29 November     Appendix

Model Law on Eternal Peace Standard (Draft) 

Foreword

      The biggest problem for us humans is that there is no historical experience to follow for the method of peace. Still, it is our ambition to propose this drat model law and make a contribution to world peace.

Part I  Definition

1.The fundamental position: The Model Law epitomized the law of nations.

2.The fundamental proposition: One Earth, one set of laws.

3.The fundamental quality: ISO-oriented Model Law

Part II General provisions

1.The general provisions of the constitution at the national level: such as country name, territory, national flag, nationality, etc. (omitted)

2.The general provisions of the constitution at the sub-national level: such as the name and flag of the state, province, region, and municipality. (omitted)

3.The rest belongs to general provisions or general principles and are generally determined by the main body in each level above. (omitted)

Part III  Provisions and effectiveness

1.By the UN Charter, the global governance system, natural law, international law, and self-determination, the Constitutional Standard is applied voluntarily at different speeds at the supranational level (international public juristic persons), the national level (national public juristic persons), and the subnational level (self-governing public juristic persons of states, provinces, regions, and municipalities).

2.If any provision of this Constitutional Standard, or the application thereof to any national level, organization, person, or circumstance is held invalid, the remainder of the Constitutional Standard and the application of such provision to any other person or circumstance shall not be affected thereby.

(1) Supranational level (United Nations government, etc.): Abide by the organization’s charter without violating the principles of the Model Law on Eternal Peace Standard, and harming the principles of legal interest for any individual or group.

(2) National level (the 193 members of the UN, etc.): The Constitutional Standard is directly, effectively, and comprehensively applicable to any country. It can be augmented and amended, or part of it may not be implemented temporarily. But the principle for the above situation is that it should not reduce or damage the perfect operation of eternal peace[1].

[1]. The operation procedure of the charter and the control procedure of the International Standards Organization are interacted with adopting a loop-based system.

(3) Sub-national level of (states, provinces, regions, municipalities, union republics, etc.): Except for items specific to the national level, such as Constitutional Standard §15 and §18, all others are principles that can be directly effective and fully applicable.

3.Various rights within the scope enumerated in the Constitutional Standard shall not be construed as denying or canceling other rights held by people (Constitutional Standard §13 and §14). For clauses that do not fully set regulations and carry out restrictive regulations, their procedures are stipulated by constitutional law, constitutional acts, organizational law, or by law.

4.All laws or norms involving the scope of the clauses of the Constitutional Standard are bound by the clauses of the Constitutional Standard. Constitutional amendments shall not be established for anything that involves the foundation on which the essence of international or national eternal peace (two kinds of subjective will and 28 natural laws) rests.

5.The Constitutional Standard is the core of the basic law of all supranational, national and sub-national organizations. The following guiding principal clauses, safeguard clauses, and entrustment clauses are the direct and effective supreme laws that bind the legislative, administrative, and judicial branches.

Two kinds of subjective will

1.Eternal peace for mankind. With natural law and international law as the mother law, promote the Constitutional Standard to ISO-oriented Model Law, consolidate the rule of law, and create an eternal peaceful rule of law.

2.Sustainable development of the earth. Take the solar system and the UN as the functional system, promoting government standards to be ISO-oriented Model Law, deepening global governance, and creating a great civilization of sustainable development.

Twenty-eight natural human rights / laws of science

Title 1  Rights and duties of people

Chapter 1  Eternal peace standard of freedom

Article 1  A nation founded on freedom[1st Law of Eternal Peace]

The great development of human freedom. Position the country as a great country with freedom standards[2], and provinces and municipalities as the great models of freedom[3]. Human dignity and freedom are inviolable. People are the innate masters of the earth and the country, and the direct subjects of international law and the constitution[4]. The inhabitants of the territory have the constituent power[5] unconditionally and comprehensively. Only through regular elections by people can a legitimate government be produced. Only by vowing to comply with international law loyally can legitimate public power[6] be produced.

[2]. The true aim of government is liberty. “The ultimate aim of government is not to rule, or restrain, by fear, … to strengthen his natural right to exist and work without injury to himself or to others.” (Baruch Spinoza, Dutch philosopher)

[3]. On March 21, Kofi Annan, the seventh Secretary-General of the UN, included Freedom from fear in the report “In larger freedom: towards development, security and human rights for all” as the direction of the future efforts of the UN.

[4].“The basic norm of the international legal order is the ultimate reason for the validity of the national legal orders.” (Hans Kelsen, General Theory of Law and State)

[5].“The power to formulate the constitution is not subject to ‘law’, but arises from ‘force’, which determines whether the country is republic or monarchy, and determines whether the government is democracy or dictatorship.” (Lin Chi-dong, Justice of the Republic of China)

[6]. The constitution is the embodiment of people, national principles, the general will of people, and the right of habeas corpus. The constituent power and amendment of the constitution revert to the people unconditionally. People are the commanders of their own souls; people control their own destiny, the destiny of the family, and the destiny of the country.

Article 2  Reform of freedom [2nd Law of Eternal Peace]

It is strictly forbidden for political parties, politicians, media, gangs, and those in power to do bad things to govern the country. All wired/wireless broadcast frequencies are owned by all inhabitants. Every week, each TV station should provide one hour of service for free, and a short text message via the internet for free, to political participants for liberal application[7]. Each of the nine major political parties has its national radio channel for free. Local television stations, radio stations, and other media should be handled by the aforesaid national-level provisions. Make every effort to enable everyone on earth to receive news of poverty, disease, pollution, war, international law education, and other news from the UN.

