Chapter 2. Standards for Decentralization in National Organization
Article 5. Legislative Development Standards under Permanent Peace
Who is plundering our human dignity? Who is kidnapping our people's sovereignty? Who is monopolizing our constitutional rights? Who is making evil laws and encircling and suppressing us? Who is the enemy of our peaceful development? The answer is not "others". It is our "own party government," a government supported by the hard-earned money of our taxpayers.
Although they all understand the following: the state and the government have rights related to equality in the outside world, they have no rights domestically. Yet our ruling authorities regard their obligations as rights and erode all resources. This is the essence of a party government which is suppressing the people  . Transparency International (TI) points out that in the past domestic and foreign surveys have shown that the public sector considered to be the least clean of all countries is the legislature; the legislature is the place where the nation's fate is determined and an exchange where justice and evil are traded for. .
The Charter for Permanent Peace / Human Constitutional Standards / Al--purpose Strategic Constitution notes that ultimately we humans have only two paths to the future: peace or destruction. In the face of endless nuclear weapons development, once nuclear warfare erupts, everything will be ashes. Permanent Peace is life, is truth, is the way forward. The Charter for Permanent Peace is the true path to eternal life for human beings; it also offers minimum constitutional standards at the super-national, national and sub-national levels; it is also a general guide for political entities to complete power.
In light of the international focus on national competition, there are blind spots in the software such as democracy and human rights, and a vacuum where the rule of law should be. The ignorance of autocracy is always the enemy of human peace, and even overlooks the lessons of history: Any battle will eventually return to the battlefield of "institutional performance". Here, we will verify the goodness of the system and decide on rule for handling social unrest. This Constitution is intended to eliminate the blind spots, fill the vacuum and ensure that this constitution will be a pole star to guide all people to permanent peace.
Inasmuch as eliminating nuclear weapon-backed autocracies cannot be achieved solely using ‘democratic’ nuclear weapons, it depends on democracy and the rule of law. To this end, we must do it. In the past, the best constitutions and laws in the world have flowed into Taiwan. In the future, the best constitutions and laws in the world will flow out of Taiwan, providing an environment necessary for the permanent peace of humanity. Shared laws will facilitate the return of rule of law and help consolidate human civilization.
Inasmuch as in One World under One Set of Laws, international law is of course higher than domestic law, this create legislative competition between international organizations and state organizations. That is to say, if the matters in question affairs are those of a global or regional international security organization, legislative power should belong to the international organization; if there is a national identity, it should belong to the legislature; and the same applies at the state, province, city or local level for those who belong to these councils. This is a road to truth that we humans must follow after all.
Inasmuch as national legislative organizations are mainly of three types: Conference-focused centralism, committee centralism, and modified committee centralism. The Permanent Peace Development Association has comprehensively analyzed and compared the advantages and disadvantages of each type. For details, please refer to "Comparative Table, Appendix 20, Global Congressional Legislative Systems" and "Comparative Table, Appendix 21, Comparative Laws of the World".
Inasmuch as current national congressional election systems can be summarized as: majority vote systems, proportional representation systems, mixed systems, and other types. These four types are subdivided into more than 16 election systems. The Permanent Peace Development Association has analyzed their advantages and disadvantages, the results of which can be found in "Appendix 22, Global Congressional Election System Comparison Table".
Therefore, this modified committee-centered system consists of 12 standing committees, 3 ad hoc committees — global policy committee (§6), universal law committee (§7) and international law committee (§8) — forming a matrix of checks and balances, like 12 quasi-government/shadow cabinets/12 courts/12 congresses with national global policies, universal laws and international law. Thus legislation is more flexible and adaptable. With the ability to adapt to a wide range of capabilities, we compare and analyze the results through institutional comparisons and comparisons between countries. Such a mechanism has none of the fatal shortcomings common in contemporary legislation, and its advantages are unprecedented. Refer to [Attachment Figure 1: Schematic diagram for improved legislative membership system].
In addition, the legislature must establish a complete network of global regulations so that the internet can be used to learn and think, letting us humans compare the strengths and weaknesses of global regulations. We can thereby increase our wisdom, discover new truths, honor old values and build One World under One Set of Laws for the ages. We offer a peaceful legal system that will serve as an ISO constitutional standard (Figure 5-1) and eventually become a new absolute law (mandatory law) of the International Convention on the Law of Treaties (Article 64).
