and all mankind, in the era of the global village, the nation will determine the progress and positioning of Taiwan's struggles by taking a look at the world from Taiwan and considering time and space conditions today.

2. Our nation has contributed greatly to the development of global governance, world harmony, human security and sustainable development. The government should implement this constitutional regulation as a model for an effective universal government that will help improve the UN.

3. Our nation shall function at the super-national level (UN, EU, AU, ASEAN...), national level (Germany, France, China, US); sub-national level (states, provinces,-SARs such as California in the US and Sichuan in China); micro-national level (cities such as Los Angeles in California and Chengdu in Sichuan) as a strategic partner in a three-dimensional human organization.

4. Our nation shall be a development partner for 249 political entities [9] providing constitutional services. This constitutional structure can produce the same legal effect in any political entity as it does in our nation.

5. Our nation is a moral model for [Asia] in constructing a peaceful development system that will be useful for the global village for a long time. It will create a country of truth, goodness and beauty [10] . Our nation is an Eastern model for universal values.

6. Our nation is a charitable example for human beings, providing a new constitutional compass for all humanity. "Life shall be free from want, survival shall be free from fear, everyone will live and work in peace, and every generation shall prosper."

7. Taiwan represents rule of law in the [Oriental] world. It is the capital of global governance and the world.

Section 3. Permanent Peace Standards 6.3 (Election of the president and generational lawmakers)

1. The President must be at least 50 years of age [11] . He/she is not limited by nationality according to law and shall be directly elected by the people in accordance with the sacred principle of sovereignty in the people. He/she shall practice true global democracy for all humanity.

2. Presidential elections shall follow a two-round system and must result in an absolute majority of votes for the winner. If an absolute majority is not obtained in the first round of voting, a second round of voting shall be held on the 14th day thereafter, with the two candidates who won the most votes in the first round participating. If a candidate with a high vote total in the first round withdraws from the race, the candidate with the nest-highest vote tally will take his/her place.

3. The President shall act to promote the concept of executive opinion. Upon election he/she will nominate 12 permanent members of the National Legislature who are at least 45 years old to serve in 12 professional committees in the legislature during his/her term of office. When taking office, all shall openly swear with the president to renounce party membership and refrain from party affairs. Generational lawmakers shall have no right to vote on impeachment of the president in the legislature; in addition to being nominated to be a member of the preservers of the generations, localized members of the international law and internalized members of the legal nation, they should sever all political and business ties for three years after serving or retiring. All benefits shall remain unchanged during this period. Violators shall be sanctioned by law.

4. Sustainable development for generational members of the legislature as vice-chairs of professional committees. The acting professional chair shall preside over meetings, and when ties result in voting by members of the professional committee, has the right to cast a deciding vote.

5. When a seat in the legislature is vacant, a replacement shall be nominated by the President and approved by 2/3 of the legislature, then appointed by the President after approval from 2/3 of the remaining members of the affected committee.

6. The president shall serve one 5-year term and may not run for office again for 6 years after leaving the office [12] . The president’s lifelong security is guaranteed by the state, and the current president is responsible for his/her protection.

7. Foreigners from a fully-democratic country who have served as president, prime minister, or other ministers and elected to the presidency of this country, do not need to pass the constitutional examination; all other foreigners must pass the examination within one year after taking office; candidates from this nation must pass the exam before registering for an election.

8. When a foreigner is elected president, he/she shall promote the signing of an extradition treaty between his/her home country and this country within six months. Any person unable to do so will not be allowed to hold multiple nationalities or permanent residency abroad, and a resolution to this conflict shall be prescribed by law.

9. 60 days before polling day for a new presidential election, the president take responsibility for safeguarding the government and shall not make any major decisions during this period. 60 days after the election the new president shall take up his/her post and inauguration day shall mark the change of government. The handover process between old and new administrations shall be prescribed by law.

10. When the President vacates the office or fails to perform his/her duties for any reason, the Prime Minister shall act as an emergency stand-in. The National Legislature shall elect an acting President within 72 hours. In addition to the Prime Minister [13] , generational legislators and professional committee chairs are elected to represent the president and are elected by all legislators. The acting president shall arrange for a new presidential election within six months and re-calculate his term. Methods for carrying out the presidential election shall be prescribed by law.