[7]. Every week throughout the year, one hour of TV and one short message on the internet, with enforcement rules according to “the effectiveness of the provisions III” shall be prescribed by separate acts.

Article 3  Opening up freedom [3rd Law of Eternal Peace]

Freedom is the general foundation for developing peace. The election is a necessary condition for maximum education[8], distribution, dialogue, solidarity, consensus, and governance[9]. Each year, the voting frequency should not exceed that of Switzerland[10] or California[11], the U.S. which has the highest per capita income. To promote the national spirit, everyone can give full play to their talents. Retirees who voluntarily run for local public office without pay will receive an additional 30% of the number of votes they win.

[8].“Next in importance to freedom and justice is popular education, without which neither freedom nor justice can be permanently maintained.” (James A. Garfield, the President of the U.S.)

[9]. Democracy is about spreading the pain of poverty to those in power through electoral votes or a recall election. (Amartya Sen, Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences)

[10] Among the countries with a population of more than eight million, Switzerland has the highest per capita income in the world in a century, with an average of 5.41 electoral votes per year, plus an average of 3.82 referendums per year (deducting overlapping days), is equal to an average of 9.23 per year.

[11] Among the self-government entities of large countries with a population of more than 40 million, taking California, the U.S. as an example, its per capita income is the highest, and its residents go to the polling stations to vote 11 times on average per year. (from the database of our association)

Article 4  Defense of freedom [4th Law of Eternal Peace]

Coexistence of rights and obligations, complete separation of politics and religion[12]. People are obliged to perform military service, democratic service, peaceful service, tax payment, etc. Whoever acts to disturb the peace, attack democracy, rule of law or order, abuse the right of freedom, spread cognitive false information in internal affairs[13], diplomacy, military affairs, economics and trade, etc., or advocate dictatorship, adhere to enemies, give them aid and comfort should be immediately banned, arrested and prosecuted.

[12] Any public officials shall not spend public money for funding, bribery, bewitching or exploiting any religion or believers. Seeing that Japan’s ruling party is closely related to the Unification Church, resulting in the assassination of Shinzo Abe in 2022, seven cabinet ministers related to the Unification Church resigned.

[13] Ensuring the authenticity and transparency of global information is a prerequisite for world peace. Freedom of speech does not protect against speech crimes. Creating or spreading false information has nothing to do with freedom of speech, it only destroys social trust, harmony, solidarity, morality and fraternity.

Chapter 2  Eternal peace standard of democracy

Article 5  A nation founded on democracy[14] [5th Law of Eternal Peace]

The great rejuvenation of world democracy. Position the country as a great country with democratic standards, and provinces and municipalities as the great models of democracy. People are born to be the masters of the earth and the country, the direct subjects of international law and the constitution, and the ultimate subjects of rights that directly create rights and duties for people and the government. The heads of state-level agencies and ministries should, by the positional obligations and responsibilities of the ministries, construct this obligation to revitalize the great democracy.

[14]Democracy is the worst form of government, except for all the others that have been tried.” (Winston Churchill, British statesman) “That government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.” (Abraham Lincoln, the President of the U.S.) Government is not owned by the party, ruled by the party, and enjoyed by the party like North Korea.

Article 6  Reform of democracy[15] [6th Law of Eternal Peace]

Effect a radical cure for the internal struggles in democratic politics and construct three-party politics. Continue to participate in an ongoing and uninterrupted vote to resolve and reconcile ongoing issues, efficacy, contradictions, divisions, fears, and opposites. Military personnel, public officials, clerics, media staff, or other people protected by rights[16] should pass the graded international law examinations. A question bank should be announced one year in advance with the consultation of the Hague International Court of Justice or the Hague Academy of International Law for approval.

[15] True democracy has two masters, the “people” and the “law”. (Aristotle, Greek philosopher) Democratic reform of political parties, black money, the media, dictatorship or political chronic diseases with various ethnic characteristics must continue rolling elections and integrating operations.

[16] In a democratic country, there are no obligations without rights, and no rights without obligations; rights and obligations coexist.

Article 7  Opening up democracy [7th Law of Eternal Peace]

Any organization should use projects of innovation, foundations digging and resources seeking to extend the infinite number of institutional systems of Constitutional Standard[17], and to attract talents from all over the world to the model nation of Constitutional Standard[18] to create our world and become the common fatherland of world citizens. To revitalize the value and human dignity of a great democracy, citizens of fully democratic countries[19] can run for elections at all levels (including the presidency) in our country and elevate the competitiveness of the model nation of Constitutional Standard in the world.

[17] All basic systems, such as operating systems, legislative systems, economic systems and technological systems, are root initiatives.

[18] The term “model country” refers generally to the states, provinces and union republics of the country or sub-country that implement the Constitutional Standard.

[19] For the statistics of the democracy index over the years of 2008 to 2022, please refer to the tables attached to our website for details. The necessity to terminate autocracy is because the Communist Party is ambitious to conquer the entire world. (The Communist Manifesto) If there will be no struggle or expansion, to suppress freedom and human rights will be lack of a good excuse.

Article 8  Defense of democracy [8th Law of Eternal Peace]

Strictly manage the flow of funds, people, goods, and information from foreign countries. Elected chiefs are limited at most a five-year term mandate. After the term ends, the officials and their close relatives, within eight years[20] , are prohibited from running for their former or related positions by the law[21]. Anyone who participates in the revision of the constitution and the amends term of office is regarded as an accomplice of rebellion and should be arrested and prosecuted immediately[22]. Constitutional amendments must be approved by two-thirds of two-term members of congress, and approved by two-thirds of members of three-quarters of local councils in the country; then a referendum can be held[23] In referendums, at least 50 percent of those entitled to vote must approve the proposition[24].