Regardless of which system through which everyone in the world can grasp the application, it is called the Charter for Permanent Peace / Human Constitutional Standards / All-purpose Strategic Constitution / Global (multiple/common) law, marking the end of old-age legislative systems and the beginning of a new era in legislative processes. It will unlock the shackles that still hobble mankind in the world’s last 50 autocratic dictatorships. For this reason, Taiwan and the 2/3 of the world’s people living under the threat of authoritarianism will lose only the iron curtains and walls, violence and lies that constrain them. Others will lose nothing, instead winning prosperity and contentment in one fell swoop, to live in harmony with all mankind and live with the truth  . Together, we will achieve a life of true sincerity.
Figure 5-1 National legislation shall be compatible with "cyclical upgrading" of more than 20,000 international standards (ISO), and undergo "standardized integration" to yield legislative and constitutional standards suitable for permanent peace and sustainable development.
Section 1. Permanent Peace Standards 5.1 (Global Co-opetition in Legislation)
1. We affirm co-opetition  and legislative power under One World under One Set of Laws, and confirm that national legislation is a representative body  entrusted by international law. Ensuring the global participation of legislation (§2.5) and the construction of a common legal system of human destiny is an obligation that the state must not change or exempt. (See the foreword for details)
2. Super-national level: Global competition and cooperation legislation  , the state only global international organizations (such as the United Nations, regional international organizations) do not enact laws to exercise their legislative power, and within the scope of their infrequent, have legislative power.
3. National level: The state has legislative power to establish an equivalent living relationship or to consider the interests of the overall people, to maintain the legal order and economic unity, and to recognize the national legal norms as necessary.
4. Sub-national level: Regarding the level of provinces, states, states, special zones, and municipalities, only the international organizations and the Congress do not enact laws to exercise their legislative powers, and within the scope of their inaction, they have legislative power. . The legislative rules for the next level are similar.
5. When the exercise of the co-opetition legislative power is controversial, obstructive or obvious immediate danger, it shall be decided by the [Taiwan] Super National Constitutional Court before the establishment of the International Constitutional Court.
Section 2 . Permanent Peace Standards 5.2 (Legislative powers and responsibilities)
1. We [Taiwanese] people solemnly offer this constitution, intended to innovate  the system of permanent human peace and development, recognizing the legislature as representatives of the global village, entrusted with international law and sovereignty to complete the localization of international law.
2. This Constitution, the [Taiwanese] law established in accordance with this Constitution, and the treaties concluded or to be concluded under [Taiwanese] power are the highest laws of [Taiwan]. They include treaties concluded prior to the implementation of this Constitution. Any conflicts between treaties, are to be resolved through legislation by elected representatives.
3. Legislation should ensure that human dignity and freedom  of personality development will never lag behind those in other countries (§1.1), national legislation is globally involved (according to §2.5), and the legislature has a General Administration of Interpretation  in accordance with the UN and/or the EU. The aim is to consolidate lasting peace and development, and continue benefitting the people and mankind.
4. The legislature has the power to resolve legal cases, budgets, martial law cases, amnesty cases, declarations of war, defamation cases, treaty cases, corrections, impeachment cases and other important national matters.
5. Within three weeks after the passage of this bill by the National Legislature, if more than 1/4 of all members of the legislature approve, the President shall be required to subject the bill to a referendum. If the less than a quarter of all voters approve, the amount of public funds available for use during the current legislature will be reduced by one-third.
6. The legislature may file impeachment bills against the president, the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, the Procurator General, the judge of the Constitutional Court, and any ambassador or general-grade military officer.
7. The legislature shall form a committee to consider the impeachment case. Following an investigation, the case for impeaching the president must be submitted by more than one-third of the members of the National Legislature, with impeachment requiring more than two-thirds of the membership in attendance, and more than two-thirds of those present must vote for impeachment.
8. Congress must not enact laws that violate international law, violate global (common) laws, violate generational justice, or deprive citizens of human rights or civil rights.
9. Congress shall clarify and punish criminal acts in violation of international law, including violations of the anti-corruption conventions, and exert "substantial influence" in domestic, transnational or international crimes.