11. The President shall take the oath and take the oath as follows: "I sincerely and swears to the people of the whole country and the whole world that I will abide by the Constitution, transcend party politics and be impartial in doing my duty, and dedicate myself to enhancing the welfare of the people; striving to improve the value of life and promote Constitutional Standards, improve resource allocation, promote world peace, and make no untoward national commitments. If I am found in violation of this oath, I am willing to be subject to the most severe sanctions by the state."

12. The presidential election recall law and presidential office organization shall be prescribed by law.

Section 4. Permanent Peace Standards 6.4 (Presidential Office organization, presidential powers and responsibilities)

1. The state shall follow a modified semi-presidential system to ensure that the liberal democratic constitutional order is protected against decline.

2. General election of the president; the professional committee of the social joint relationship corresponding to the 12 divisions of the national and global Congress [14] , 12 cabinets and a number of ad hoc committees, the prime minister and ministers shall be elected by the elected committee members of the professional committees of the Congress; the central government shall be responsible to the Congress.

3. The president represents the country and leads the constitutional benchmark of humanity, ensuring the observance of the constitution, maintaining normal operation of public powers, continuing and improving national strength, and upholding justice for future generations.

4. The President shall be in charge of the three armed forces, declaring war, negotiating treaties, declaring martial law, granting amnesty, issuing urgent orders and announcing new laws. The aforementioned features shall not include impeachment cases [15] .

5. The President shall preside over the highest national defense conferences, national security conferences and state conferences.

6. The President shall appoint all foreign ambassadors and special envoys, and accept foreign ambassadors and special envoys.

7. Except as otherwise provided by this Constitution, the President shall make decisions based on recommendations of the Cabinet; if a decision is not made in accordance with the Cabinet's recommendations, the issue may be returned to the Cabinet for reconsideration. In such cases the Cabinet may report to the National Legislature on matters other than ratifying a treaty, or appointing an official or position. Subsequently, the Cabinet may propose that the matter be handled in accordance with the instructions of the Legislature on receiving the report from the Cabinet.

8. The President shall present a State of the Union address to the National Legislature each year; no consultation or discussion of the contents shall be allowed. The President shall speak at a joint meeting of the 12 professional committees in the National Legislature for this purpose. After he leaves the Legislature, lawmakers may discuss the president's speech, but no voting is allowed on any issue.

9. The President shall appoint a Prime Minister and Chair of the Professional Committees and exempt him/her from duties in accordance with the Prime Minister’s general remarks. The President shall then appoint other ministers in the government based on the Prime Minister’s recommendations. If the President wants to appoint a non-professional committee chairman as prime minister, the nomination must be approved by the legislature.

10. The President represents the state in international relations and concludes treaties with foreign countries. Any regular diplomatic relations or treaties/agreements/agreements involving national legislative matters shall take the form of law, with the consent or participation of the current legislative competent authority.

11. The President shall be above party politics in nominating the Prime Minister. New bills and laws, issued orders, and overseas travel plans shall all be counter-signed by the Prime Minister and relevant ministers.

12. The President should lead the country in seeking to benefit mankind and ensure that our nation's human rights protections do not lag behind those of other countries. The people shall be assured that the president will afford them the world's best treatment.

13. When any changes are made in the benefits or compensation of the president, they shall take effect when the next president takes office.

14. The President may subject major national security issues to a referendum [16] .

15. With the exception of criminal behavior leading to civil unrest, the President shall not be dismissed without criminal charges.

16. The make-up of the Presidential Office shall be prescribed by law.

Section 5. Permanent Peace Standards 6.5 (Organization of the State Council, the Prime Minister)

1. The Prime Minister is the highest executive head of the state, representing the government, directing the government and responsible for national defense [17] .

2. The Prime Minister formulates and implements national policies, governs administrative organs and the military, and is responsible to the National Legislature.

3. The Prime Minister shall have the power to make regulations and appoint civil and military officials to ensure compliance with the law [18] .