[20] Costa Rica Constitution § 132 [below] shall not be elected President or Vice President: 1. A person who held the office of President at any interval within the eight years preceding the passage of the election…

[21] The system of tenure in the office is a great invention of mankind. Elected chiefs serve only one term mandate and the term of office shall not exceed five years and cannot be reappointed. Some might ask that if only one appointment is allowed, why can’t one be reappointed twice or unlimited times? Take the President of Belarus as an example, he has been re-elected for six consecutive terms. Putin of Russia and Xi Jinping of China have been ruling their countries for more than one decade. Thus, tenure system, the great invention of mankind, has been destroyed. The Constitution of the Republic of Honduras §240.6 and The Political Constitution of the Republic of Guatemala §186: Prohibitions to opt for the Offices of President or Vice President of the Republic. The following may not opt for the offices of President or Vice-President of the Republic: a. The leader or the chiefs of a coup d'état , armed revolution or similar movement, who have altered the constitutional order, or those who as a consequence of such events have assumed the leadership of the government; b. The person exercising the position of President or Vice-President of the Republic when elections are held for such office, or who has exercised same for any duration within the presidential term in which the elections are held; c. The relatives to the fourth degree of consanguinity and second of affinity (, and spouses a year prior to the election in The Constitution of the Republic of Honduras §240.6) of the President or Vice-President of the Republic, when the latter exercises the office of the President, and those of the persons referred to in the first paragraph of this Article; d. The person who may have been Minister of State, for any period during the six months prior to the election; e. The members of the Army, unless they have resigned or retired for at least five years before the date of the convocation for elections; f. The ministers of any religion or cult; and g. The magistrates of the Supreme Electoral Tribunal.

[22] The Constitution of the Republic of Honduras §42.5 incites, promotes, or supports the continuity or re-election of the President of the Republic; and will lose citizenship. § 187 of the Guatemalan Constitution prohibits re-election.

[23] §100 of the New Hampshire Constitution states that a constitutional referendum must be approved by a two-thirds absolute majority of eligible voters. Refer to the constitutional amendment procedure in §1.7, §1.8 and §5 of the U.S. Constitution for the amendment bill. Civil wars and foreign wars require the consent of two-thirds of the members of Congress, etc.

[24] Amendment Article 48 of the Massachusetts Constitution states that a referendum must be approved by more than half of eligible voters to ensure political stability.

Chapter 3  Eternal peace standard of human rights

Article 9  A nation founded on human rights [9th Law of Eternal Peace]

The great unity of human rights in the world[25]. Position the country as a big country with human rights standards[26], and provinces and municipalities are the great models of human rights. Creating the highest values of life, advocating the world’s constitutional standard, safeguarding the eternal peace of humanity, and defending the sustainable development of the earth are the most sacred rights of people and the most urgent obligations of the country. The chief of public security at the grassroots level is elected by people[27] in a one-ballot single-vote system; three parties are elected, according to the number of votes, and one public security chief and two deputy public security chiefs are elected.

[25] After the universal basic human rights standards of the UN are signed by all member states, the countries who don’t obey the rules will fail to claim the unification of other countries.

[26] The “International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights” and the “International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights” both became international law in 1976. Article 1 of the two covenants forms the right to self-determination of the constitution. Municipalities have the power to construct local characteristics of global localization and local globalization, and become diverse international capitals.

[27] The state sheriffs of the U.S. are elected by people. To secure the police as people’s nanny, not the underworld’s backup, grassroots security chiefs must be elected through popular elections.

Article 10  Reform of human rights [10th Law of Eternal Peace]

Innate human rights take precedence over national sovereignty. People have the right to survival and the right to immediate euthanasia according to the law[28]. The state protects the vulnerable, and all victims of human factors and ergonomic[29] or innocent casualties should be compensated by the state[30]. All citizens are law-abiding people[31], and those who have not committed any more crimes within a maximum of ten years[32] should have data relevant to criminal records removed[33]. Half of the members of the National Human Rights Action and Citizenship Exercise Committee are appointed by international authoritative human rights organizations[34].

[28] Swiss Federal Criminal Code §115 does not punish suicide committed without selfish motives.

[29] Human factors engineering is an important human right, and the Constitutional Standard establishes standards for human rights. For example, the European Commission requested the European standardization organizations to develop “EN Eurocodes” (European Standards) applicable to EU member states and European countries under the motto “Building the Future”.

[30] The government is responsible for the death of innocent people in the country. Referring to Israel’s National Health Insurance Law, the government of Israel compensated all victims who had traveled to Israel legally or illegally in the Jerusalem bus bombing.

[31] “If it be to protect the rights of the weak, whoever objects, do it.” (Calvin Coolidge, the President of the U.S.)

[32] The purpose of the criminal code is to educate the criminals and expect them to commit no more crime after being punished. The country does not record people’s contributions but record their shortcomings. This kind of punishment is a departure from the spirit of fraternity. The Buddhist approach to “put down the butcher’s knife and become a Buddha on the spot” is worthy of adopting. In terms of the world crime rate index, Venezuela ranks first with 84.25, Brazil ranks 10th with 67.85, and Taiwan ranks 134th with 15.24. These are horrible statistics. Since society does not accept those who have criminal records, the ex-convicted persons are so desperate that they think they are destined to commit crimes to the end of their lives.

[33] “The welfare of the people shall be the supreme law.” (Cicero, Roman philosopher) The European Court of Justice ruled that when the fundamental rights of individuals are compromised by the disclosure of personal information, and that specific disclosure is not in the public interest, the information must be deleted, referring to the “right to be forgotten”.