10. The National Legislature shall set up a dedicated live television, internet and radio station. With the exception of statutory secrets, the complete agenda will be open to the public, and the global comparative database will be available to other media to broadcast without restriction.
11. The legislature shall establish a complete database of comparative world laws (see § 4.2.2) to set up a global law comparison library that anyone can easily master.
12. The legislature shall set up research institutions and work hard to advocate international conventions or laws that are lacking. According to international regulations, general conventions will come into force on the 30th day after approval of the 35th signatory country  , and [Taiwan] will take action on the same day to implement the national spirit of the global legal system.
13. The legislature should strive to apply successfully for UN membership, and strive for the UN to locate its [Asian] headquarters in [Taiwan].
14. Rules regarding the exercise of powers by the legislature and laws on global participation in legislation shall be prescribed by the constitution or by law.
Section 3. Permanent Peace Standards 5.3 (Legislative organization - modified committee-centric system)
1. The modified committee form of the legislature features 12 professional standing committees and a number of ad hoc committees that are linked to national and global society in accordance with national needs. The total number of members of the legislature is 180, with 15 members on each professional committee. Each committee has full rights to propose, examine, investigate, hear, and question as part of deliberation.
2. There are 12 standing committees, corresponding to 12 ministries, with 12 members in each committee. One member will serve as chairman of each committee, and the overall group (12 committees with 12 members each) is elected by the people  . A total of 144 permanent members of the legislature serving four-year terms, with a quarter of the political group. Reelected annually.
3. The ad hoc committees include 12 members of the sustainable generational development committee (including the elected president - § 6); 12 members of the localization committee for international law (including the president and elected department heads- § 7), and 12 members in the legal internalization committee A total of 12 members of the domestic parliament (combined by the elected procuratorate - § 8), a total of 36 people on the committees. Ad hoc committee members’ terms of office shall be the same as the representative who nominated them; if the nominator is removed from office for any reason, the term of the ad hoc committee member will not be affected.
4. Election of members of Standing Committees and the division of labor shall not be divided, and no sub-groups may be formed on party like. All members of the committee shall be listed and a one-person, one-vote system shall be followed  .
5. When a committee chair is vacant, if more than half the term of office remains, candidates shall be nominated by the remaining 11 members of the political group and appointed by the committee. The appointee to the vacant chair may not also serve as prime minister or minister.
6. The legislature shall adjourn for the 50-day period preceding elections of legislators. And meet again within 10 days following an election, to ensure international competitiveness and end general democratic malpractices. Legislators shall submit to this public opinion test every year  , and 1/4 of representatives and committee member up for election annually. In order to focus attention on the overall situation, national legislative elections shall not be held concurrently with other central-level elections with the exception of referendums and local elections.
7. Members of the participating political groups shall not all be of the same sex, nor shall the lack any members from indigenous peoples.
8. Members of Parliament must be at least 40 years old and have lived in [Taiwan] for 30 years.
9. All legislative, administrative, procuratorial and judicial organization laws and internal regulations enacted by the legislature are subject to constitutional review.
Section 4 . Permanent Peace Standards 5.4 (Local council organization - public opinion linked to international arena)
1. Council elections in municipalities and first-level administrative districts shall adopt a single-sector two-vote system  . Members in district and non-districts areas shall be apportioned by half, and the term of office is two years. The speaker shall serve a term of one session and may not be re-appointed  . Elections for local public opinion units in secondary administrative regions shall be prescribed by law.
2. In accordance with local needs, each city or county council may select three different political party members to serve as council members for a term of one session or one issue. With the exception of no remuneration and no voting rights, all other rights and obligations are the same as those of regular councilors. Local public opinion shall be linked to the international arena through elected councils.
3. Local councils have the right to correct local self-government organs; they also have the right to impeach local self-government administrative officials. The local parliament's impeachment powers shall be prescribed by law.
4. Foreign nationals from a fully democratic country shall have the right to participate in local elections in accordance with laws related to recall, creation and restitution.
5. Except as otherwise provided in this Constitution, representatives of local councils, water conservancy associations, and peasant associations who have served for a term of two years, may run for re-election at the end of their term of office; 1/4 of those serving four-year terms shall face election each year.
6. Community residents have the right to participate in various parliament or water conservancy, farmer's association and other proposals, but without voting rights  . Community public opinion directly links Congress to the international community. The method of participation of residents shall follow local methods.