4. The Prime Minister presides over the work of the Cabinet and is responsible for coordinating the preparation and deliberation of the affairs of the Cabinet. The Prime Minister may delegate some of his/her powers to other ministers as needed. The Prime Minister and the heads of ministries and commissions shall submit all legal, budgetary, martial law, amnesty, declaration of war, peace treaties and other important matters that should be submitted to the National Legislature, or matters involving common relations between ministries and commissions. The State Council shall offer resolutions and decrees subject to approval by the Prime Minister and relevant ministers.

5. Ministers shall be responsible to the National Legislature in their duties. Every minister who participates in Cabinet deliberations, if there are no objection to the outcome, is responsible for decisions made by the Cabinet. Bills signed by the Prime Minister must be counter-signed by relevant ministers.

6. The Cabinet shall immediately inform the Legislature of its governing program. This should also be the case when there is a major change in the composition of the Cabinet.

7. The Prime Minister shall serve a single one-year term, and a professional committee chair shall not act as prime minister during his/her term of office as chair. When the Prime Minister is absent or unable to perform his/her duties, the Deputy Prime Minister shall act as an emergency stand-in, and the President shall designate or nominate a new Prime Minister within 10 days.

8. The Prime Minister must be at least 45 years of age, born in [Taiwan] and have lived in [Taiwan] for 30 years.

9. The Prime Minister may appoint two elected members to serve as deputy prime ministers; the appointment of non-elected chairmen as deputy prime ministers shall be subject to approval by the National Legislature. Deputy prime ministers may also be appointed together with the Prime Minister.

10. Bills signed by the Prime Minister shall be counter-signed by relevant ministers as necessary.

11. A Prime Minister who has not served one-third of his/her term may not be dismissed by the President.

12. A retired president may not be appointed prime minister for ten years after leaving office [19] .

13. The State Council shall seek to establish general administrative rules to coordinate the legal and institutional implementation of various government services.

14. The organization of the State Council, the selection and removal of executive heads, and procedures for the State Council to follow in exercising its powers and policy decisions shall be prescribed by law.

Section 6. Permanent Peace Standards 6.6 (Ministerial organization, ministerial responsibilities)

1. The Minister is the final constitutional guarantor for all business of each ministry.

The Prime Minister is the first joint guarantor and the President is the ultimate guarantor.

2. Ministers have the power to issue orders to personnel under their administration.

3. Ministers have the right to investigate all affairs under their jurisdiction.

4. Ministers have the power to arrange support of other ministries in accordance with the law.

5. The organization of ministries and the exercise of authority by ministers shall be prescribed by law.

Section 7. Permanent Peace Standards 6.7 (Local organization, local heads and powers)

1. Local governments at all levels shall give priority to public tasks and develop local citizenship governance experience. If it can be done at the local level, the central government does not need to do it; if the state can do it, international entities do not need to do it; this is the basic guiding principle for global governance.

2. Strive for a totally clean government. When a municipal mayor or county magistrate is elected, the heads of the three key bureaus (the chief controller, the finance director, the education director, etc.) shall be included in the elections, and the one-vote one ballot system shall be follow to ensure a third force — the public — in the system [20] . Election procedures for local heads shall be prescribed by law.

3. Implement localization in the nation where feasible. All organs of the central government, including the legislative, administrative, procuratorial and judicial systems, should set up national single-window joint service offices with 24-hour service in local cities and counties. Local governments and sub-local governments should cooperate to the fullest extent.

4. Implement global geography. In addition to actions called for in relevant provisions of the Constitution, local governments should cooperate to promote local development and carry out international exchanges in accordance with the Declaration on World Local Autonomy, the World Constitution, the Local Autonomy of Nations, the European Local Self-Government Charter, and the European Metropolitan Human Rights Protection Charter.

5. Sub-national level groups (local units) may establish relations with sub-national level groups (states, municipalities, special zones, etc.) of any fair and complete liberal democracy without violating the rules of the supranational level and the national level, to institute economic, social, cultural and other types of treaties or agreements.