[34] In order to protect the human rights in the countries which have been implementing eternal peace, the members of the Human Rights Commission are composed of international elites. Through the suggestions and proposals of international elites, the human rights will be in line with international standards.

Article 11  Opening up human rights [11th Law of Eternal Peace]

All ethnic groups are equal in human rights. Human rights are indivisible and cannot be transferred or relinquished. When anyone’s human rights are victimized and damaged by deception, they are seen as a victim of all human beings. The rights of indigenous peoples shall be protected[35]. Opposing culture fanatic-zealous or ancestral-worshiping-based military nationalism is adopted to oppress minorities,  divide discrimination, enforce disappearances, commit underworld crimes, homogenize racial groups, and poison globally. It’s necessary to implement the global village’s civic nationalism[36] .

[35] Substantive equality is the recognition that the law must take into account factors such as discrimination, marginalization, and unequal distribution. It implements special measures to help or improve the lives of disadvantaged groups, and ensure that they have the same opportunities as everyone else.

[36] An inclusive form of nationalism upholds traditional liberal values of liberty, tolerance, equality, individual rights, etc. The membership of Citizen State is open to every citizen with citizenship, regardless of culture or race.

Article 12  Defense of human rights[37] [12th Law of Eternal Peace]

Human rights are the world’s internal affairs[38]. Public officials should guarantee that basic human rights, environmental rights, peace rights, and development rights will never belay a day from those of other countries. Every year, leaders of different ministries will be elected and only one central-level leader will be elected by the people. That is, elections will be held every year. Regardless of international relations or interpersonal relationships, nor of the time or place when bullying occurs, victims can always seek joint and several liabilities from silent bystanders. Those who witness others in danger but are unwilling to save the endangered[39], or who can help the victims prove their innocence but refuse to testify, should be held criminal responsibility[40].

[37] Refer to “How the rise and economic miracle of Nazi Germany became a disaster?” “We had to struggle with the old enemies of peace ... that Government by organized money is just as dangerous as Government by organized mob.” (Franklin D. Roosevelt, the president of the U.S.)

[38] “Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere.” (Nobel Peace Laureate Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.) Comparison of the Constitutional Standard with the norms of “human rights Issues are the internal affairs of the world,” of various countries, please see the attached tables on our website for details.

[39] The only thing necessary for the triumph of evil is for good men to do nothing. The silence of anyone produces the next victim.

[40] Refer to the “tort law” in the common law for duty to rescue, such as §323c of the German Criminal Code, §223-6 of the French Penal Code, etc. The “International Convention on maritime search and rescue, 1979” of customary international law stipulates to render assistance to any person found at sea in danger of being lost.

Chapter 4  Standard of Eternal Peace and Rule of Law

Article 13  A nation founded on rule of law[41] [13th Law of Eternal Peace]

The great realization of the rule of law in the world[42]. Position the country as a country with great rule of law standards, and provinces and municipalities as the great models of rule of law. Vertically implemented international law is the sovereign law of the state, which is the law of all laws that maintain world civilization[43]. Five years after the effectiveness of broad international law, it shall be regarded as customary international law, the mother law of the constitution, and the peaceful peremptory norms, directly creating rights and duties for people. The individual is the ultimate subject of international law[44].

[41] Clause 40 of the Magna Carta said, “To no one will we sell, to no one deny or delay right or justice.” The rule of law is the concept that both the government and citizens know the law and obey it.

[42] The world’s great freedom, a great democracy, great human rights, great rule of law, and global legislation, administration and judicial standards all come from: “He drew a circle that shut me out— Heretic, rebel, a thing to flout. But Love and I had the wit to win: We drew a circle that took him in!” (Edwin Markham, the poet laureate of the U.S., Outwitted)

[43] Although international law requires states to perform their obligations, it does not ask how states should perform their obligations: (1) States can choose to directly apply international law. (2) They can also pass legislation to convert international law into national law. (3) They can take administrative measures. (4) They can take judicial measures. (5) The state decides in accordance with its constitution. (Hungdah Chiu, International Law)

[44] Legal Positivism is the legal concept of the “worldwide legal community”. Regardless of international law or national law, the “individual” is the direct ultimate subject of rights and obligations. (Hans Kelsen, Austrian legal philosopher) A government that does not observe international law is an evil government.

Article 14  Reform of rule of law [14th Law of Eternal Peace]

Horizontally developing all laws in one unanimous global village common law is an urgent obligation of the state that cannot be changed or exempted. The laws of all nations form part of national law. Everyone can deal with the matters and the government can suspend or use in accordance with law according to one's merit. Foreigners have the right to apply their home country’s laws on a priority basis in our country so that they can construct our country to become their other fatherland and hometown[45]. Countries shall establish the latest databases of comparative data on global regulations.

[45] All laws are in one. Foreigners have the right to first apply the laws of their home countries, but a juridical act that is against public policy or morals is void of our country.

Article 15  Opening up rule of law [15th Law of Eternal Peace]

Implement democratic and rule of law standards. The President, the Attorney General, and the president of the Judiciary must nominate members of congressional ad hoc committees when they are running for election. Members of the Ad Hoc Committee on the Generational Development Committee are nominated by the President; members of the Ad Hoc Committee on the Legal Development Committee of the Global Country are nominated by the Attorney General; members of the Ad Hoc Committee on the Development of International Law are nominated by the president of the Judiciary. The nominees shall serve the same term as the nominator. When the nominator is approved, the nominated candidates are assigned to various standing committees. This is the eternally peaceful demonstration of great civilization and a model of a great rule of law[46].