7. Local legislative, administrative, procuratorial and judicial organization laws and internal regulations shall be approved by the Constitutional Court after review by the highest administrative courts of that jurisdiction.
Section 5 . Permanent Peace Standards 5.5 (Legislation shall become international standard laws under ISO)
2. Basic vocation of legislators: The law should conform to the ideals of "Nature, Justice and Morality" and "Freedom, Democracy and Human Rights" and must not contravene global (common) law, absolute law, public international law, or the Constitution.
3. Basic beliefs in legislation: Legislation should follow the concepts represented in human rights  , constitutionalism, international legalism and global (multiple/common law).
4. Basic legislation: Laws should be clear, globally consistent, complete, and predictable. Rolling transformation, standardization and integration will help ensure that laws keep pace with the times, and quality and national strength will continue to improve. 5-1). 
5. Legislative selection system: When there are multiple national systems or versions to choose from, preference should be given to ' inclusive' laws that best suit human nature, universal values, permanent peace and humanity; "Extractive" systems are most important to eliminate.
6. Legislatures shall join with the International Standards Organization ISO and its related committees in formulating a legislative standards law in accordance with the international standards of ISO as a contribution to the people of the world.
7. The Legislative Standards Law shall be prescribed by law and publicly announced after a constitutional review.
Section 6 . Permanent Peace Standards 5.6 (UN strategic partners)
1. Legislation should be based on the basic principles of the Constitution and the various advantages listed above (including global co-opetition legislation, establishment of a universal world-wide comparative database, modified committee-centric structure, local public opinion links and legislative guidelines) and offered to 249 political entities (excluding disputed areas)  as part of constitutional services.
2. Whether done by the legislature directly, indirectly or through proxy, in addition to its Taiwan headquarters, it shall establish units at the UN Headquarters in New York City and its European headquarters to help political entities formulate a peace and development constitution that can be used for a long time and lead to long-term prosperity, in a strategic partnership.
3. The experience of our human beings over thousands of years, acknowledging and confirming that a great country is the result of great contributions to mankind through great systems and a great group of people. Taiwan's globalization will allow it to save itself, and Taiwan will in turn save humanity and become a strategic partner of the UN in lasting peace.
Section 7 . Permanent Peace Standards 5.7 (Legislation and administration)
1. The chairman of the legislative committees is the highest supervising person in charge of the legislative operations. He/she shall be nominated by the president to serve as prime minister and the prime minister in turn will nominate various committee members to act as committee chairs.
2. The president's nominee for prime minister must be approved by all members of the legislature (§6 .4.9 ). With the consent of the committees, the Prime Minister may choose to hire elites from national elites or globally complete democracies to serve as ministers or ministers of government, with the exception of nationals or multiple nationals of nations that are not fully democratic.
3. The State Council shall be responsible to the National Legislature.
4. Any organization or individual that uses public funds, regardless of the amount or the proportion of capital contribution, shall be subject to supervision by the National Legislature or the local council. As long as three members are co-sign a petition, they can be held accountable for their business and finance actions.
5. Any mechanism that should be coordinated by the committee organization should be jointly operated by at least three non-affiliated organizations or political parties; anyone who has conflicts of interest with their business interests should be excluded.
6. The vice-president shall serve as President of the National Legislature with no voting rights  except in tie-breaking situations. When there is no vice-president, committee chairs shall choose one of their number to serve in his/her place, with the term of office limited to one session and no eligibility to be reappointed.
7. The legislature may adopt a paradigm shift in legislative and administrative relations between modified semi-presidential and cabinet-based state operations (§1.8).
Section 8 . Permanent Peace Standards 5.8 (Ethics in national conference meetings)
1. The people's legislative organs at all levels are the representative of all voters. Other than honoring international law and the Constitution, they are not bound by orders and instructions, and shall obey only their conscience.
2. The modified committee-centric system has none of the fatal shortcomings of the current universal legislature. For example, vicious competition among political parties leads to moral bankruptcy of the nation, with too much attention paid to meeting social conventions and no mention of vital government affairs. Except as otherwise provided by this Constitution, bills shall be passed when approved by a majority with 3/5 of all members present, whether it is 2/5 or 3/5 either way. Local councils should follow the same principle  .