6. Relations between the central government and local governments and public organizations shall be prescribed by law.

Section 8. Permanent Peace Standards 6.8 (Citizens and Villages Community Organizations, Heads and Powers)

1. Implement the best government on the sidelines. Communities shall form "Community Development Associations" with 9 to 35 directors and 3 to 11 supervisors, all of whom are honorary titles. They shall be elected by villagers for a term of four years; the chair of the board of directors shall be elected by the directors for a term of one year, and may not be reappointed. The chair of the board of directors shall serve as the chief administrative head of the local area and serve the village on behalf of the state [21] . Selection of heads of townships and equivalent areas shall be prescribed by law.

2. Village officers are civil servants who must pass the constitutional examination and are responsible for assisting the operations of Community Development Associations and disseminating common sense regarding the Constitution (§6.9.13).

3. Donations may be tax deductible, and no income may be used for political contributions or religious donations.

4. The general rules for the organization of township and village communities shall be prescribed by law.

Section 9. Permanent Peace Standards 6.9 (Government operations shall all be neutral, fair, timely and transparent)

1. The government shall maintain complete administrative neutrality. Certain public officials, including officers, judges and prosecutors, must not have ties to political parties, participate in party activities, and hold substantive party membership. They must be remain absolutely apart from relevant public officials of the party, and details shall be prescribed by law.

2. No government may waste resources, time, money and development opportunities; all government agencies shall establish standard operating procedures to allow the people to monitor the government simply and effectively.

3. The government is obliged to be responsible for solving all problems in national society. Any public official who handles official duties must do the right thing the first time. Someone will be held responsible for any mistakes.

4. National recruitment of public officials shall also include exit mechanisms. During the first half of an official’s term, employees should be hired on a regular contract basis. After a fair evaluation period, the statutory assessment status will be changed to that of a full-fledged public official, but he/she will still be subject to performance appraisals under the regular review system.

5. The government shall submit a complete "generational report" every year, balance the budget, and follow "generally-accepted accounting principles" to regularly publish accurate "government assets and liabilities" reports.

6. The government shall endeavor to ensure a sustainable living environment, stable population density and rational use of land. Only locally-born citizens can legally purchase residential properties. Foreigners who are elected as mayors of townships or higher are not limited by this clause.

7. All government operations shall be fair, honest, and transparent, and make the internet fully available to the public for participation in politics. With the exception of national security documents that are still classified, all information should be immediately available online, publicly displayed for at least 60 years, and subject to long-term legal and ethical review.

8. The government should provide clear and complete legal information in a timely manner to ensure complete safety, justice and cleanliness of the people's medical, food, housing and transportation systems and establish a safety traceability system that all legal carriers can make use of.

9. Basic civilian and state structures on which the disadvantaged depend should operate in an open manner; public services such as medical care should not deviate from the goals of public and community use.

10. All organizations and units should make good use of scientific management thinking, strive to globalize their operations, continuously evolve and improve to prove comprehensive administrative quality and efficiency, and meet the goals of administrative unity and the values of One World under One Set of Laws.

11. Government operations shall be transparent and available on a 24-hour basis. Any delays in reporting, or inflated or reduced figures should be subject to legal sanctions.

12. All cabinet members in the government should trust each other, depend on each other and care for each other in serving the people; if the central or local government is on the verge of bankruptcy, it should be responsible for all personnel.

13. Any organ of the state is a place to serve the people and solve problems; any public official is a person who serves the people and solves problems. All guarantees, restraints, and instructions of the Constitution, especially §1 to §4, are the obligations of relevant authorities and public officials.

14. Empirical love is inherent in the Constitution, and the greatness lies in the government. The government should guarantee salvation, justice and resilience in ensuring human dignity. The people are protected by the Constitution throughout life, in the spirit of equality and fraternity, to establish a country where no one will be tempted to commit suicide or harm themselves.

15. Relevant government actions shall be neutral, fair, timely and transparent, and the rules for implementing policies shall be prescribed by law.

Section 10. Permanent Peace Standards 6.10 (Government vocation)

1. Administrative paradigm: [Taiwan] shall be the capital of Unity in the community of human destiny; this is the basic principle of permanent establishment. All units should be housed in buildings that symbolize the community of human destiny.