[46] The law is connected with civilization in a certain time and space. “It is a product of civilization … as to the past as a product of civilization, as to the present as a means of maintaining civilization, as to the future as a means of furthering civilization.” (Roscoe Pound, American legal scholar)

Article 16  Defense of rule of law [16th Law of Permanent Peace]

Innovate the norms of peace constitution as the legal foundation of politics[47]. It is forbidden for the government to violate international law on the grounds of conflict with national law, national conditions, customs, history, geography, culture, etc., and violators are considered guilty of crimes against the human order. The jurisprudence of defending peaceful development: the laws of all countries in the world are in one constitutional standard, and one constitutional standard can bring about world peace, a dual executive system (semi-presidential system), three-party politics, four-power separation, checks and balances, and a republican system on five continents.

[47] The philosopher Kant’s theory of Perpetual Peace made three important statements: (1) Peace can only be established by legal power. (2) The purposiveness of legal power is peace. (3) Therefore, peace inevitably raises the issue of the legal basis in politics. (Frédéric Laupics) Therefore, this Constitutional Standard has achieved their goals: to establish a “worldwide legal community” and to improve the mechanism of the global governance system.

Title 2  Basic organizations of the nation

Chapter 5  Eternal peace standard of legislation[48]

Article 17  Supranational legislative power [17th Law of Eternal Peace]

The great competition and cooperation of world legislation. To improve the global governance system, the national or sub-national level has legislative power only where international law has not been enacted at the supranational level or established an equivalent living relationship in the global field, and it is felt that the norms of international law are necessary and the supranational has the legislative power[49]. National legislation requires global participation, regardless of friend or foe, each country has one representative, but with no right to vote in the home country’s congress[50].

[48] Legislative standard procedure: The law should be clear, complete, predictable, and globally consistent. Through rolling transformation, standardization and integration are carried out to ensure that the law keeps pace with the times, and the quality and national strength continue to improve.

[49] If the supranational level no longer meets the above two necessary conditions, the legislative power vests to each country.

[50] A country’s legislation is open to global participation, regardless of friend or foe. A country’s congress can represent its people to create a people-to-people alternative diplomatic channel. A country’s legislation is a general accelerator for the birth of a “worldwide legal community”. It establishes the power for earth’s villagers to jointly stop governments from violating international law. It is also the deterrent power to prevent leaders of various countries from leading mankind to destruction.

Article 18  National legislative power [18th Law of Eternal Peace]

Congress created three-party politics, with a total of 150 regional committee seats. Each county should have at least one member of congress. Aboriginal people and counties and cities with a population of nearly 100,000 should have three seats, and the remaining seats should be allocated to the remaining constituencies. Voters in each district have one ballot, and they can only vote for one candidate from the roster of candidates. The top three with the highest number of votes are elected[51]. Members of Congress are elected for a 4-year term, with a quarter of the Electoral Districts to be re-elected each year[52]. There are 36 ad hoc committees[53] without the district, and the total number of members of congress is 186. Elections are separate and compulsory[54].

[51] A parliamentary election is using one ballot for a voter to vote for only one candidate he likes. Candidates with the top three highest votes are elected. The kind of system is both democratic and republican. By discarding one-party dictatorship, two-party confrontation, and multi-party chaos, and by advocating a dynamic three-party equalization of politics, whenever a dispute arises, a third force with equal power can judge and help to reach a settlement. Thus, it is easier to unite the members of congress. In order to make the most stable politics, the congress conducts partial re-election every year, allowing people to vote again.

[52] In a turbulent society, it is necessary to rely on a three-party political system and continuously voting to resolve and reconcile the problems, efficiency, contradictions, differences and oppositions that arise constantly. Voters are accustomed to elect the members of congress every four years, but through partial re-election every year, congress together with members of congress will be tested by people.

[53] This Constitutional Standard will advocate a “worldwide legal community”, promote a great civilization of eternal peace, and realize the great rule of law as a legislative model.

[54] Elections are one of the requirements of maximum education, distribution, dialogue, unity, consensus and governance. In Australia, eligible citizens are compulsory to vote in elections. One of the most crucial ways to defend and develop democracy is for congress to elect a certain number of members each year. It is strictly forbidden to hold parliamentary elections together with central level elections unless they are held at the same time with local councils, so as not to confuse the policy of ministries.

Article 19  Sub-national legislative power [19th Law of Eternal Peace]

Members of local councils at the sub-national level (states, provinces, regions, and municipalities) serve a single two-year term, the same as U.S. federal and state representatives. Voters in each district have only one ballot adopting a single-choice system, and the top three with the highest number of votes are elected. To cultivate political leaders and eliminate monopoly, a member of congress can only serve as a speaker for one time during a session of his/her appointed dates and may not serve as a speaker again. Every opinion in the grassroots public shouldn’t be ignored. Everyone has the right to participate in legislative sittings with legislators at all levels, including from local councils to congress or international conferences[55].

[55] The institutional design keeps any public opinion from being buried. With a one person one vote system, candidates with the top three highest votes are elected as the result of the election. This design will allow the minority or independent party to be elected to the third seat, which can form the third force to curb the other two’s opinions, propositions and behaviors. They won’t go to extremes, divide the spoils, or do evil.

Article 20  Advocating legislation [20th Law of Eternal Peace]

Create a legislative system with the fewest weaknesses and the most advantages. Advocate for a worldwide legal community[56] and mandatory rules of international law. Help other countries or local governments (states, provinces, regions, or municipalities) develop the Constitutional Standard. Every year, the government will allocate at least 0.02 percent of the central government’s total budget to promote the Constitutional Standard. National adjustment of wages, salaries and bonuses, allowances, tax rates, and benefits should be linked to national and global “common needs and common division of labor”[57], and formulated through big data calculations[58].