3. In hearings in the National Legislature or local councils, anyone who makes false statements or who knows the facts but refuses to testify, shall be subject to legal sanctions  . The handling of closed-door hearings shall be prescribed by law.
4. In the legislature, local councils or other public opinion organizations, only representatives of public opinion participating in hearings of various cases have the right to vote.
5. If more than half of the members of the majority party in the legislature fail to meet the 2/3 attendance minimum, its members will be dismissed and replaced by the political party scoring the next-highest vote tally.6. If more than half of the members of the legislature fail to meet the 2/3 attendance minimum, the members of the political group will be dismissed and replaced by the political group scoring the next-highest vote tally.
6. Entry to venues shall be controlled by card swiping. If members of a given party attend less than 3/4 of committee meetings during three consecutive months the party will automatically lost its powers; local public opinion representatives who do not meet the 3/4 minimum will also be automatically terminated. Vacancies created thusly shall be filled from the results of the most recent by-election, selecting the next-highest vote-getters. Anyone whose powers are thus terminated may not run in an election for 10 years.
7. The legislature or other public opinion organs shall be responsible for public resolution of bills on "material" matters; the resolution of "people"-related matters shall be legally prescribed for the organizations involved.
8. Members of legislative bodies, whether directly or indirectly, overtly or hidden, may not engage in business, investment, or part-time behavior; may not issue contracts, act as an agent, handle public funds, distribute public funds, give orders to the people, or publicly sue for officials. Violators shall be sanctioned by law.
9. People at all levels shall abide by ethics of public opinion, including but not limited to the use of violence and drinking, collecting service fees or consultant fees, using influence for personal profit, abusing one’s powers or other corrupt practices outside the law. In addition to sanctions, if the number of people in the public opinion organ involved is more than 2/3 of the total, they must all be expelled.
10. Lawmakers at all levels shall go abroad on inspection tours, and inspection reports must be maintained for at least 30 years.
11. Proposals and amendments proposed by lawmakers at all levels involving reductions in public financial income or increases or additions in new public expenditures, shall not be accepted  .
12. The parliaments at all levels shall not reduce government budgets for protecting the environment and maintaining the quality of life. In addition, no one is allowed to use secret balloting of all members to pass a bill without dissent.
13. The term of legislatures at all levels shall end before the date of re-election; the first post-election meeting, whether regular or unscheduled, shall be consist of newly-elected members.
14. Adjustments in remuneration of lawmakers shall take effect as of the next session. Changes in compensation of members shall take effect four years after the date of the announcement; changes in compensation for local lawmakers shall take effect two years after the date of the announcement.
15. Members have the right to travel on national transport for free  .
16. Members should be models for the people. The ethical norms of public opinion representatives at all levels shall refer to the legislatures of fully-democratic countries to formulate sound ethical laws.
17. Elected representatives should serve as behavioral models for the people. The rules and procedures of public opinion organs at all levels and the ethical norms of public opinion representatives shall be formulated in accordance with the legislative bodies of fully-democratic countries.
Section 9 . Permanent Peace Standards 5.9 (Legislation and transitional justice)
1. The legislative transition of justice and sustainable transformation will never end (see 7.5.17).
2. Unjust laws or orders that violate the principles of nature, justice, morality, human rights or international law must be repealed and traced back to their original enactment.
3. All justice begins with procedure and ends with procedure. Prosecution of major suspects who leave the country will be suspended and resumed upon re-entry.
4. Any organization or individual that is persecuted by public power has the rights of pursuit, remedy, and claim.
5. In any violation of the International Anti-Corruption Convention or domestic greed or political contributions, such as bribery, the first person to surrender shall be exempted from liability. Those who report bribes may claim half of the amount involved; those who accept bribes shall return the full amount to the state treasury; those who sue may obtain more than half of the bribes (as in §1.6.5). The method for rewarding transformational justice shall be prescribed by law.
6. Where there is substantial influence on government agencies or public undertakings, and the opportunity to use public funds and control, and to obtain private interests from them, the public has the right to sue and victims have the right to file claims.
7. Military and public officials who have contributed to transformational justice that results in immediate and obvious end of the harm and/or injustice shall be promoted by at least three grades.
8. To achieve transformational justice, all defamation cases shall be reviewed. Responsibility for transformational justice shall not be subject to statute of limitations.