2. International Responsibility: Innovate global governance, implement permanent peace and lead humanity toward the future [22] . These are basic national policies that the country shall never change or abandon. The state shall prepare budgets sufficient to meet its international obligations.

3. International peace: The national military establishment shall make at least 5% of its forces and arms available to global organizations to carry out international security and peace missions.

4. Domestic peace: The state shall implement a general compulsory military service system based on the principle that "all people are soldiers [23] ." The IDF reserve force shall engage in several weeks of service each year until the age of 40. Organization, equipment and training of the national army shall aim at protecting the country and serving the people.

5. Protecting families and defending the nation: this is the principle of making all people subject to military service [24] . Local governments have the right to set up civil defense organizations to defend freedom, democracy and human rights. The administrative heads of cities and counties may organize, direct, and supervise civil defense efforts in their jurisdiction. Municipal and county civil defense organizations which have been reviewed by the National Legislature may be incorporated into the National Defense force.

6. For the sake of ensuring freedom, democracy, human rights, rule of law and sovereignty, disciplined militia must carry weapons in accordance with the law [25] . Those who carry weapons must obey the above-mentioned purposes of defending universal values and sovereignty. After serving in the Reserve Force of the National Defense establishment, those who are over 40 years old and under 60 years of age, and have a certain level of assets, must pass the basic constitutional examination and meet other subjective and objective conditions.

7 . Anyone who has advocated Nazism, fascism or communist dictatorships, offered comfort to Taiwan’s enemies, done business in an enemy country, or supported ideas or acts that go against the way of thinking of the majority of people, may not participate in militia organizations or possess weapons.

8 . For the organization and operation of national defense and civil defense, control and enforcement of weapons shall be prescribed by law.

9 . Let the people master the heavens and the earth, and grasp the latest weapons on the world, from peace in the heart to peace in the nation → foreign peace →permanent peace for all people; this eternal obligation that the government can never change or disallow.

Section 11. Permanent Peace Standards 6.11 (Administrative transition clause - abolished upon completion of transition)

1. After the Constitution has been approved by the people, the current President shall serve until the end of his/her original term; the heads of other units shall follow the President until the end of this original term. Except in the case of automatic resignation, there shall no changes in benefits.

2. Transitional provisions shall lose effect upon completion of the transition period.

[1] See Appendix Table 22: Semi-Presidential System (Double Supreme System) Country (Some Countries), Appendix Table 23: Improved Semi-Presidential System State ~ President, Prime Minister and Minister Generated, and with or without deputy authority. Appendix Table 24: Advantages of the world's major semi-presidential system states, Appendix Table 25: Disadvantages of the world's major semi-presidential system states, Appendix Table 26: Advantages of the world's major presidential system states, Appendix Table 27: Disadvantages of the world's major presidential system states, Appendix Table 28: Advantages of the world's major parliamentary system states, Appendix Table 29: Disadvantages of the world's major parliamentary system states, Appendix Table 30: Advantages of the world's major united federal assembly system states, Appendix Table 31: Disadvantages of the world's major united federal assembly system states. Appendix Table 32: The unique advantages of the Permanent and Charter compared to the current country.

[2] See Hans Kelsen, General Theory of Law and the State , "domestic law is empowered by international law", a concept which can be used to establish a supranational organization with permanent peace (i.e., the UN).

[3] The United Nations, World Trade Organization, World Health Organization, Interpol, International Monetary Fund, World Bank, International Olympic Committee, International Hydrographic Organization, other international standards...

[4] The section on "State Rights and Obligations" generally refers to Resolution 375 adopted by the UN General Assembly on December 6, 1949.

[5] See Basic Constitution of Germany §24.1a, “Transfer of sovereign powers – System of collective security”: Insofar as the Länder are competent to exercise state powers and to perform state functions, they may, with the consent of the Federal Government, transfer sovereign powers to trans-frontier institutions in neighboring regions.

[6] See Basic Constitution of Germany §24.3, “Transfer of sovereign powers – System of collective security”: For the settlement of disputes between states, the Federation shall accede to agreements providing for general, comprehensive and compulsory international arbitration.

[7] I mmanuel Kant, Perpetual Peace . Second Definitive Article for a Perpetual Peace, “The Law of Nations Shall be Founded on a Federation of Free States.”