[56] Legal positivism advocates two supplementary elements of “international authoritative formulation” and “individual social effectiveness” to define the legal concept of “worldwide legal community”. That is, the “individual” is the direct ultimate subject of international rights and obligations.

[57] The state changes wages, compensation, tax rates, benefits, etc., and must not reduce or damage individual social ties and social international ties. (Léon Duguit, French scholar of constitution) To prevent populist politicians from defeating the democratic system.

[58] Politicians are prone to use populism to incite the masses, using the excuse of raising wages and benefits as an excuse to destroy the democratic system. For example, in the early years of the 20th century, Argentina was the 7th-richest country in the world. After Ippolito was elected President in 1916, he implemented his political views to significantly increase wages, resulting in Argentina sinking to 59th in per capita income in 2016.

Chapter 6  Eternal peace standard of administration

Article 21  Supranational administration [21st Law of Eternal Peace]

The great hierarchical governance of world administration. Competition and cooperation in supranational administrative power will make perfect global governance. When carrying out the tasks of international organizations such as the UN, governments at the national and sub-national levels are all agencies empowered by the supranational level. Before granted by an international judicial judgment, if a national leader publicly declares a policy that violates international law, he will be regarded as a potential war criminal[59].

[59]“In questions of power, then, let no more be heard of confidence in man, but bind him down from mischief by the chains of the Constitution.” (Thomas Jefferson, the President of the U.S.)

Article 22  National administration [22nd Law of Eternal Peace]

Semi-presidential system. The President is elected by the people, and the presidential candidates must be at least 50 years old to be elected. The President nominates the prime minister (abbreviated as PM). When the President issues an order, the cabinet must countersign it. The PM must be at least 50 years old, has a foundation in the popular election[60], and shall be native-born). The PM directs the government[61] and is responsible for national defense. Ministers should publish their public service rankings and policies in global performance. Countries may join a collective security system and may legislate to transfer sovereignty[62] to international organizations. Any agency should meet international standards[63].

[60] When the President nominates the chairman of a congressional committee to serve as prime minister, the PM can be directly appointed. If the nominated candidate for PM is not the 12 elected chairmen, the PM must be approved by the congress.

[61] The constitutional standard stipulates and restricts administration, vertically implements the consistent integration of supra-national (international organizations), national, sub-national (local levels), and horizontally cross-ministerial integration; any policy can be systematically implemented by ministries and council’s local governments.

[62] Once people lose national or local sovereignty, they will also lose all ownership of the real property, fields and gardens.

[63] To perfect public services, all civil servants should have Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs), make necessary documents available when conducting their business, and let the public be noticed.

Article 23  Sub-national administration [23rd Law of Eternal Peace]

The foundation of all politics is local politics. The constitution should clearly define a certain period for the government to respond to the needs of the people. Whenever someone requests justice, there will be a response[64]. A well-organized government is the largest charity and service organization to solve people’s problems[65]. All powers that are more favorable to the locality belong to the locality, including legislative power, judicial power, civil defense power, economic and trade rights, language rights, cultural rights, environmental rights, development rights, etc., should promote citizen participation. Representatives of the people have efficient investigation power[66].

[64] In the event of a fire, emergency medical treatment, flood, wind disaster, earthquake, being oppressed by force, enforced disappearance, battlefield rescue and other disaster assistance, the expected arrival time of rescuers should be announced according to the distance from the accident site. Candidates participating in local elections should present political opinions to improve the current situation during the campaign period.

[65] Referring to Australia’s Model Litigant Rules, all Australian government agencies have a duty in civil law to model litigants.

[66] The “jack-in-office” is the root of all political corruption. In addition to Constitutional Standard §14 in which citizens have the right to model transfer and citizen participation, the people’s representatives at any level, as long as there are three members united, have the power to form an administrative effectiveness investigation and conduct impeachment according to law.

Article 24  Constitutional guarantors [24th Law of Eternal Peace]

International law is supreme[67]. To maintain constitutional order, prevent civil disturbances, and avoid treason, the President, representatives of the people, military personnel, public officials, educators, clerics, and media staff are all guarantors of the implementation of the constitution. With the consent of the Constitutional Court, the Attorney General can prosecute or arrest the state leader for his unconstitutional acts. Seventy-two hours before the launch of a non-war military action or force repression, congressional approval must be obtained. The President and the commander-in-chief of the Army, Navy, and Air Force should remain neutral, and they shall have no right to vote in general elections.

[67] To date, there is no national constitution that explicitly abides by international law, but at most respect international law. §25 of the German Basic Law says international law is a part of national law, and national law is still superior to international law. Fail to observe international law is to harm human beings significantly.

Chapter 7  Eternal peace standard of judicial prosecution

Article 25  Judicial prosecution reform [25th Law of Eternal Peace]

The great compliance with world regulations. The constitution is the general will of the people[68], and people may directly accuse someone of violating the constitution. The procuratorate merges executive power externally and separates from judicial and procuratorial powers internally. To prevent state leaders from leading human beings to destruction, the procuratorate has a legal compliance department and system to ensure compliance with international law and national laws. The Attorney General has the power to give the order to arrest criminals who violate international law. When the military personnel and security personnel are sworn into a position at their inauguration or promotion ceremony, they shall be countersigned by the chief prosecutor. Judges of the national security court shall undergo on-the-job training annually[69].

[68] “The constitution must be a decision and every act of the constitution-making power must necessarily be a command.” (Carl Schmitt, German constitutional scholar, Constitutional Theory)

[69] The Attorney General has the power to arrest global leaders who violate international law in accordance with the law. Court judges responsible for national security must receive professional training every year.

Article 26  Opening up judicial prosecution systems [26th Law of Eternal Peace]

The   are exercised independently. The president of the procuratorate is directly elected by the people; the one who receives the highest number of votes serves as the Attorney General. The person with the second highest number of votes is the vice president of the procuratorate and concurrently the Minister of Legal Compliance. The person with the third highest number of votes is the second vice president of the procuratorate and concurrently the Minister of Audit. Local chief prosecutors are also elected by the people[70]. According to the number of votes received, one local chief prosecutor and two deputy local chief prosecutors are elected to form a collegial panel for indictments. Prosecutors should supervise and prevent injustice, and discover and pursue justice. All parties in a trial have the right to change the prosecutor or judge before the closing of the investigation or the conclusion of defending.

[70] For more than 200 years since the drafting of the U.S. Constitution, the attorney generals and prosecutors of more than 46 states have been elected by people, and they are responsible to people for procedural justice.

Chapter 8  Eternal peace standard of judicial judgment

Article 27  Judicial judgment reform [27th Law of Eternal Peace]

The great establishment of world justice. International law is given precedence in applying all legal powers. Comply with judicial decisions of the International Court of Justice. Universal values and the constitution should go hand in hand[71]. When universal justice is called for by someone, a response[72] must come to the aid of someone. Thus, the president of the Judicial Department is elected by the people[73]. Constitutional Court judges represent the justice of the people and interpret the constitution for the sake of human justice, and their ruling is the most authoritative answer, and the decisions of the Constitutional Court judges are considered to be the exercise of constituent power people. Half of the judges of the Constitutional Court come from different countries on the five continents and enjoy lifelong tenure and full national treatment.

[71] The application of the so-called “law” should not be limited to the country, but should be interpreted as the most universal concept. That is, from a small society to a big society, and then to the country and even to the world, it is a common product of the idea of human beings living together. (Tanaka Kotaro, Japanese professor of law, Theory of World Law)

[72]“The greatest sin of the state is laziness.” (Nicolo Machiavelli, Italian statesman, The Prince) Justice means that when people have needs, the government will respond to every plea. Justice is the basic meaning of the existence of the country.

[73] “The complete independence of the courts of justice is peculiarly essential in a limited Constitution.” (Alexander Hamilton, the founding father of the U.S.) For more than 200 years since the drafting of the U.S. Constitution, the judges in more than 42 states have been elected by people, and they are directly responsible to people for substantive justice.

Article 28  Opening up unconstitutional review [28th Law of Eternal Peace]

The constitution is the fundamental law of the country and the fundamental power of the people. The power of the state to exercise the law will always vest to the inhabitants of the territory. The values of the constitution are universal and subject to the global agreement (Constitutional Standard §13 and §14 are 99% complete) The world has the power to review unconstitutional laws and should prioritize reviewing violations of international law. After excluding violations of international law or the constitution, citizens of the earth have the right to initiate peaceful protests such as non-cooperation movements[74] and non-violent resistance[75] if there are no other remedy to solve the problems.

[74]“Civil disobedience” is generally considered to be an open, non-violent act of disobeying the law in an open, non-violent manner for the purpose of prompting changes in laws, policies or social ills, motivated by moral conscience.

[75] “A law without penalties is not a law, and a constitution without the right of resistance is not a constitution.” Unconstitutional violations are of course subject to global scrutiny or resistance. “A nation that conceives such a noble idea, and lives by it, will endure in the world forever.” (Abraham Lincoln, the President of the U.S.)

* The above-determined terms cannot be changed. If you want to change, please write the following supplementary terms and effects.

Part IV  Supplementary provisions and their efficacy

Various countries can be free to add and give examples on their own

Take the U.S. as an example

1. It is recommended that the U.S. lead democracy and the Congress should be changed to a three-party system: one state in the Senate and one single vote, and the top three are elected according to the number of votes (regardless of political party), with three members per state, and the number of seats in the Senate becomes 150; the House of Representatives divides election districts by population and the elector from each district has one ballot to elect the most preferred candidate, and the top three are elected according to the highest number of votes, and the total seats of the House of Representatives remain at 435. Any dispute can be reconciled and adjudicated by a third power.

2. It is recommended that the U.S. lead democracy and that the term of office of the President and other elected leaders should be extended, but the chronic disease of consecutive terms of office should be canceled. In the modern world, the situation is changing so fast that a term of five years is enough, and no public office can be held for eight years (for example, the outgoing President is not allowed to serve as the PM), and the basic salary will remain unchanged during this period. (Constitutional Standard § 8).

Part V  Transition and supplementary provisions (omitted)

Part VI  Appendix: comparison of the Constitutional Standard and the millennium wisdom of all nations, all laws, and all religions

1. The 28 Constitutional Standards as a tool for the “28 Founding Principles of the U.S.” to continue to develop and shine

2 .The Constitutional Standard as a tool for the UN and more than 20,000 NGOs to continue to develop and shine

(1) Comparison of the Constitutional Standard with the Charter of the UN

(2) Comparison of the Constitutional Standard with the Constitution of the UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

(3) Comparing the Constitutional Standard with the UN Resolution “Laying Permanent Peace”

(4) Comparison of the Constitutional Standard with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which is normative for peace by the UN

(5) Comparison of the Constitutional Standard with other peace-related declarations of the UN

3. Comparison of the Constitutional Standard with the “Constitutional Power” in the constitutions of various countries

4. Comparison of the Constitutional Standard with the “voting rights” in the constitutions of various countries

(1)Switzerland has had the highest per capita income in the world during the past 100 years among medium-to-large countries (population more than eight million), each citizen voted “9 times” at the polling station every year

i. Zurich citizens participated in elections (federal/state/municipal/regional/community elections), with more than 17 types of voting, and held a total of 92 (2003-2019), an average of 5.41 elections were voted per year

ii. Zurich citizens participated in referendums (national/state/municipal/district/community referendum), an average of 3.82 referendums were held each year

iii. Swiss electronic voting system

(2)Local government in large countries such as California (U.S.A.) has the highest level of per capita income (population 40 million), and each citizen voted “11 times” at the polling station every year

i. State level — California state elections

ii. Municipal — Los Angeles city citizenship elections

iii. U.S. states implement an online electronic registration system for voter identification

5. Comparison of the Constitutional Standard with the “suffrage” of the constitutions of various countries

(1) Comparison of the Constitutional Standard with the “free use of media for political participation” of various countries

(2) Comparison of the Constitutional Standard with the norms of “defending liberal democracy and compulsory voting” of various countries

6. Comparison of the Constitutional Standard with the “human rights” of the constitutions of various countries

(1) Comparison of the Constitutional Standard with the norms of “human rights issues are the internal affairs of the world” of various countries

(2) Comparison of the Constitutional Standard with the norms of “international law is higher than national law” of the constitutions of various countries

(3) Comparison of the Constitutional Standard with the norms of “constitutional guarantor” of various countries

7. Comparison of the Constitutional Standard with the norms of “respect for foreign laws” of the constitutions of various countries

►Comparison of the Constitutional Standard with the constitution of various countries “to ensure that the dignity and value of human beings are not one day behind other countries”

8. Comparison of the Constitutional Standard with the “judicial” constitutions of various countries

►Comparison of the Constitutional Standard with the source of the “grand justice” who responds to the needs of universal justice in various countries

9. Comparison of the Constitutional Standard with the “violation of international law and constitution, everyone has the right to resist” of the constitutions of various countries

►Comparison of the Constitutional Standard with the norms of the “right of resistance/non-cooperation” of constitutional remedies of various countries

10. Comparison of the Constitutional Standard with the “reform and opening up” of the constitutions of various countries」

►Comparison of the Constitutional Standard with the norms of “political reform and opening up, and participating in the election of heads of state at all levels under the law” of various countries

11. Comparison of the Constitutional Standard with the competing norms of legislative power in building a worldwide legal community of various countries

12. Comparison of the Constitutional Standard with promoting Christianity (2.5 billion followers) as a luminous tool for continuous development

(1) Comparison of the Constitutional Standard with the 3,500-year-old biblical Old Testament as a luminous tool for continuous development

(2) Comparison of the Constitutional Standard with the 2,000-year-old biblical New Testament as a luminous tool for continuous development

(3) Comparison of the Constitutional Standard with the essential propositions of the Pope’s “World Peace Day Proclamation” over the past 100 years

(4) Comparison of the Constitutional Standard with the nearly 4,000 articles in Pope Francis’ Pontifical Gazette

13. Comparison of the Constitutional Standard with Islam (1.9 billion followers) as a luminous tool for continuous development

(1) Comparison of the Constitutional Standard with the Quran as a luminous tool for continuous development since 609 AD

(2) Comparison of the Constitutional Standard with the Hadith as a luminous tool for continuous development since 800 AD

14. Comparison of the Constitutional Standard with Hinduism’s Vedas (1 billion followers) as a luminous tool for continuous development

15. Comparison of the Constitutional Standard with Buddhism—Tibetan Buddhism (500 million followers) as a luminous tool for continuous development

(1) Comparison of the Constitutional Standard with the Tripitaka as a luminous tool for continuous development

(2) Comparison of the Constitutional Standard with Gazette and Tibetan Buddhist Venerable Dalai Lama and other luminous tools for world peace

16. Comparison of the Constitutional Standard with the Orthodox Bible as a luminous tool for continuous development

(1) Comparison of the Constitutional Standard with the Old Testament of the Orthodox Bible as a luminous tool for continuous development

(2) Comparison of the Constitutional Standard with the New Testament of the Orthodox Bible as a luminous tool for continuous development

17. Comparison of the Constitutional Standard with the Torah of Judaism as a luminous tool for continuous development

18. Comparison of the Constitutional Standard with the crucial propositions of the Nobel Peace Prize

19. The provisions of the constitutions of various countries to sanction the abuse of liberty to attack freedom and democracy

20. Statistics on the democracy index over the years 2008 to 2021 (totaling 32 countries)

21. The Constitutional Standard serves as the blueprint for the reform and opening up and peaceful development of various political systems

(1) Comparison of the Constitutional Standard with the provisions of the presidential system

(2) Comparison of the Constitutional Standard with the provisions of a semi-presidential system

(3) Comparison of the Constitutional Standard with the provisions of the parliamentary (cabinet) system

(4) Comparison of the Constitutional Standard with the provisions of the directorial system

About Us

The Thangka was signed by His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama for the Association.

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Incentives and Rewards for Co-Founders of the Eternal Peace System for mankind

Translated the Constitutional Standard into the language version ​​of the world

Translated the Constitutional Standard into the language version of each self-government entity of the state, province, region, municipality

*Donations are welcome, and a detailed annotated version will be given (Choose a hard copy of the Chinese version and the English version. Or electronic versions for other languages.)