9. Regardless of past, present or future, transformational justice will never end. The practice of transforming justice and restoring history has no end, it is always a work in progress.
10. Transformational justice shall be based on other countries' blueprints and prescribed by law.
Section 10 . Permanent Peace Standards 5.10 (Legislation and vocations)
1. Model for legislation: [Taiwan] is a holy place for participation by world citizens in global co-opetition. Everyone is a legislative warrior, a life-long representative of public opinion, and shall take advantage of the heavenly calling of human for permanent peace  . Legislatures should display symbols of the birth of the Holy Land of "Global Law."
2. Responsibility of the People's Generation: Global law is the spirit behind the founding of the nation and the soul of the constitution. As long as there one person on earth living under the oppression of authoritarian dictatorship, [Taiwanese] as angels of the world's legislative vocation have the duty to help him/her escape.
3. Public Responsibility: The earth is our homeland, and all human beings are our family members. Every public official has an obligation to construct a community for human destiny. The law will save universal values to save peace for the whole world.
4. International Responsibility: Adhere to One World under One Set of Laws and implement all the advantages the past ten thousand years have introduced into [Taiwan]. In the future the advantages and laws will flow out from [Taiwan] to construct a legal system that human beings can utilize for a long time. In order to achieve lasting peace, the state should formulate a proper budget and market the necessity of peaceful development of Taiwan to the world.
5. National policy shall lead to the promoting the goals and ideals for the future human civilization in the UN Global Governance Council. This means taking the lead in the Permanent Peace Congress, the UN General Assembly Democracy Committee, and in urging members of the UN Parliamentary Assembly to jointly promote the ideals and values of the UN.
Section 11 . Permanent Peace Standards 5.11 (This paragraph shall automatically lose force once the legislative transition is complete)
1. Elected public officials are not subject to changes in their rights due to constitutional reforms.
2. The current term of office of members of legislature may be extended until all new members have been elected.
3. New members of the legislature shall be chosen in four elections over two year, and the election days shall serve as the expiration date for terms of office of old members.
4. Local members shall remain in office until the expiration of their current term of office.
5. This item shall automatically lose force upon completion of the transition.
 Chen Keng-chin, former Director of Personnel Administration at the Executive Yuan, appealed to all the current military cadres at the General Assembly of the National Federation of Military, Police, and Retired Persons General Assembly on February 17, 2017, "Let’s steal and take all we can, and slack all we can. Let’s drag this government down. ” Jason Hu, Vice Chairman of the KMT, and Han Kuo-yu, a candidate for the party chair, also shouted approval.
 BBC Chinese News 2015/6/9: A Freedom House survey showed that at present, two-thirds of the world's population live under dictatorship; 2 billion people in the world live in a high-pressure ruling environment; and 106 dictatorships or semi-dictatorships account for 54% of the world's nations.
 Co-opetition in Legislation refers to the same matter or behavior, but involves legislative standards for mutual competition between legislative powers at the supra-national, national and sub-national levels (including state, provincial, SAR and/or local levels). To this end, it is clear that the legislative power at the supra-national level is greater than that at the national level.
 According to Kelsen's General Theory of Law and the State, "Domestic law is entrusted by international law", a position which can be used to establish a supra-national organization for permanent peace — the UN.
 According to Roscoe Pound, the law has been linked to civilization from certain times. In the past, the law was the product of civilization; from now on, the law is a means to maintain civilization. Looked at from this point of view, the law is a means to promote civilization." Co-opetition in Legislation" represents changes in time and space which enable the international, national, regional or city levels of government to maintain the law at the optimum point of co-opetition to create maximum civilized effect and enable the greatest benefit for sustainable development.
 Xi Jinping noted on January 21, 2017, that "innovation" is the most important remedy for the global economy and politics.
 See the Grand Justices interpret the Constitution No. 603 (Taiwan).
 At present, there are 24 official languages in the European Union. Various meetings are held every day in the European Parliament, the European Union Executive Committee and other institutions. The discussions cannot go on without interpreters. Each of the 24 languages can be translated into another 23 languages, so there are as many as 552 combinations, but the actual numbers is larger due to the situation when Chinese or Arabic is needed. There is even sign language interpreters to serve the hearing-impaired.
 See §84 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties.
 See The Modified United Federal Assembly System in the Parliament is divided into 12 committees according to social functions. Each has a "social relationship of labor under division" - that is, people have different abilities and needs, and they must exchange services to meet these needs; the government divides functions according to functions. For the 12 committees, each has a "social relationship with the same needs" - that is, people have common needs and must live together to meet the needs. The above-mentioned "matrix" relationship must be reconciled through the Parliament and the government. Léon Duguit, Traite de droit constitutionnel , Paris: E. de Boccard, 1921-25.
 A group of candidates or a group of political parties participating in the election will be combined on one ballot. The voters can only choose one of them or a representative of the political group. There are 12 committees in the corresponding cabinet of the Parliament. The chairmen are elected by the committee. For example, three groups (1/4) of the chairmen are elected each year. Each group chairperson assumes that there are three groups running for the election. The total number of candidates is 9 and they are combined in one ballot. Voters can only choose one of them. This is the "combination of one-vote single-ballot system"; the merger of one-ballot single-selection system can avoid the monopoly of the big parties. It means when parties that are non-primary major political parties stand for election, the minority force can effectively participate in politics and exercise checks and balance, which is much stronger than the weak minority parties themselves.
 Rousseau pointed out that the people are free only when they choose their representatives. After the representatives are elected, they are not free. Although we can use the methods of recall, initiative, and reconsideration to control the representatives, the effect is limited, and it does not change the fact that the rights cannot be exercised. However, through the "invention" of "interim re-election", it will not only absorb new public opinion, but also allow good policies to continue.
 In the future, urban competition will be the trend of global competition. The Parliament needs half of the parliamentarians to take care of the whole city. New Zealand has a population of 3.85 million in 2000, which is equivalent to the population of Taiwan's New Taipei City. The election of its parliament is MMP (Mixed-Member Proportional Representation).
 Former New York State Speaker of the House of Representatives Sheldon Silver (two-year term) was found guilty of corruption, fined US$5 million and sentenced to 7 years (2018/7/29). In accordance with §152 of the Swiss Federal Constitution, the legislative spirit is that a president or deputy president cannot run for the same position for four years after his/her term ends.
 See City of Sydney, Community consultation: Our approach to engaging the community, The City offers a range of opportunities for residents, workers, community groups, business, government and industry stakeholders to share ideas, insight and feedback on our projects and policies to help inform Council decisions. You can take part at: workshops and community meetings, stakeholder meetings and roundtables, online consultations, community reference groups, advisory panels, drop-in sessions, surveys, school workshops, door-knocking and notification.
 For a description of Roscoe Pound's connection between law and civilization, please refer to the previous note 99.
 For the development of the legislative law and the improved membership system of the multi-government that can best keep pace with the times, Léon Duguit, Traite de droit constitutionnel , Paris: E. de Boccard, 1921-25. Please see footnote 104 above.
 The people of [Taiwan] acknowledge that human rights are born with. Human rights are natural rights, not given by the Constitution. The role of the Constitution is only a means of guaranteeing and realizing human rights. Historically, there have been precedents for the use of legal positivism to deny human rights. For example, fascist and Nazi regimes use empirical law as their legal avenue for genocide.
 Figure 5-1 National legislation should comply with the "rolling transformation" of more than 20,000 international standards (ISO), and then through the "standardization integration" of the legislative and constitutional standards for permanent peace and sustainable development.
 See ISO 3166-1 [Global Country Code] Complete List.
 Constitution for United State § 1.3.4, The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no vote, unless they be equally divided.
 In view of the shortcomings of democracy, the democratic system countries will have a tendency to be swallowed up by the democracy system itself, 51% and 49% of the populist manipulation, causing turmoil, the passage of the bill and the test pass at least 60 points or 3/5 is reasonable.
 Emmanuel Kant pointed out that speaking the truth tells all the lies under the sun that "they are corrupt all the way to the lowest origins of justice. Thus always telling the truth is sacred and unconditional loyalty to the law of reason, and not simply the most convenient course."
 See The Constitution of the French Republic , §40 for details.
 See Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany , §48 for details.
 That human rights are nature-given and are natural provisions which are universally recognized and confirmed as well as guaranteed by the constitution. They can neither be infringed on nor denied, as stated clearly in the eight sections on freedom, democracy, human rights, rule of law, and the legislative, administrative, judicial and prosecutorial branches.