[8] This major event, which is closely related to sovereignty transfer, human security, and sustainable development, should not be manipulated by Populists with the 51% to 49% ratio.

[9] At present, there are 249 major political entities in the world, including 193 UN members (not including disputed areas).

[10] It is the primary responsibility of the state to create conditions conducive to the overall development of the people and individuals in accordance with the concepts proclaimed in the UN Declaration on Social Progress and Development .

[11] Among the 45 presidents of the US, the youngest was 42 at inauguration and the oldest 70, while the majority were in their 50s, 25 presidents or 55.6%; 11 were over 60, accounting for 24.4%; and those aged 50 to 60 accounted for 20%, only 9 persons. Most cabinet members are somewhere between 50 and 60 years old, generally in the same range as the president.

[12] See Constitution of the Republic of Korea (2010) , §70: The term of the office of the President shall be five years, without reelection.

[13] The US Vice President acts as Speaker of the Senate, § 1.3 of the US Constitution . If the president cannot handle a matter for any reason it is not easy for the prime minister to act in his/her stead. Hitler was appointed Prime Minister by German President Hindenburg in 1933. After Hindenburg’s death in the following year, Hitler became the head of Germany and served as the supreme commander of the German armed forces. History is full of such examples.

[14] See Annex Figure 2:  Appendix Table 22: Semi-Presidential System (Double Supreme System) Country (Some Countries), Appendix Table 23: Improved Semi-Presidential System State ~ How the President, Prime Minister and Heads of supreme agencies are elected/assigned, and whether or not there is a deputy authority.

[15] See § 2.2 of the US Constitution : ... With the exception of impeachment cases, he has the right to grant pardons and amnesty for those who violate the laws of the US.

[16] See §72 o f the Constitution of the Republic of Korea , The President may submit important policies relating to diplomacy, national defense, unification, and other matters relating to the national destiny to a national referendum if he deems it necessary.

[17] See Constitution of October 4, 1958 (France), §21.1, The Prime Minister shall direct the actions of the Government. He shall be responsible for national defence.

[18] See Constitution of October 4, 1958 (France), §21.1-2, The Prime Minister shall direct the actions of the Government. He shall be responsible for national defence. He shall ensure the implementation of legislation. Subject to article 13, he shall have power to make regulations and shall make appointments to civil and military posts. He may delegate certain of his powers to Ministers.

[19] Let the autocratic dictator disappear on the earth, and no one take turns sitting as the president and the minister during a certain period of time.

[20] The "combined-vote-single-ballot system" means that the names of three candidates are printed on the same ballot and voters can choose only one person. Thus it is not easy for the city mayor or county magistrate, the chief comptroller and the auditor to belong to the same political party. Political parties are not necessarily sheltered from each other’s power plays and greed.

[21] For example, my two brothers lived close to each other in the same village but became silos since they supported different candidates for village chief once. Afterwards, the elected-village chief ran again and continued office for 2 terms, but the two brothers remained estranged until they died. The election of the village chief is the keystone in bearing the weight of democracy.

[22] See Xi Jinping’s explanation about “innovation” on Ref.100.

[23] See A. Swiss Armed Forces: 147 thousand active personnel, and 22 thousand for reserve service. Compulsory military service applies to all male Swiss citizens from the age of 22 to 42, with women serving voluntarily. B. Israel Defense Forces: Compulsory military service applies to all citizens with initial orders at the age of 18. 3 years for male, and 2 years for female. All Israelis who served in the military and are under the age of 40, unless otherwise exempt, are eligible for reserve duty.

[24] Israel’s per capita income was $40,258, Singapore’s was $58,664 and Switzerland’s was $84,864.Switzerland has maintained peace for 200 years for being a "permanent neutral country" who supports no party in the war. Even so, its mandatary militia system of “all the people are soldiers” has not given up its armed forces. Its strong military spirit and a sense of peace of mind have ensured Switzerland’s long-term security and peace. Under equality between men and women, Norwegian women have been obliged to perform military service for at least 19 months since 2016.

[25] See Second Amendment to the United States Constitution , A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed.