We hold these truths to be self-evident: "Man" is innate - the master of the earth, the master of the state, the ultimate subject of international law and constitution, and the direct sovereign who decides that international law is the mother law of domestic law. Seeing super nuclear-armed powers invading other countries, there is no solution in the world. After reviewing the world situation for the next hundred thousand years, the only way to maintain peace and civilization is to return the power to the masters of the earth and the country and become the ones who prevent the government from violating international law or world order according to law. The main body of power is also a necessary and sufficient condition to prevent the leaders of various countries from bringing mankind to destruction. This reiterates that "man" is the master of the earth and the state, not the slave or tool of the state. In order to prove the truth, in the face of history, declare to a just world—
Whereas recognition of the astronaut looks back at Earth in the nebula from outer space, people on earth are also in the sky, thus earth is also heaven. Permanent Peace and sustainable development are the building blocks of paradise; by developing weapons of destruction, you are destroying heaven. This is the natural truth of the global village. (As the image on the cover).
Whereas it is essential that "two supreme and independent authorities cannot exist in the same state," "any more than two supreme beings in one universe…"; "America will never allow that parliament has any authority to alter the constitution at all. " (Founding Father of the United States: John Adams).
Whereas the real weapon of the religious world that prays for the defense of peace--- weapons different from those destined to kill and exterminate humanity… those which give strength and prestige to international law (Message of His Holiness Pope Paul VI for the Celebration of the Day of Peace,1 January 1976.)
Whereas "In questions of power, then, let no more heard of confidence in man, but bind him down from mischief by the chains of the Constitution (Founding Father of the United States: Thomas Jefferson). The specific constitution is the embodiment of the people, the code of the country, the general order of the people, and the protection order of the person. It is different from not a utopian ideal. The constituent power and amend the constitution be vested in people themself (The Doctrine of Constitutional Authority: Carl Schmitt), the people are the masters of their own destiny and the commander of their own souls. If they give up the autonomy for constituent power, give up the autonomy for amend the constitution and let others make decisions, they are like scarecrows with bodies and no souls.
Whereas that the legal positivism: 1. National issues are issues of national legal order. Each individual is a legal subject. 2. Of course, international law overrides national law, and directly obliges individuals and grants them rights. "Individuals" are the "direct subjects of international obligations and rights." 3. A law is anything created in accordance with the procedures prescribed by the Constitution as the basis of this order (delegated legislation). 4. International law and national law are a unified system of legal regulations, and the international legal order governs the national legal order of various countries, and the effectiveness of international law determines the norm of validity of the national legal order. 5. The basic norms of international law are the ultimate reason for national legal rules. (Representative: Hans Kelsen)
Whereas that humanity has only two paths in the end: peace or destruction. Peace is life – the truth and the way. The endless development of destructive weapons by humans, from information, viruses, light and electric weapons to hypersonic nuclear missiles, with battlefields stretching from land, sea and air to outer space, consuming earth’s resources and causing environmental pollution and ecological damage. The temperature rise is irreversible, and human beings should no longer dig their own graves.
Whereas that how powerful ancient and modern empires are, they must eventually return to the domestic battlefield of "institutional performance" to continue. Peace must be permanent, otherwise it is just a truce. Humanity's urgent need for a set of Constitutional Standards of Permanent Peace is like a beacon of faith that lightning precedes thunder. Such as the British Magna Carta in 1215, the Petition of Right in 1628, and the Bill of Rights in 1689 which all succeeded; where no constitutional blueprint existing, such as the 20-year Vietnam War, the 20-year Afghan War and the 2010 Arab Spring movement etc., so far all have failed.
To this end, the Permanent Peace Development Association (the Association) has integrated the legal wisdom of human beings for thousands of years during the past 50 years (see: The Association's Database”), and its initiatives include natural law, international law, laws of all countries, and scriptures of all religions, the founding principles, authoritative doctrines, peace declarations, Charter of the United Nations and more than 10,000 NGOs registered at the United Nations, integrating 2 kinds of subjective and 28 the natural laws or scientific laws which cannot be changed, cannot be exempted, constitute the Constitutional Standards of Permanent Peace (referred to as the Constitutional Standards), in the ever-changing world, and prove the eternal "Constitution of Constitutions, Morality of Moralities, Faith of All Faiths, and Fraternity of Fraternities" presented to the world in advance, the United Nations' partner for peace. Examples are as follows:
Clear vision: According to the Charter of the United Nations and to perfect its global governance system in supranational level, national level or sub-national level (such as state, province, region, city, union republic) etc., all political entities have the constituent power, formulating international law take precedence over national law, and always complying the mother law of the constitution of the constitution, peaceful jus cogens, with directly create rights and duties for the people and the government (the Constitutional Standards §13). According to this procedure, the national military, public officials, media, and clergy should pass the international law grading examination.
Clear interests: to build a “World Legal Community”, and the laws of all nations form part of national law. Man is the master of his own destiny, the master of the country. Don't worry about not recognizing quality, comparison will determine which is better, everyone use his mobile phone to compare the laws of all countries and choose the best according to the law (the Constitutional Standards §14). Everyone in seconds will become a great statesman, a great educator, a great moralist, a great philanthropist, immortal peacemaker. The Constitution directly guarantees that international law is the ultimate basis for the rights of individual citizens of the earth.
Least risk: since civil wars and internal disorders are a matter of constitutional order, and foreign wars and outside aggressions are a system issue of the unification of international law and national law, reforming the system for peace is both an obligation and a power. Following this procedure, the Constitutional Standards advocate a political system that has no shortcomings in the present and infinite advantages in future generations. Abbreviation: One constitution, dual executive system, three-party (faction) politics, separation of powers, and five continents are indeed worthy of in-depth study or trial implementation. But the cruel reality is that democracy is regarded as the old enemy of autocracy, and the promotion of Constitutional Standards by the state may cause international upheaval. Only the congress, parliament or local council or local government of a democratic country or any enterprise will jointly support or legislate or adopt a trial, in order to attract the people of autocracy to follow bravely.
Lowest cost: just a little effort. Any country or state, province, region, city or NGO or for-profit enterprise may be enacted as a basic law or special provisions of the Constitutional Standards through a democratic process, by means of voluntary cooperation, at different speeds, with the constitution as the reference point of the organization - or part of the articles of association. The Constitutional Standards are the mother law of the constitution of all organizations, and the application of "effectiveness" can clearly set aside inappropriate clauses. If any unit takes the lead to invoke it, it will have a "butterfly effect".
Longest period: The nature of the autocratic system's internal oppression and external expansion will not change its essence and will always be the destroyer of world peace, Hitler and Hideki Tojo were foster evil propensities by being over lenient. To remove out the source of the trouble requires the democratic world to use these Constitutional Standards and autocracy as the cognitive struggle of values, the rule of law and the world view, as well as institutional, systematic and structural institutional competition. Real peace requires hard power, and permanent peace requires soft power.
Greatest benefit: It can eradicate civil wars and foreign wars, cut global defense budgets, turn swords into plows, and end wars and poverty. For more than 56% of the people in the world who live under threat and oppression (2021 Democracy Index), only the iron curtain and chains are lost., violence and lies, nothing else has been lost, but everyone has achieved self-realization, families can live and work in peace and contentment, and generations are prosperous and prosperous.
Highest value of life: there is the supreme system value, and there is the supreme value of life. Ultimately, all laws and teachings in the world are to protect the value of human beings. Everyone will always abide by international law as the law of all laws. early entry into the next century.
Permanent Peace First: Humanity has called and prayed for peace for thousands of years, but there is no set of peaceful standards to follow. May this sacred Constitutional Standards revealing the secrets of heaven become the trustworthy and pursuit of "the final system of human beings and the ultimate destination of life". If you want to find a Great Law of Heaven and Earth worthy of people's life to defend, looking at the political system from the connotation and extension, it seems that there is only these Constitutional Standards.
Constitutional Standards for Permanent Peace Manifesto by the Representatives of the founder of Permanent Peace Development Association: Chien-ming Huang
In order to seek permanent peace, it is recognized that human beings are the innate masters of the earth and the country, the direct subject of international law and the constitution, and the sovereign who decides that international law is the law of all laws, and everyone is responsible for the rise and fall of the earth. To this end, a Model Law on Constitutional Standards was formulated to facilitate the advancement of ISO.
1. The General Provisions of the national level constitution: such as country name, territory, national flag, nationality... [omitted].
2. The General Provisions of sub-national level constitutions: such as the names of states, provinces, regions, cities, and flags [omitted].
3. The rest belong to general provisions or general principles determined by the above two types of entities through self-determination.
(1) The supranational level (the UN, etc.): according to the organization's charter, but with principles that do not violate the constitutional standards of Permanent Peace and the law of legal interests that do not harm any individual or group.
(2) The national level (such as the 193 members of the UN, etc.): the Constitution is directly effective and fully applicable to the country, and may be updated by itself, or part of it may not be implemented temporarily; but the principle of not detracting from the perfect operation of permanent peace is the principle .
(3) The sub-national level (state, province, region, city, union republics, etc.) self-government bodies, and Articles 15, 18, and items that are exclusively at the national level in the articles: these are all directly effective and fully applicable.
Human nature and freedom are greatest of all. Man was inborn as the master of the earth and country, the direct subject of international law and constitution, not a slave or tool of the country. Constituent power vests to the people unconditionally; government is regularly refreshed by the people in elections; and public power is created by swearing allegiance to international law; by integrating the remaining clauses (§2~§28) produce the permanent peace urgently needed by mankind.
Radical cure participation in politics to gain power with money. Radio waves are owned by the whole people . One hour per week of TV every year and one piece of information per day on the Internet  are free for use by political participants to freely and equally; the nine major political parties have their individually owned national radio channels free of charge ; the local TV, radio and other media shall be handled using this statute.
Elections are necessary conditions to maximize education, distribution, dialogue, solidarity, consensus, and governance. Annual voting frequency must not exceed that of Switzerland[ii] or the US state of California[iii] with the highest annual income; for voluntary unpaid political participants, the weighted value of election votes is 30%; and if they violate or abuse this social morality and fraternal design, they should be aggravated punishment.
The people have the duty to defend liberty by performing military service, electoral service, peaceful service and paying taxes. Anyone who disrupts democracy and peace, abuses liberty or advocates dictatorship, or spreads false information[iv], or attacks liberty and democracy, or clings to the enemy, helps the enemy or comforts the enemy, should be immediately banned, arrested, prosecuted or deported[v].
The great revitalize of world democracy. The country always abides and recognizes that the real democratic system is in line with humanity, also recognizes that the cure for the ailments of democracy is more democracy. To revitalize democracy needs an open-root and open-source project with a clear vision and clear interests (see Foreword) and build an international standard system with no universal drawback and infinite benefits[vi]. which is helpful to all systemic competition that will inevitably occur.
Continue to vote, resolve and reconcile growing issues, contradictions, differences and confrontations. In order to improve the world order of permanent peace and promote the ideal of the global village, all soldiers, public officials, schoolteachers, political participants, clergy, media persons or others protected by rights[vii] should pass the international law graded examination. A question bank will be announced one year in advance, with the Hague Academy of International Law or International Court of Justice consulted for accreditation.
Legislative, administrative, judicial, and all other organizations should take advantage of open-root and open- source projects[viii] to develop an infinite system of extension, attracting humanities and scientific and technological talents from all over the world to come to [our country][ix] to create their own world. To promote the great value of democracy and human dignity[x], citizens of fully democratic countries, can run in elections at all levels in our country, elevating the competitiveness of our country's leaders at all levels in the world.
Strictly control the flow of money, people, logistics and information from foreign countries. The term of office of the democratically elected president shall be five years, and within six years after the expiration of the term, he and his close relatives shall be prohibited from running for relevant or original positions according to law. Immediately arrest and prosecute anyone who initiates amendments to the term of office, or other participants, as acting jointly in the commission of an offense as a principal offender in the crime of rebellion. General referendums[xi] require the consent of 1/2 of registered voters[xii]; Amendments to the constitution or withdrawal from the International Security Organization require the consent of 2/3 of the voters[xiii] .
Great achievement of human rights in the world. The right to make a constitution is the first right of human rights. To create the highest value of life, to advocate the world's constitutional standards, to guarantee the permanent peace of humanity, and to safeguard the sustainable development of the earth - this is the most sacred right of the people and the most urgent obligation of the country.
Editor note: International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and International Covenant on Economic Social and Cultural Rights both became international law in 1976; Article 1 of the two Covenants is "All peoples have the right of self-determination".
Innate human rights take precedence over sovereignty. International relations and or domestic relations should all be premised on human rights. The state protects the vulnerable people. All people who are injured or innocent casualties due to the human factors and ergonomics shall be compensated by the state. All citizens are good citizens, and for those who have not committed crimes[xiv] within ten years, their criminal record should be completely and automatically expunged.
All Nations are Equal, the victim of any human rights abuse is regarded as a victim for all human beings. Whether domestically or internationally, against nationalist oppression, discrimination, domestic or international human rights[xv], whether domestically or internationally. Human rights are the one, indivisible, cannot be represented, transferred, or abandoned. Half of the members of the National Human Rights Action and Citizenship Exercise Committee are appointed by international authoritative human rights organizations. (To promote the Paris Principles).
Human rights are global internal affairs of the world. Public officials shall ensure that basic human rights, environmental rights, peace rights and development rights never lag behind a day of other countries. Leaders at the central level are elected in separate years. Whether international or interpersonal, no matter when or where, silent bystanders of bullying shall be prosecuted for joint and several liability[xvi]. Those who fail to save lives or testify that they can save lives and do not testify shall be held criminally responsible[xvii].
The Great Practice of the Rule of Law in the World. International law is the common law of humanity, which is of the people, by the people, for the people[xviii]. It is the law of all laws to maintain the civilization of the present and future world. Five years after the entry into force of broad international law, it will be regarded as Customary International Law, as the mother law of the constitution, the peaceful jus cogens[xix] , which directly creates rights and obligations for people and governments. The individual is the immediate and final subject[xx]  of international law.
The establishment of a Common Law of the Global Village is a basic obligation of the state that cannot be changed or exempted. All national laws forms part of domestic law, and everyone can, in accordance with the law, choose the best laws and use them. The government can suspend use in accordance with the law. When foreigners violate the law in our country, they have the right to apply the laws of their home country first[xxi]. The Parliament has set up a database for comparison of global laws and regulations, providing all laws and all rules to serve mankind.
Create a Great Civilization under Rule of Law. When running for election, the Prosecutor General and the President of Court of Justice shall nominate members of ad hoc committees such as Generational Development (nominated by the President), Development of All Countries and All Laws (nominated by the Prosecutor General) and Development of International Law (nominated by the President of Court of Justice). The term of office is the same for all nominees. After the nominees are confirmed, the nominated members are distributed among the standing committees, generating a living law example of a great civilization.
Legislation, administration, prosecution and judgment shall give priority to the application of international law. It is forbidden for the government to violate international law on the grounds of conflict with national laws, national conditions, people's conditions, history, geography, and culture. Violations are regarded as crimes against humanity and crimes against peace. Defend against internal strife and foreign aggression: a legal system with a Constitutional Standards, dual executive system, three-party (factional) politics, separation of powers, and five continents.
Great Legislation of the Great Harmony of the World, the state will always follow the supranational concurrent legislative powers: the national or sub-national level has the legislative power only when the international law hasn't been enacted by the supra-national. To establish a life relationship of equal value in the global field and consider that the norms of international law are necessary, the supranational has the legislative power. When the legislative power of supranational is no longer a necessary factor of the first two items, the legislative power lies with each country.
Revival of Great Democracy. The Parliament follows a matrix committee quasi-cabinet system. In cooperation with the 12 departments of the government, 12 committees are set up. The chair represents 12 members self-organized according to functions rather than geography to participate in elections, one-vote single-choice - three chairmen elected (party)[xxii] . The term of the committee is 4 years, and quarter of committee members face election each year. Except for local council elections, the Parliamentary elections are held separately and mandatory voting[xxiii] .
Sub-national level members of council (members of state assemblyman, provincial assemblies, and city councils) (§14) term of office, with reference to US federal and state representatives, is two years. One-vote system for each district, the top three are elected according to the number of votes to achieve three-party (faction) separation of powers to check and balance politics. The legislative Speaker cannot be re-appointed during a term of office to help cultivate political leaders.
Innovate a legislative system that has no shortcomings in the present and infinite advantages in future generations[xxiv] . Advocate for the global legal community and enforce peremptory norms of international law; assist countries or states, provinces, regions, and cities to build constitutional standards, and implement these businesses, with at least 2/10,000 of national total budgets every year. Candidates in elections should register and dialogue to voters at least six months before elections for public office.
The Great Division for the World is for the Public, the supranational concurrent administrative powers: improve global governance, in performing tasks for organizations such as the United Nations, domestic governments are all agencies entrusted by supranational governments. In addition to self-defensive wars, civil wars, foreign wars, or military repression etc., must be approved by two thirds of the members of Parliament, and two thirds of members in three forth of local councils.
Adopt a semi-presidential system. The President is elected by the people, over the age of 50; and the President nominates the Prime Minister, and the issuance of orders must be countersigned by the cabinet. The Prime Minister must be at least 50 years old, native born and directs the government and oversees national defense. Ministers shall publish their global performance rankings and to promote open-root and open-source systems annually. All military forces shall be nationalized and globalized.
General government at the sub-national level state, province, region, city, including local councils...etc. The powers that are more favorable to localities shall belong to the locality. This includes the powers of legislation, administration, judiciary, civil defense, economy and trade, language, culture, environment, and development, investigative; and the state is obliged to assist in developing loglobalization. Whether to set up the next "micro-state level" organization is determined by law.
All government agencies are places to solve people's problems; all public officials are people's problem solvers. Those who have legal, political, and moral obligations to the country and the world: the President, legislators, soldiers, public officials, schoolteachers, the clergy, and the media persons are all guarantors of the constitution. The President and commanders of the military should be objective, neutral and convincing, acting to stabilize the political situation and shall not voting in elections.
Great Compliance to World Rules. The constitution is the general will of the people, the people have to directly sue privately for unconstitutional; the Ministry of Procuratorate has an Administration of Compliance to compliance with international and national laws and assist the owners of the earth and the country to prosecute against the constitution, assist state agencies and public and private organizations to build a legal compliance system, and prevent state leaders from bringing mankind to destruction. Promoted military and police officers must be sworn and countersign in by the Prosecutor General. The president of Justice has the power to order the arrest of criminals under international law. The Procuratorate has set up a global comparison database of laws and regulations to provide all the rules and regulations of the world to serve humanity.
Implement procedural justice, and procuratorial power is independent. The Prosecutor General is elected by people. The Prosecutor General is elected by popular vote, and the one with the highest number of votes is the president. The first vice president concurrently serves as the Minister of Legal Compliance, and the second vice president concurrently serves as the Audit Minister. The local procurator-general is elected by popular vote[xxv], according to the number of votes obtained, one procurator-general and two deputies will form a collegial panel for prosecution. The procuratorial shall have power to supervision, prevention, discovery, correction, and prosecution. The parties in trials have the right to change the judge before the investigation or defense is concluded.
Great Establishment of the World Order. Comply the rulings of the International Court of Justice. Universal values go hand in hand with the constitution, justice is responsive, and the president of Court of Justice is elected by the people[xxvi]. The rulings of Justice of the Constitutional Court are regarded as exercise of the constitutional rights of the people, and half of the Justices of the Constitutional Court are from different countries on the five continents, with guaranteed lifelong tenure system and national treatment.
Constitutional Global Agreement on Universal Values (§13~§14 99% complete). Global review of unconstitutional, priority review of violations of international law. Excluding unconstitutional violations of international law, if no remedy is at hand, all citizens of the earth have the right of non-cooperation, non-violent resistance, and resistance.
1. Legislative Transitional Provisions.
The rights of elected public officials shall not be changed in a negative way due to constitutional reform.
The term of the current members of Parliament may be extended until all members of the new system of Parliament are elected.
1/4 members of the new system of Parliament will be elected each year. On the date of the completion of the fourth (three-year) re-election, all the members of the old system of Parliament will retire.
The old system of parliamentarians will draw lots in 4 stages, and all will be terminated after three years.
Local councilors shall elect one person by one district and one vote until the current term expires, and the top three with the highest votes shall be elected as councilors for a two-year term of full re-election.
Local council elections except for the Parliament. It shall not be held at the same time as administration, procuratorial, and adjudication.
2. Administrative Transitional Provisions.
The current President may continue to perform his duties until the expiration of his original term.
The heads of other localities shall continue to serve until the expiration of their original term of office. Except for automatic resignation, there is no change in unfavorable interests.
3. Judicial and Prosecutorial Transition Provisions.
The main business of the Control Yuan is transferred to the Ministry of Procuratorate and/or returned to the Parliament. On the day the Ministry of Procuratorate takes effect and operates, the Control Yuan shall be abolished simultaneously.
The Laws and Regulations database under the Ministry of Justice is transferred to the " Parliamentary Global Regulatory Comparison Database".
The establishment, buildings and facilities of the Branch of Procuratorate of the courts at all levels in the Ministry of Justice will be transferred to the procuratorates at all levels, and the remaining related business and personnel will be transferred to the " Branch of Legal and Politics Affairs" newly established by the Ministry of the Interior.
The Investigation Bureau, Government Ethics Department, Agency Against Corruption, Agency of Corrections etc., and other agencies affiliated to the Ministry of Justice and their affiliated prisons shall be transferred to various departments of the Ministry of the Interior.
The Judges and Prosecutors Training Institute of the Ministry of Justice is handed over to the Ministry of Procuratorate.
The former Institute of Forensic Medicine of Ministry of Justice was handed over to the Ministry of Procuratorate.
The Department of State may, if deemed necessary, set up an inter-ministerial legal affairs office to coordinate state affairs needs.
All ministries have access to the Legal Affairs Branch and the legal compliance system directly under the Ministry of Procuratorate.
After the adoption of this Constitution and the entry into force, each should set up a handover team to actively arrange the handover work.
4. Judicial adjudication Transition Provisions.
Justice of the Constitutional Court who are still in office when this Constitution comes into force, unless they resign on their own initiative, will serve until their term of office expires.
In addition to transitional justice, judges who still receive a lifetime salary shall not be subject to change in their salaries, but shall still retire in accordance with the retirement age for judges stipulated in this Constitution.
5. After the transition of each agency is completed, this clause shall be abolished immediately.
The symbol “§1” represents Article 1 of the Constitution; “NGO” represents non-governmental organizations.
“Secondary law” — all laws derived from or supplementing parent law.
Matters stipulated in secondary laws cannot go beyond the parent law, but also cannot violate the spirit of the parent law.
“Rule” ─ can be used as standard norms, rules, systems, laws, emulation.
1. The Constitutional Standards are a sub-law for the continuation and development of “International Law” at the Supra-national level and are used as a method to “create the highest value of life... serving as a tool for permanent peace for humanity” and making contributions:
The Constitutional Standards are the flower and fruit of international law, the edification of international law fosters the Constitutional Standards, and the Constitutional Standards further enhance international law. Therefore, the Constitutional Standards are naturally a sub-law of international law, and it is natural that “international law is the fundamental global law and the parent law of constitutions of all nations.” It naturally becomes an absolutely necessary condition for world peace. For this reason, the constitution clearly states, no matter whether it is internationally recognized or not, it always follows international law and international customs and is regarded as part of the world constitution. It is the parent law of the national constitution and the jus cogens of human peace, directly creating rights and duties for people and central and local governments (§13). Relatively speaking, the Constitutional Standards, in the name of the entire population, assure the international community of monitoring the country’s implementation of the Constitution, obedience to international law, and ensuring “the peaceful order and sustainable development of mankind.” In order to achieve this, it specifies anyone serving as a public official or military officer must pass constitutional and international law graded exams (§6); No nation is allowed to violate international law on the grounds of conflict with national law, national conditions, history, or cultural mores (§16); justice shall be responsive: half of all judges come from different countries on the five continents (§27). There is global constitutional agreement, global review of unconstitutional acts, and priority review for violations of international law. With the exception of violations of international law or the Constitution, if no remedy is at hand, everyone in the democratic world has the right to non-cooperation, non-violent resistance, and the right to resist (§28). International law directly creates rights and duties for the people and governments at all levels in order to restrain the government from doing bad things and protect the people from want, slavery, plague, civil strife, and foreign troubles. This is a necessary condition for the greatest change of the millennia,
2. The contributions of the Constitutional Standards serve as “national-level constitutional standards and protection of global human rights standards”, promoting the country as the “pole star of Permanent Peace” and the Constitutional Standards as a “new compass for sustainable development”:
State power resides in the people, authority resides in the constitution. The constitution is the general will of the people, a personal protection order, and a peaceful action order. This means the mission of the government is to protect the people and maintain peace. The Constitutional Standards expressly stipulate that the most sacred right of the people and the most urgent obligation of the country (the Constitutional Standards §1~§28) is to advocate for basic Constitutional Standards as proposed to protect the world’s human rights standards, including the right to a good environment, the right to peace, and the right to development. Looking over human history—in both East and West—for thousands of years, from court battles to civil wars and external troubles, each time brings bloody and mass murder, without a viable system to rely on. On the other hand, the Constitutional Standards not only enhance the principles of peaceful development. They also establish a great cause for the people, a great love for humanity, a great law for the world and great unity for all nations. Time and space are limitless—there are many wonderful and infinitely great quantities. The Constitutional Standards are compared with constitutions of the world’s top 20 nations, including 69% of the world’s population. The 28 permanent peace constitution principles are the tools for continued brilliance for the “28 U.S. nation-building principles”. In comparison with the political systems and legislative systems, they are all innovative systems with no contemporary flaws and infinite advantages for future generations (§18). This offers the world “the best ultimate institutional contribution to humanity.
3. The Constitutional Standards’ contribution for a “permanent peace constitution at the sub-national level” is laws for “global localization and sustainable development of local autonomous entities”:
Regardless of whether the state system is a unitary system or a federal system, the central government or federal government has an equal relationship with the state, provincial and municipal governments and all rights and obligations are based on the Constitution. The right of local self-determination and/or the constituent power is protected by Article 1 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights by the United Nations. The last wave of democratization of mankind is certain to bring the civilized process of local democratization . Only when local democracy and rule of law are in place will the global wave of democracy and rule of law never ebb. In other words, the Constitutional Standards will ensure and guarantee that individual sovereigns  are “masters of the country (the constituent power and the power of the state to exercise the law) ↹ sub-national constitution (the power to exercise the law for state, province, and municipality) ↹ national constitution (the power of the state to exercise the law) ↹ super-national constitution (international legal rights)” by integrating the rights and obligations of world citizens and making rights and obligations joint in multiple guaranteed relationships. In addition, it is necessary to innovate the three-party system of checking and balancing the parliamentary system to ensure no contemporary flaws and infinite advantages in future generations (§18), acting from top to bottom to eliminate wars, in the legislature at any time to express their opinions (§6). The state plagues, pollution, poverty, civil disturbances and treason in one fell swoop. In accordance with participatory democracy, the state should guidecountries and/or states, provinces and cities to establish a constitutional system, and these earmarked funds should be at least 2/10,000 of the total annual budget (§20). The Constitutional Standards are a prerequisite for both internal and external development. Elements more favorable to localities will belong to localities and enjoy the development rights of local legislation, administration, justice, external trade, language, culture, and environment (§23). The Prosecutor-General is directly elected by the people. District Prosecutors are chosen in a single-district one-vote system, according to the number of votes, one district prosecutor and two deputy district prosecutors are elected, to form a collegiate system of prosecution (§26). Furthermore, they create the highest values in life, building Permanent Peace for humanity. This is the most sacred right of the people and the most urgent obligation of the country (Methods §1~§28); considering the world situation, the national government is inconvenient and will not give you and me a future; only you and I can deliver a future for the government. The Constitutional Standards are to be used at the sub-national level (state, province, city) to formulate or amend the constitution. This will be the best chance to attract states, regions, provinces, cities, and federal republics under autocratic oppressive rule to follow the Constitutional Standards bravely. It will then serve to advance Permanent Peace for all humanity. Any autonomous entities can preserve its current languages, culture, and environment (§23), to achieve permanent peace for humanity.
●"Global Citizens I": On the issue of global localization (glocalization), Roland Robertson pointed out that various places have already accepted the influence of globalization, especially at the cultural level. Some localities have tried to integrate the content of globalization into the local culture and develop a kind of globalization with features that will benefit their local culture.
●"Global Citizens II": Kant's third concept of permanent peace: The Law of World Citizenship Shall Be Limited to Conditions of Universal Hospitality.
4. The Constitutional Standards are a method of “defending sustainable development of the earth’’ and a tool for continuation used by the “UN for peace, security, economic and social development, and more than 10,000 NGOs”:
The Constitutional Standards are a method for nations to ensure sustainable development of the earth (§1~§28). They also offer the simplest, but nonetheless most exclusively written constitution for humanity with the longest scope of time and space. These are necessary conditions for permanent peaceful development of the world. Without peace, everything will be in vain. The conditions for sustainable development of the earth include supranational concurrent legislative powers (§17), supranational concurrent administrative powers (§21). In other words, the UN Sustainable Development Goals consist of their 17 Goals and 169 Targets are all Constitutional Standards tasks. The UN Charter has been recognized as customary law and also as basic law signed by 193 nations, equivalent to the parent law of each nation’s constitution. Thus the more than 10,000 non-governmental organizations in 209 categories approved by the UN Economic and Social Council, all with the same ideals and missions as the Constitutional Standards as an auxiliary tool for these NGOs to continue to develop and shine, as auxiliary tools to implement their principles.
5. The Constitutional Standards contribute as tools for continuation and development of all religions and making contributions:
The revelations of religion lead to progress in civilization, achievements that are eternal. The Constitutional Standards respond to the concepts and missions that religious circles have prayed for over the past 3,500 years to consist of 2.5 billion Christians (32.3% of the world’s total population), 1.9 billion Muslims in Islam (24.4%), non-religious people, including secularism, agnosticism, and atheism, 1.75 billion people (22 %), 1 billion Hindu followers (13.6%), 560 million Buddhists (6.9%), 410 million folk believers (5.9%); and 370 million believers of other religions (4.8%). The Constitutional Standards provide a comprehensive and peaceful system that can be operated independently and permanently, offering the world a totally true, free of hypocrisy, perfect and impeccable “constitution for all constitutions, morality for all moralities, a faith for all faiths and fraternity for all fraternities.” The Constitutional Standards can be used as a tool for all religious or non-religious believers to continue to develop and illuminate their ideals and thrive. For this reason, The Constitutional Standards integrate the scriptures and teachings of many religions for thousands of years. Religious keywords comparable to keywords in the constitution are as follows: natural law, international law, save, peace, right, freedom, gospel, justice, truth, faith, life, hope, mission, angel, road, poverty, fear, righteous, heaven, task, cooperation, reconciliation, devotion, happiness, disease, weapon, love and care, violence, constitution, dialogue, science, divergence, human dignity, protection, unity, revelation, Almighty, war, pray, democracy, dictatorship and other ideological beliefs. Refer to Attachments XVIII~XXIII for details. Thus the Constitutional Standards are both branches and leaves of religion.
Religion makes the Constitutional Standards flourish, and the Constitutional Standards deepen religion, as tools for religion to continue exercising rule of human rights, rule of law, and the root of peace and happiness. The proof: innate human rights are higher than sovereignty (§10). The President, legislators, soldiers, public officials, schoolteachers, and clergy are all constitutional guarantors (§24). All elected officials guarantee that human rights, environmental rights, peace rights and development rights will never lag behind for a day to other countries (§12). Today, the severe evolution of the world situation is like that described in the preamble—ultimately there are only two ways forward for humanity: “peace or destruction”. The age calls for the Almighty God to teach the truth of the path to Permanent Peace and development. Each leader of religions will become a savior of Permanent Peace, and believers will be angels of Permanent Peace. This is our manifest destiny and mission to save mankind: “For where there is discord, union; where there is doubt, faith; where there is darkness, light.” (From United States President Joe Biden’s “Remember to Pray for Peace,” December 14, 2020). (Refer to Attachment XVIII)
6. The Constitutional Standards regard everyone as a rightful master of the Earth, one set of laws on Earth, every law of every nation is part of the national law. People can choose with the help of their cellphone the laws best suited according to regulations, to discover the truths in the legal pluralism, increase the wisdom of legal pluralism, and realize the value of rule of law:
People stand on the shoulders of the giants of global laws and regulations (see the PPP database), and use their mobile phones to compare the advantages and disadvantages of all laws and rule of law of the world, choose the system best suited to their needs according to law (§14), rework the political and order of law for mankind; in one second everyone will become a great politician, a great strategist, a great educator, a great philanthropist, a great moralist, grand judges involved in universal justice… how great you are. With the Constitutional Standards to protect yourself, your nation, and the world as your tool, they will never betray you, protecting your basic human rights, environmental rights, peace rights and development rights and ensuring they will never be lag behind for a day to other nations. (§12) The President, legislators, soldiers, public officials, schoolteachers, and religious clergy are your guarantors of the Constitution (§24). From now on, the Constitutional Standards will become an “eternal beacon, peaceful compass, invincible weapon, and nuclear nemesis.” When the Constitutional Standards are widely adopted, nuclear and chemical weapons will be useless and will eventually be scrapped. Global defense budgets will be cut as swords are forged into plowshares and wars, plagues, pollution and poverty will all be brought to an end.
7. The Constitutional Standards strive to be "the ultimate system for humanity and the final destination in life":
For those now living under threat of war and with no freedom and no democracy, the only thing they will lose is their iron curtains and chains as well as the violence and lies that confine them. But all will gain self-realization, their families living and working in peace and in prosperity for generations. In the torrent of history, The Constitutional Standards will be “the ultimate system for humanity and the ultimate haven in life.”
Note: Taiwan, Republic of China (abbreviation: Taiwan)
Russia invaded Ukraine 2022/2/24, President Putin ordered Russian forces to prepare for nuclear war on 2/27; countries of the world and were helpless, causing the CCP, whose national strength is more than 10 times that of Russia’s, to truly realize the strategic value of nuclear weapons and accelerate the development of nuclear weapons. How do the Constitutional Standards respond to this cruel reality?
The constitution is a mechanism to prevent war. The reason for Russia and China's foreign expansion is the unchanging nature of autocratic regimes to suppress the people. Reforms can succeed only if they have a blueprint in the form of a Charter before they are pushed forward: Glorious Revolutions with constitutional status, such as the Magna Carta of 1215, the Petition of Right 1628 and the Bill of Rights 1689, all succeeded. Without a charter: as in the Vietnam War, the Afghanistan War, the Arab Spring of 2010 and the Syrian War in 2011, etc. have all been failures. “Men's actions must be transmitted through their brains into desires and motives to make their act.” (Friedrich Engels).
Since the United Nations’ hands are tied against dictatorial security council members, what is the use of the Constitutional Standards?
Although our efforts have not been successful for 50 years, we will persevere until we succeed, as the Constitutional Standards are a necessary and sufficient condition for survival in the age of nuclear weapons, and permanent peace is the ultimate truth for humanity. Since the UN cannot bind a permanent member and his puppet state with the right to veto in the General Assembly, even if a war of aggression or genocide harms humanity is launched, it can still be exempt from responsibility. These Constitutional Standards take the individual as the ultimate subject of international law, voluntarily, at different speeds, from the bottom to the top and- from inside to outside, unlike the top-down approach of the UN.
Viewing the world in the present, where is the fundamental problem of the nation?
From the point of view of legal positivism: the problem of the state is a problem of national legal order. The problem with the new world order is the unwillingness of the international community to admit international law being above internal law, having direct effect on an individuality's subjective responsibility over international obligation, rather than allowing national leaders to decide whether to accept or denied, how can it not go wrong?
The Taiwanese slogan “We will save our country on our own” has been shouted for more than 40 years --- even more than 400 years --- to no avail; is there a tool or solution that won’t cost a thing?
Do not use old solutions in the new era, do not plead for the international community to grant sovereignty: rather. extend sovereignty to the international community and globalize Taiwan to save itself. Taiwan’s globalization will then save the world. The values of the Constitutional Standards are clear – they are the perfect tool to create values and dignity in life. The vision is clear – they are the way to create a lasting peace and development in nations. The Constitutional Standards can be completed in one step, and the transition completed in years—at the lowest cost and lowest risk, with unlimited benefits and time, appropriate application is eternal invincibility.
Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC's) is considered the "Sacred Mountain for Protecting the Nation". Is this a reason not to be afraid of annexation by authoritarians and totalitarians?
After expansion in a big country, there will inevitably be surplus production capacity. Taiwan urgently needs to create 23 million people – create everyone is a sacred mountain and savior to save the EU-Asia for permanent peace.
Is the Constitutional Standards merely an ideal utopia, or a panacea for governance?
The Constitutional Standards bear the historic and transcendental mission of permanent peace, the reality of common sense and the ideal of truth, they are also a panacea for reversing the resolving civil war, infighting, foreign war and foreign aggression within democratic system.
“Do people have the right to refuse to abide by the law, yet they also have the right to formulate laws”? What kind of law is that?
Everyone has the right to self-determination under the United Nations Charter, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. The constituent power is not subject to the law but is rather derived from the power of the people, who determine whether the nation’s subjectivity is to become a single cell republic or a federal republic, whether the government is democracy or dictatorship, and whether human rights are inherent or bestowed by human actions.
How do the Constitutional Standards ensure that the right of Freedoms in the first principium of the Eight Principia for Natural Rights is never transferred, waived, or deprived?
Sovereignty rests with the people. Avoid spending money on political campaigns. The radio spectrum is owned by the whole people. Candidates in elections have one hour per week of free access to television broadcast; the nine major political parties have proprietary radio networks candidates at their disposal.
How do the Constitutional Standards ensure that the right of Democracy in the second principium of the Eight Principia for Natural Rights is never transferred, waived, or deprived?
Achieving a renaissance of greater democracy: all the soldiers, public officials, schoolteachers, require passing constitutional and international law ranking exams; referendums require 60% voter support; elected executive heads are elected for five-year terms, with no eligibility to run again for six years after leaving office; any attempt to amend term limits is rejected as a crime of rebellion and against peace.
How do the Constitutional Standards ensure that Human Rights in the third principium of the Eight Principia for Natural Rights are never transferred, waived, or deprived?
Creating the highest values in life, advocating world Constitutional Standards, achieving Permanent Peace for mankind, and safeguarding sustainable development of the earth are the most sacred rights of the people and the most urgent duty of the country.
How do the Constitutional Standards ensure that the right of Rule of Law in the fourth principium of the Eight Principia for Natural Rights is never transferred, waived, or deprived?
International law in force, whether signed or not, is international custom that is regarded as the source of international law. International law is the absolute parent law of a country's constitution, directly creating rights and duties for the people and the government. All laws of all nations form part of national law, and the people of the whole country or region can choose and use them according to the law.
How do the Constitutional Standards ensure that Legislative Powers in the fifth principium of the Eight Principia for Natural Rights are never transferred, waived, or deprived?
Create a Parliament with none of the contemporary shortcomings and infinite advantages for future generations. Abandon one-party dictatorships, two-party confrontations and multi-party chaos, and adopt the power of three parties in a balanced system. Disputes are always judged by a third party.
How do the Constitutional Standards ensure that Executive Powers in the sixth principium of the Eight Principia for Natural Rights are never transferred, waived, or deprived?
A modified semi-presidential system, where the president is elected by direct universal suffrage; the prime minister directs the operation of the government. The military is nationalized and globalized with the country. The President and all members of the soldiers, public officials, schoolteachers, and legislators are the guarantors of the Constitution: fundamental human rights, environmental rights, peace rights and development rights will never lag behind for a day to other countries.
How do the Constitutional Standards ensure that Prosecutorial Powers in the seventh principium of the Eight Principia for Natural Rights are never transferred, waived, or deprived?
The procurator-general is directly elected by the people, and the district procurator-general according to the number of votes. The highest vote total determines the district procurator, and the second and third highest votes produce the deputy procurators. The country establishes a database of comparative global regulations. Everyone uses their mobile phones to compare the pros and cons of various methods and chooses the method that suits them best in accordance with the law.
How do the Constitutional Standards ensure that Judicial Powers in the eighth principium of the Eight Principia for Natural Rights are never transferred, waived, or deprived?
Universal justice must be responsive: the Minister of Justice is elected by the people, half of the constitutional judges are from countries on five continents, the constitutional agreement is agreed globally, and the unconstitutionality is reviewed by the world. Everyone in a democracy has the right and responsibility not to cooperate, to resist nonviolently, or to protest if there is no remedy for unconstitutional conduct. The above eight constitutional elements constitute sufficient conditions for Constitutional Standards.
The Constitutional Standards follow natural law into Eternal law. That sounds complicated. Is there a simpler statement?
The Eight Principles of Natural Rights are commonly known as "eight natural laws", which are extended to "twenty-eight permanent peace laws". In short: one set of laws; two leaders; three-party politics; four separations of powers; and five continents’ republics.
What can I hope for the future?
During the Wuhan pandemic period, "human life" looks as puny as a virus. With these holy Constitutional Standards to serve as a talisman to protect your nation and the world, you can stride into the world, and it will be with you; this is the standard of Permanent Peace that human beings need. This is the path of truth that humans must take.
What should I believe?
"Don't believe the politicians and mediums, but rather use the Constitution to restrain them from wrongdoing." Believe in the Constitutional Standards and use your mobile phone to compare the advantages and disadvantages of all legal systems, then choose the ones best suited to your needs according to law. You are the master of your destiny as well as the commander of your soul.
What should I do now?
Promote the Constitutional Standards through the public or online media or run for public office; before it’s too late, without involving a country’s name or territory and under international understandings, when the tide of constitutional transformation rises, be a savior of permanent peace.
The annotated clauses are a part of the constitutional document and serve as a reference for constitutional interpretation, organization and legislation.
The Constitutional Standards have no enemy and are not intended to maliciously criticize any nation or ruler, other than quoting facts for system comparisons.
The demonstration carrier of the Constitutional Standards is located at 120°E~122°E east longitude and 22°N~25°N north latitude. The current country name is the Republic of China (Taiwan), abbreviated as Taiwan.
For the benefit of all humanity, if there are any infringements on copyrights herein, please contact us so we can correct any abuses.
Part Two. Provisions (To Meet ISO Draft Standards)Effectiveness
1. In accordance with the UN Charter, global governance system , natural law, international law, and the right of peoples to self-determination, the Constitutional Standards are voluntary at different speeds, applicable to the supranational level (public international legal person), the national level (national public legal person), and the subnational level (public legal person is autonomy entities including state, province, region and city), or an individual subject at any level.
2. If any provision is held to be invalid , or the application of the provision to any state level, organization, or person or to any circumstance is invalid, the rest of the Constitution and such provisions as apply to other levels, organizations or persons or circumstances. are not affected.
(1) The supranational level (the UN, etc.): according to the organization's charter, but with principles that do not violate the constitutional standards of Permanent Peace and the law of legal interests that do not harm any individual or group.
(2) The national level (such as the 193 members of the UN, etc.): the Constitution is directly effective and fully applicable to the country, and may be updated by itself, or part of it may not be implemented temporarily; but the principle of not detracting from the perfect operation of permanent peace is the principle .
(3) The sub-national level (state, province, region, city, union republics, etc.) self-government bodies, and Articles 15, 18, and items that are exclusively at the national level in the articles: these are all directly effective and fully applicable.
3. The rights enumerated in these Constitutional Standards shall not be construed as denying or cancelling other rights held by the people (§13~§14). For chapter provisions that are not fully regulated, the formula is stipulated by constitutional law, organizational act, or law.
4. All laws or norms involving the scope of the provisions of the Constitutional Standards shall be bound by the provisions of the Constitutional Standards. For anything that involves the foundation on which the essence of international or national permanent peace (2 kinds of subjective will and 28 natural laws and natural rights) rests, constitutional amendments cannot be established.
5. These Constitutional Standards are the core of the basic law of all supranational, national and sub-national organizations. The following basic clauses bind the legislative, administrative, procuratorial, and judicial provisions and are directly effective supreme laws. ↑
The United Nations Commission on Global Governance defines countries as: supranational level (Super national public legal persons), national level (national public legal persons), and subnational level (local public legal persons). ↑
Amendments to the Constitutional Standards should not violate the principles of permanent peace for humanity and sustainable development of the earth, or changes in the core connotations of the rules regarding founding a nation on freedom, democracy, human rights and rule of law, reform, openness and defense, or the principles of democratic republics and popular sovereignty, and they do not involve international law or violations of the principle of separation of powers and violation of checks and balances. In short, they do not violate the democratic constitutional order of the Constitutional Standards. America's founding father George Washington, Farewell Address: “…If, in the opinion of the people, the distribution or modification of the constitutional powers be in any particular wrong, let it be corrected by an amendment in the way which the Constitution designates. But let there be no change by usurpation; for though this, in one instance, may be the instrument of good, it is the customary weapon by which free governments are destroyed.” ↑
Key conditions for the operation of the constitutional standards: (1) Operational procedures: Compare these with the design of the International Organization for Standardization’s (ISO) management and control program. It is used in the legislative, administrative, procuratorial, and judicial constitutional systems to achieve systemic interaction using the loop method and continuous rolling re-election and reform, plus continuous integration into international standards, to change the things that are supposed to be changed (Figure below); (2) Feasibility: For example, the Magna Carta in 1215, the Petition of Right. in 1628, and the Bill of Rights in 1689 were all successful non-violent glorious revolutions. For the same reason, nothing else is necessary—only seamless integration with the Constitutional Standards; (3) Integration: Integrate the thousands of years of laws and peaceful wisdom of humanity, compare the advantages and disadvantages using mobile phones, and use the best according to law (see PPP database). Promote integration of all laws, recognizing that International Law is the fundamental law of the world, the Parent Law and the jus cogens of the national constitution, and the Constitutional Standards that promote the blessings of human beings will become a common asset for all humanity; (4) Permanence: the Constitutional Standards are secondary law of permanent supplementary international law, and the great will of the people will create a system with no shortcomings in the present and infinite advantages in future generations. This shows that the Constitutional Standards are the only way worth defending with people's lives for thousands of years in the future.
Figure: Constitutional Standards and procedures for constitutional operations
● "Key conditions for the operation of the constitutional standards I": Definition of "Constitutional systems": namely, constitutionalism, constitutional drafting, or constitutional politics. This is a theory or concept in the history of western political thought that advocates a constitutional system to restrict state power and stipulate civil rights. This concept requires that the exercise of all government powers be included in the constitution and restricted by the constitution, so that political operations approach the ideal state of legalization. Constitutionalism integration from four doctrines: (1) liberalism, (2) democracy, (3) republicanism, and (4) rule of law. Among them, liberalism is the goal, democracy is the foundation, republicanism is the structure, and rule of law is the constraint and form.
● "Key conditions for the operation of the constitutional standards II": The prerequisites for the implementation of constitutionalism are: (1) A constitution in which sovereignty rests with the people in line with the spirit of constitutionalism. (2) A strong opposition party supervises the government. (3) An independent judicial system stops unconstitutional acts.
● "Key conditions for the operation of the constitutional standards III": The global pluralistic liberal democratic constitutional order is inviolable. (1) The national constitutional order includes two major levels. One is "the constituent power", and the power to formulate a constitution precedes the state power; the other is "the power created by the constitution," that is, constitutional writing. Other state powers that can be created later. (2) The aforementioned constituent power is sacred, inviolable, inalienable, and always exists among the people. As for the state power after the constitution, the people use elections and referendums, and are separated from each other by legislative, administrative, procuratorial and judicial Institutions’ exercise of the law. (3) Constituent power should be restricted by natural law and international law, and the constitution should be restricted by constituent power and the right of self-determination. (4) The people in universal democracies have the right to resist and disobey any country, regime, organization, or individual that attempts to abolish the above-mentioned order, if there are no other remedies at hand.
● "Key conditions for the operation of the constitutional standards IV": the Constitutional Standards feedback to "…to change the things which should be changed"from Serenity Prayer by American theologian Reinhold Neibuhr. Reference International Standards Organization (ISO) governance programming, introduce the PDCA (Plan-Do-Check-Act) loop method of the constitutional system management procedure standard is used as a control program which combines legislative, executive, procuratorial and judicial systems to promote system interaction as well as continuous rolling reform and re-election, standardization and integration, an approach conducive to operations of constitutional systems and improvements in quality and efficiency regarding relevant laws and regulations, fulfill the expectation of peace, the needs of society, expectations of human beings and other series of common goals. All agencies and units should introduce this method mutatis mutandis.
● For the rest, see other authoritative doctrines. ↑
TWO KINDS OF SUBJECTIVE WILL
1. Humanity’s Permanent Peace. Take natural law and international law as parent law, promote the Constitutional Standards (ISO) to consolidate a world under the rule of law and create a great civilization of permanent peace.
2. Sustainable development of the earth. Take the solar system and the UN as the system to promote government standards (ISO), enhance global governance and create a great civilization for sustainable development.
"Subjective will " The two kinds of subjective will of the United Nations, top to bottom and outside to inside, are the missions and tasks of the institutions: (1) Peace and the Security Council; (2) The Economic and Social Development Council. Xi Jinping's recognition of the United Nations makes it easier to grasp the image of the UN: He publicly declared at the UN General Assembly on September 21, 2021: "All members must improve the "global governance" of the United Nations. The world has only one system, the governance system with the UN as its core; the world has only one order, which is an order based on "international law," and the world has only one set of rules, which is based on the principles of the "UN Charter". This corresponds to the two kinds of subjective will the Constitutional Standards (1) Permanent Peace for humanity; and (2) The sustainable development of the earth from bottom to top, from inside out; and the 28 comprehensive and specific laws that create the highest value of life are completely consistent, so that ideals and reality are integrated, so that authoritarian dictators will not be able to offer abstract agreement and then act in the exact opposite way. The central idea of the Constitutional Standards follows the object formula, which prohibits individuals from becoming the object of the state's actions, and at the same time requires the state to be obliged to establish a social order that does not make individuals the object of the actions of third parties. The Constitutional Standards aims to establish a "people-centered legal order" that no longer looks at legal issues from the "above" state, politics, administration, and institutions, but from "below", from the perspective of the affected people, their rights and Benefit. This paradigm shift is based on the experience of the Nazi regime and its barbarism, and fundamentally alters the resulting perception of the state, reaffirming that the state that seeks to build lasting peace exists for the will of man, not for the will of the state. (For details, see the Constitutional Chamber of the Judicial Yuan of the Republic of China, Judge Peter M. Huber of the German Federal Constitutional Court, "70 Years of the German Basic Law – Between Gratitude, Pride and Responsibility", September 11, 2019)
●"Subjective will I": The Constitutional standards in accordance with the United Nations Charter, which regards "people" as the main subject, "Preamble of the UN Charter": We, the people of the United Nations〔not referring to any specific countries〕to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, which twice in our lifetime has brought untold sorrow to mankind, and to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person, in the equal rights of men and women and of nations large and small, and to establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from treaties and other sources of international law can be maintained, and to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom, and for these ends to practice tolerance and live together in peace with one another as good neighbors, and to unite our strength to maintain international peace and security, and to ensure, by the acceptance of principles and the institution of methods, that armed force shall not be used, save in the public interest, and to employ International organization to promote economic and social advancement of all peoples. "Authoritative Doctrine": Kelsen argued for “Direct obligation and authorization of individuals by international law, Kelsen, General Theory of Law and State, pp. 343-348. ↑
"Permanent Peace and united humanity" from Frédéric Laupies, Leçon sur le Projet de paix perpétuelle de Kant: (Paris: Belin Education, 2002), Laupies’ summary of Kant's Thoughts of Permanent Peace, this idea is derived from three important statements in “On Permanent Peace”: (1) Peace can only be established by legal power; (2) The sole purpose of legal power is peace; (3) Therefore, peace inevitably raises the issue of political and legal foundations. The Constitutional Standards reach the standard. The above three requirements set high standards which are summarized as (1) The peace-making system must be formulated with a constitution exerting maximum legal power; (2) The power to draft a the constitution belongs to the people unconditionally and comprehensively; (3) Legislation, administration, and adjudication are all entrusted and bound by the constitution and must conform to permanent peace mechanisms; (4) Democracy and human rights are the starting point and the end point; (5) The state shall set up a "Comparative Database of Universal Laws" for the government and the people to compare and reference, at which point global (multiple/common) law is naturally born. According to the basic principles of this Constitution, the people of our country have the right to directly invoke any charter, law, regulation, system, jurisprudence, or custom that promotes freedom, democracy, human rights, or the rule of law, practicing paradigm transfers as warranted. ↑
"A World under Rule of Law": Rechtsstaat is derived from "a nation under rule of law" to promote "a world under the rule of law." This means a nation under rule of law is vertically incorporated into international law and horizontally incorporated into the laws of all nations, constructing a set of common multiple/diverse laws of the world to maintain world order. The so-called "rule of law world" means a world under the rule of law; if you want to achieve the ideal goal of permanent peace in the world, governing the world through the rule of law is absolutely an indispensable prerequisite. This is because a legal system (including statutory law and non-statutory law) generally regulates all kinds of human behaviors in different environmental contexts (individuals/societies/countries/worlds) that are deemed and/or seen as improper, so that our actions can be followed, and we will not fall into confusion. However, in the context of the current international environment, compared to the national environment system (a country under the rule of law), although quite mature in theory, is due to a set of laws on earth. The construction has not been implemented yet. At this stage, before realizing the ideal goal of a world under the rule of law, mankind still has a long way to go. This is why the Constitutional Standards advocate that this is the country's most urgent task.
●"A World under Rule of Law I": The organic part of the world is an important foundation of the world under the rule of law, and it also involves the rule of law of multi-level subjects; It is the establishment of management rules by various actors in the world, regions and countries to maintain global, regional and national order and satisfy the sum of various affairs carried out to jointly regulate and promote common interests. Justice knows no boundary, rule of law knows no borders, and a country under the rule of law is dominated by a world under the rule of law. From a country under the rule of law to a world under the rule of law, officials should be governed first and then the people should be governed. Governing power must and can only be achieved through governing officials. Only in this way can the ideal of a world under the rule of law be truly realized, and the nightmare of "those with power must gain power" (Charles-Louis de Secondat, baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu) will completely disappear from the human world.
●" A World under Rule of Law II": Rechtsstaat – the basic concept of the rule of law is based on "equality before the law": on the one hand, the state formulates laws with universal binding force, and on the other hand, it makes its own organs subject to legal constraints in exercising state power. This lets the constitution legitimize the actions of government, legislative or executive agencies with a promise of law and order and prevents arbitrariness on the part of the state. The principle of the rule of law is designed to ensure proportionality in all state actions, but at the same time contribute to the achievement of national goals set within the constitutional framework. With this limitation, the national constitution grants individuals the freedom to use the freedom of movement guaranteed by the fundamental rights. The goal is to ensure that the relations between citizens are just as they are united under the general laws of liberty. The rule of law is one of the most important elements of a political community and, along with other structures, such as the principle of subsidiarity, helps foster democracy. The Rechtsstaat concept of the rule of law can be found in the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany: §19, §20, §28.
●" A World under Rule of Law III": The principle of the rechtsstaat includes the principles of "Separation of Powers", "Legal Reservation Principle", "Legal Priority Principle", " Legal Certainty Principle", " Legal Stability Principle", "Equality Principle", "Proportionality Principle", "Honesty and Credit Principles", "Reliance Protection Principle", " Legal Non-Retroactivity Principle", "Improper Connection Prohibition Principle", "Protection of Fundamental Rights" and "Protection of Rights Remedies" and other general principles. These will not be cited one by one. The principle of the rechtsstaat and the principle of the world under rule of law: (1) When state organs exercise public power, they shall directly apply international law. When no international law is applicable, domestic law shall be applied, and the law of other countries may be taken into consideration to ensure that people become subjects with a complete international personality. (2) All state organs and their public officials are the executors of a set of legal systems on the planet. Anyone who violates international law, or the Constitution shall be punished by law. (3) The principle of the rule of law is to govern officials first and then govern the people. The Constitution is the general will of the people, and the operation of all legal systems should follow the principles of globalization of constitutional law, the principle of localization of the implementation of the constitution, the principle of contemporary interpretation of the constitution, and the principle of accountability for violations of the constitution. (4) All legislative, administrative, procuratorial, and judicial organs have the right to decide, in accordance with the constitution and law, whether should authority for granting the permission the application of the constitution or laws of other countries but must be accompanied by complete and impartial reasons. (5) Only for international laws that are particularly obstructive to the country, or that are obviously immediately dangerous, a letter should be sent to the international organization that originally formulated the law and the signatory countries, or international arbitration should be requested. (6) Any regulations must be published in the public media, and electronic files must be kept for reference at any time; regulations that have not been published or cannot be accessed immediately shall not be applicable to the parties concerned. (7) Due to laxness of the guarantors of the constitution in public organs, the laws of the world are not published in the public think tank media in a timely manner for comparison and application; everyone has the right to hold the guarantors of the constitution accountable. (8) To implement the general goal of ruling the rechtsstaat and the world under rule of law, all good should be encouraged and developed, and all evil should be prohibited and punished. ↑
"Sustainable development of the earth as one": The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, adopted by all United Nations member states in 2015, provides a common blueprint for peace and prosperity for people and the planet, now and in the future. At its heart are the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and 169 Targets, which are an urgent call for action by all countries in a global partnership. ↑
"Global Governance": This "theory guides practice, practice revises theory", the concept of "global governance" still lacks a widely accepted definition. The Constitutional Standards quotes the "UN Commission on Global Governance" definition of a country: "Supranational level, national level, subnational level". Again quoting the definition of international institutional scholar Stephen Krasner: "The international institutional system can be defined as a set of implicit or explicit principles, norms, and rules and decision-making procedures” integrated into the national constitution, creating a peaceful system in which a country (that is, its various levels) can operate independently and permanently: See the Constitutional Standards (Draft). Ultimately this will mean unity of politics and the economy, as well as unity of law, unity of the military, unity of currency, unity of human rights and unity of development.
●"Global Governance I": The people have the right, and the country has the obligation, to promote the rise of a global civil society and the establishment of an international political system. In 1992, the United Nations formally established the "Commission on Global Governance". In the early stage of its development, it had the meaning of improving international relations, but the subsequent development of organizations and related issues involved global environmental awareness and human rights institutions, liberal and democratic systems, and even reform of the United Nations, the revision and formulation of international laws, and the world federation and other cross-border policies. In recent years, interaction between international organizations and the United Nations on related issues has become more frequent, and it is no longer limited to regions and single countries. Every event has become a common foundation for international communication and problem solving. See Tsai Chih-heng, "Development of Global Governance Thoughts and Governance Structure", published on the website of the National Policy Research Foundation. ↑
"Permanent Peace Freedom Standards": These are mainly intended to address the basic principles of the Permanent Peace Constitution and the general principles of universal law regarding development and innovation and to conserve new concepts of freedom, and to exemplify basic policy clauses, guarantee clauses, binding clauses and empowerment clauses and other basic constitutional rules, to construct universal Constitutional Standards (minimum standards), so that the ideal of a community with a shared future for humanity can take root in a country that practices permanent peace and demonstrate one planet and one set of peaceful systems. This will liberate the more than two-thirds of the people living under dictatorships in the world by eliminating 106 dictatorships or semi-dictatorships (Freedom House 2015 survey). For this reason, the 2/3 of the people in our country and the world who live under the threat of tyranny will have nothing to lose but their iron curtains and chains and the violence and lies that constrain them, and they will gain the great endeavor—unrealized—in the Preamble of the UN Charter: the great freedom of humanity.
●"Permanent Peace Freedom Standards I": The US adopts freedom as its core (US Constitution Amendment §1), while Europe takes dignity as its core (Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany §1). Any freedoms and human rights that are not stipulated or exemplified in this Constitution shall not be unprotected. According to Article 9 of the Amendments to the US Constitution (Rights Reserved by the People 1791): The various rights enumerated in the constitution shall not be interpreted as denying or canceling other rights held by the people.
●"Permanent Peace Freedom Standards II": "Great freedom" (1) is the purpose of the preface of the UN Charter; (2) The UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights reaffirms: "Everyone enjoys freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want"; (3) "Great Freedom, Great Democracy, Great Human Rights, Great Rule of Law, Great Legislation, Great Administration, Great Prosecution, Great Justice": UN Secretary General Kofi Atta Annan issued "In Larger Freedom: Towards Development, Security, and Human Rights for All" in accordance with the UN Charter in 2005. Human Rights begins with the task of reforming the UN. These Constitutional Standards continue to give full play to the brilliant UN Charter and develop Larger Freedom into the aforementioned eight "great laws" that transcend time and space.
●"Permanent Peace Freedom Standards III": The French Revolution Declaration of Human Rights: Freedom is the right to do anything harmless to others; Andrew Hamilton of Philadelphia: " …to support liberty, the only bulwark against lawless power." Isaiah Berlin: People are not subject to coercion by others of their will, and their behavior is not subject to interference by others: In Legal concepts use the "principle of presumption of innocence" to protect people's right to freedom; The philosophy of freedom: it starts with "me" and is limited to "me". This is the true meaning of freedom! The types of freedom: personal, migration, communication, thought, information, religion, speech, publication, news, assembly, association, party formation, security, peace, environment, development, etc. ↑
"nation founded on freedom": The First Law of Innate Human Rights (Natural Law) positions Taiwan as the beacon of freedom around the world, and the Constitutional Standards as a compass for people's freedom. “The meaning of a country’s existence is to protect freedom and develop a community of freedom in the world.” Its connotation and extension are the spirit of build a nation "fighting for the survival value of freedom," and the people and the country have become one of the dominant liberal international orders. Its worth in fighting for freedom lies in the freedom of a constitutional state.
The "Freedom Charter" of the founding of the United States is the three major documents of the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, and the Bill of Rights. The Constitutional Standards are based on the Declaration of Independence of the US: "We believe that the following truths are self-evident: All human beings are created equal, and the Creator has granted them certain inalienable rights, including the right to life and freedom and the right to pursue happiness. In order to protect these rights, human beings establish a government between them, and the legitimate power of the government is generated with the consent of the governed. When any form of government has a destructive effect on these goals the people have the power to change or abolish it in order to establish a new government; the principles on which it rests, and the way it organizes power, to make sure that the people think that only in this way can they obtain their safety and happiness.” Fighting for freedom is a part of the American spirit. Next, according to the promotion and observance of various rights confirmed by the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the agreed terms are as follows: §1— All peoples have the right of self-determination. By virtue of that right they freely determine their political status and freely pursue their economic, social and cultural development. Only a constitution formulated by the people themselves is worthy of risking people's lives to defend it. In accordance with §1.1 of the German Basic Law: "Human dignity shall be inviolable. To respect and protect it shall be the duty of all state authority." It can be seen from this that the protection of human dignity and freedom is at the forefront of the entire constitution, extending the development of fundamental rights and constituting the core purpose of the entire constitution: "protecting human rights." Respect for human dignity basically means that people should not be regarded as mere tools or means but should rather be regarded as the ultimate goal of the country and society.
●"A nation founded on freedom I": Philosopher Baruch de Spinoza: "The ultimate goal of the state is not to dominate people and bind them with terror, to make them surrender to the will of others... Its purpose is to enable citizens to develop their minds and bodies steadily and be free to use reason... because the real purpose of the state is "freedom"." US President Woodrow Wilson: "The history of freedom is the history of resistance. The history of liberty is a history of the limitation of governmental power, not the increase of it."
●"A nation founded on freedom II": (1) The nation becomes a holy land of great freedom for innovative politics, economics, society, culture, peace and development of a free country in the world—the country's perpetual and unchanging principle of founding a nation. Those who jointly sign the promotion, regardless of nationality, should be awarded the "Highest Medal for Permanent Peace of Mankind." (2) Free diplomacy. The nation should regard universal freedom as a prerequisite for handling all international relations. (3) A freedom constitution. Recognize that the real purpose of the state is freedom; the state is the means and freedom is the end. Demonstrate greater freedom in the UN's global operations (The UN Secretary-General’s "Toward Larger Freedom” (40th Conference on the United Nations of the Next Decade Sponsored by The Stanley Foundation, June 17-22, 2005) "Report on the work of the United Nations (2005), UN Secretary-General Annan included freedom from fear in the "In larger freedom: towards development, security and human rights for all" (21 March 2005) report on the direction of the future efforts of the United Nations. Democratic Taiwan has been living a life of purgatory in which the CCP has wanted a bloodbath in Taiwan at any time for more than 70 years. (4) Everyone benefits—the freedom of no one is harmed is a basic principle that runs through all the articles and clauses of the Constitutional Standards for Permanent Peace. (5) The state shall not formulate or issue laws or orders on the following matters: establishment of religion or prohibition of religious freedom; restriction or deprivation of the people's freedom of speech and publication; or deprivation of the people's right to peaceful assembly and petition for relief from the government. (6) Protecting universal freedom and human rights will never lag behind for a day to other countries -this is the basic obligation of all state agencies. Even if it cannot be done temporarily, there should be a sunrise clause that should be done quickly.
●"A nation founded on freedom III": Israel Basic Law: Human Dignity and Liberty §2: "The life, body and dignity of any person shall be inviolable." and Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany § 1.1: "Human dignity is inviolable, and it is the duty of all state power to respect and protect this dignity.” ↑
"Humanity fights for freedom and resists violence, humanity is the subject of all laws": The great resistance of human beings can lead to today's freedom, such as the French Revolution (1789): the pursuit of freedom, equality, and fraternity, which is still the second article of the French constitutional creed. State problems are problems of domestic legal order. The legal person is the legal subject. 2. International law, of course, overrides domestic law, and directly imposes obligations on individuals and grants them rights, with "individuals" as "direct subjects of international obligations and rights". 3. A law is anything created according to the procedures laid down in the constitution which is the basis of this order (entrusted legislation). 4. International law and domestic law are a unified legal norm system, and the international legal order governs the domestic legal order of each country, and the effective norms of international law determine the effectiveness of the domestic legal order. 5. The basic norms of international law are the ultimate justification for domestic legal rules. ↑
"Constitution-making power": President Coolidge of the United States: "The Constitution is the only source and guarantee of national liberty." Constitutional freedom is the foundation of all reforms, opening up and peaceful development. Without the right to make a constitution, the people will have no freedom, democracy, human rights, and the rule of law and justice. History has proven time and time again that any freedom granted by others or other countries can be withdrawn at any time. If the people give up their autonomy in formulating the constitution and let others make it, they will be scarecrows with a body but no soul. As for "the power to formulate the constitution is not subject to 'law', but arises from 'force', which determines whether the country is republic or monarchy, and force determines whether the government is a democracy or a dictatorship" (Lin Jidong - Justice of Taiwan, Republic of China). The "people's right to self-determination" is the right to make a constitution. The people decide the fate of the land they live in, it is not the land that decides the fate of the residents. The right of peoples to self-determination is a basic element of universal human rights standards. For details, please refer to: § 1 of the two human rights covenants.
● "Constitution-making power I" "Constitutional amendment": "The United States will never allow Congress to have any power to amend the Constitution": founding father of the US - President John Adams on February 6, 1775.
● "Constitution-making power II": See § 79.3 of the German Basic Law: "Amendments to this Basic Constitution shall not be established if they affect the system of the federation, the joint participation of the states in legislation, or the basic principles of § 1 and § 20." Therefore, in order to protect the rights of the people, the basic principles of this Constitution and the norms of basic rights shall not be amended.
●"Constitution-making power III": The formulation and revision of the Swiss Federal Constitution and state constitutions can be decided through multi-track initiatives and referendums, as detailed in § 138 of the Swiss Federal Constitution.
●"Constitution-making power IV": see "Ukrainian Constitution" § 5: Ukraine is a republic. In Ukraine, the people are the holders of sovereignty and the only source of state power. The people exercise their power directly through the organs of state power and local self-government. The right to make and amend the constitution in Ukraine belongs (exclusively) to the people. The state, its organs, and public officials, schoolteachers shall not deprive them of this right. No one can usurp the power of the state.
●"Constitution-making power V": In Rousseau's theory, one of the important concerns is how to prevent the authority of the sovereign from being usurped by a [government] that inevitably has its own will. Rousseau's method is very simple: this pair of mastery The more capable the hand of the executive power is, the more often the sovereign must demonstrate the power of the sovereign to control the executive power through assembly votes, as Rousseau said: "Although the government and the sovereign are often confused, the government is only the executor of the sovereign" (Rousseau, Kant and Eternal Peace - Zhou Jiayu).
●"Constitution-making power VI": French scholar Joseph Sieyès distinguishes between the power of the state to formulate the constitution and the power conferred by the constitution. , which can be delegated by the people to the parliament and other organs. The right to formulate a constitution is based on political power, is a political act, determines the fundamental organization of the country, and is not subject to any constraints. On the contrary, the power conferred by the constitution is a legal act, and the right to amend the constitution is legally limited, so it has its limits (New Theory on the Constitution - Yuanzhao Publishing).
●"Constitution-making power VII": The natural form of the direct expression of Schmitt and Sieyès' "constitution-making power" is a gathering of crowds who express their approval or disapproval by verbal applause. Modern people can practice the Constitutional Standards by referendum. Referring again to Carl Schmitt, 1928, Constitutional Law: "Constitutional power is primitive, and is naturally not bound by existing positive normative procedures; rather, it is directly determined and exercised by them. Actions, no matter how large or small, are part of the people's innate constitutional power."
●"Constitution-making power VIII": American political scientist Gene Sharp pointed out that the establishment of a constitution by the whole people to implement the principle of democratic constitutionalism is an important method to prevent the restoration of autocracy and help democratic constitutionalism take root. Taiwan scholar Sui Duqing pointed out: Constitution-making is a political act, which belongs to the category of super-positive law and is not regulated by the existing constitution.
●"Constitution-making power IX": Please refer to Chen Ciyang, Constitutional Law, Taipei: Yuanzhao Publishing House, 2005. The book pointed out: "Based on the nature of the constitution-making power prior to the existence of the constitution, the prescribed procedures for exercising the constitutional power do not exist for the constitutional power. In other words, the constitution-making power itself can formulate the constitution-making power. Of course, it is not necessary to follow the procedures established by oneself, and there is no sanction if they are not followed.”
●"Constitution-making power X": Constitution-making people's right to self-determination, referendum: (1) All national sovereignty belongs to the people unconditionally, and the right to self-determination by referendum belongs to the entire people unconditionally. The right to self-determination of residents is a right granted to the people by God, and it ranks above any decree of the state. The right of referendum is sacred and inviolable, in order to protect the people's exercise of the right to vote. Any matters that are not subject to referendum must be voted on first, and prohibition can only be effected with the consent of more than 60% of the total number of citizens voting. (2) The people decide the fate of the land they live in, it is not the land that decides the fate of the residents. The right of peoples to self-determination is an essential element of the universal human rights standard and is not restricted by national borders. The people have the right to self-determination through referendums at the supranational, national, subnational and micro-national levels. The right of self-determination is a civil right and the most important part of human rights. International human rights codes, including the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, all list the right of self-determination as Article 1, demonstrating that it is the foundation of human rights first and foremost. (3) The right to self-determination is the first right of natural human rights, that is, to formulate a constitutional or super-constitutional constitutional amendment through legal procedures. Laws or orders prohibiting or hindering the exercise of the right of people to self-determination are void ab initio. (4) Any legal or state sovereignty matters involving the rights and obligations of the people shall be subject to a referendum. (5) Neither the executive nor the legislature may propose a constitution. (6) Constitutional amendments proposed by the legislature must pass by more than 2/3 in each of two consecutive sessions, and then be passed by more than 2/3 of citizens or more than 2/3 of states, provinces and cities to take effect (as stipulated in the United States Constitutional Amendment).
●"Constitution-making power XI": The exercise of citizenship rights such as election, recall, establishment, referendum, self-determination, etc. in the country of this constitution is managed by the "National Human Rights Action and Citizenship Exercise Committee": (1) Referendums at the supranational level , unless otherwise stipulated in this Law, are applicable to: ① changes in national territory; ② confirming the ownership of sovereignty; ③ formulating or amending the constitution; ④ other matters related to the right of self-determination in the international arena. Two-thirds of citizens must agree, for it to take effect. (2) The right of referendum for self-determination at the national level serves to: ① freely determine the political status of residents to freely pursue their economic, social and cultural development; ② create legislative principles; ③ review laws passed by the National Assembly; ④ allow creation, review and consultation of national policies; and ⑤ settle other national disputes. (3) The right of referendum self-determination at the sub-national level is applicable to: ① creation or review of legislative principles of local organization and self-government at the first level (state, province, city); ② creation and review of major policies for local self-government matters and consultation; ③ other local disputes. (4) The right of referendum self-determination at the micro-state level, which is applicable to: ① creation or review of the legislative principles of local organization and autonomy at the second and/or third level (county, city, district or township, town, city); ② formulation and review of major policies for local self-government matters; ③ other local disputes at all levels. The aforementioned items (2), (3) and (4) shall be determined by law with the number of citizens present and approving determined by law.
●"Constitution-making power XII": "Authoritative Theories" should be formulated in one step and seamlessly integrated, and the occupation of the government by the people should be compared with military occupations, which must respect and maintain the laws of political institutions and other institutions existing in a governed land. (Law of Occupation).
●"Constitution-making power XIII": "There is no "constitution" in the universe." The general will of the people to create the constitution is the basis for the creation of the state and constitutional government, and therefore cannot be affected by the state. The constraints of positive law. When citizens choose to invoke fair democratic principles, or the referendum law of a fully democratic country, or the procedural provisions of the referendum law of this constitution to demonstrate their constitutional will, its nature is "applicable", not "applicable." ↑
"Freedom to reform" is defined as the "freedom will never lag behind for a day to other countries" as a guiding principle. The slogan of the French Revolution in 1789, "Freedom, Equality, and Fraternity" quickly became a creed for all humanity. Xi Jinping said on August 26, 2020: Reform and opening up is a key move that determines the destiny of contemporary China.
●"Freedom to reform I": Freedom reform is the general basis of political reform and must include "freedom of speech" and "freedom of the press." Refer to footnote " The radio waves are owned by the whole people ", " Equal Access to the Media ", "Reform the TV network for political participation".
●"Freedom to reform II": Freedom to reform necessitates those political participants, regardless of their academic qualifications, whether they are elected or passed and serving public duties, should pass the general exams on the constitution, international law, and general knowledge at each level, with a question bank announced at least one year in advance in Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, and Spanish as is the case with the United Nations. As for general education; the lowest level exam should be taken on the fly. Refer to footnote "Constitutional and International Law Examination Procedures".
●"Freedom to reform III": It is strictly forbidden to spend money in elections. Any radio channel in the country is the property of the people. According to the principle of the people - by the people - for the people, it is a matter of course for the people to take back a small part for public participation. Anything that requires high election fees will inevitably become the source of black gold politics. Take Taiwan as an example: On January 24, 2018, in the DPP primary election for the mayor of Tainan, former DPP deputy secretary-general Li Junyi accused two opponents, Huang Weizhe and Chen Tingfei, of squandering hundreds of millions of NT dollars on the primary election. Central News Agency, March 25, 2016, the Kuomintang (KMT) chair candidate Chen Xuesheng pointed out that former chair Lien Chan spent NT$12 billion (US$400 million) in the 2000 presidential election, saying the number quoted should be accurate. On August 1, 2020, 6 legislators on both sides of the aisle were implicated in a collective bribery scheme to amend the law. And this is just the tip of the iceberg. Elections cost a lot of money—how then can politics ever be clean? Yang Jenn-rong, ‘Malignant political-business symbiosis structure—solicitation of bribes from the incident of the Ministry of Interior Construction and Planning Agency Director-General Yeh Shyh-wen’, Liberty Times, June 5, 2014: "For a long time, under the dictatorship and martial law in Taiwan, the ruling party indulged the party, government, military, and special forces. Almost all of these have structural problems of corruption. The Yeh Shyh-wen incident is definitely not a single incident of soliciting bribes. Far Glory Group chairman Chao Teng-hsiung said that the money was given to solve the problem. The trouble is "everyone" means something. In recent years, whether the alleged bribery incidents involving former Nantou County Commissioner Lee Chao-ching, Changhua County’s Cho Po-chung, Taipei City’s Lai Su-ju and Kaohsiung City’s Lin Yi-shih, etc., it is a series of bribery issues arising out of raising election funds under false pretenses. Faced with huge campaign expenses, how can they afford to run without large donations from enterprises? And isn't this kind of improper election fundraising the source of bribery?''
●"Freedom to reform IV": Political donations are prohibited from being used for elections. If political donations exceed the legal donors, according to the criminal law, both accepting bribes and offering bribes are regarded as electoral bribery, and there is no statute of limitations on prosecution. Get half of the bribes back; those who surrendered themselves should pay all the proceeds to the state treasury; whistleblowers should get more than half of the bribes. Whether domestic or foreign in origin, money or any tangible and intangible resources are completely prohibited from interfering in, distorting or influencing fair elections. Cancel all self-organized election activities and ballot subsidies. Media, consortiums, organizations or individuals are prohibited from directly or indirectly influencing fair and just elections with financial resources, material resources, or any influence. Including affiliation under the guise, fake democracy, incorporation, differentiation, placement of marketing advertisements, etc. Violators should be punished by criminal law.
●"Freedom to reform V": The disadvantages that self-funded elections are easy to cause to the people include: 1. Blocking those who have the ability and enthusiasm to participate in politics without financial resources: when the election funds, the few are tens of millions, and the more are hundreds of millions of billions of yuan. Those willing to serve the public are kept out of political affairs because they have no financial resources. 2. Due to large expenditures during the election, candidates are forced to use illegal means to recover their financial resources after taking office: If politicians use their own property or take out loans to run for election, after taking office, they will be under pressure to recover financial resources and start corruption, undermining democracy and the rule of law. 3. After an election, inappropriate political decisions may be made in order to give back to financial donors: Even if politicians’ financial resources come from political donations and there is less “debt repayment pressure”, they may still be in public construction and outsourcing procurement in order to reward the donors who provide financial assistance. On such uncommon matters, preferential treatment of its sponsors will harm public rights and interests. See Yucheng Xie, "Expectation and Implementation of Clean Politics", "National Policy Research Foundation", http://www.npf.org.tw/post/1/5985; Yucheng Xie, "Suggestions for Reasonable Measures for Public-funded Elections", "National Policy Research Foundation" http://www.npf.org.tw/post/1/5898.
●"Freedom to reform VI": The channels of people's participation in politics should not be restricted. Thanks to today's information technology, the state should introduce the latest technology. The state promotes electronic voting and co-signing, so that people can participate in political activities in a convenient way, and political participation is guaranteed. Refer to the footnote "Voting Frequency and National Income" in the Swiss electronic voting system, the implementation of the online electronic registration system for voter identification in the US states, and the US absentee voting system.
●"Freedom to reform VII": Public Referral - Public Responsibility. Any organization, religion, group or individual who recommends or promotes an elected public official who is accused of corruption and blasphemy after entering politics should first falsely detain the property of the recommender; if the sentence is determined, they should be jointly and severally liable, and no one concerned has the right to first sue for defense. Candidates nominated or recommended by political parties or political groups or their promoted public officials are involved in corruption, and the recommenders shall be jointly and severally liable. Money and religion should be completely separated from power. ↑
"The radio waves are owned by the whole people"; make it easy to participate in elections and easy to vote and allow free speech channels: (1) Free elections, easy to participate in politics, make good use of technology, easy to vote; the poor can rise up, classes can flow, society will be stable, and justice will be manifested. (2) Radio waves are the public property of the people. Electronic media, including but not limited to radio, television, e-newspaper, the internet, etc., are obliged to provide free and sufficient time and space for all elections, dismissals, referendums, and public participation in the exercise of citizenship speech throughout the year. (3) The Human Rights Commission has the right to allocate electronic media to the top ten political parties to have free nationwide exclusive radio stations and online channels, as well as to divide the public welfare time of television equally, and any political party with seats in the legislature will be given priority in reasonable allocation. Any cable and wireless TV channel will provide at least 60 minutes of prime time for political participation free every week. Local elections or referendums, local media, radio stations, television stations, etc., should all be handled in the same way. (4) The people take back underused airwaves and replace and eradicate money elections. ↑
"Equal Access to the Media": Ensuring "human dignity, universal values, media freedom, and truthful information" is the country's basic obligation in maintaining peace, security, stability, development, truth, justice, ideas, and beliefs. Freedom of the media includes freedom of content, speech and publication, and freedom for everyone to have equal access to the media. As stated in §19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights: everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression. This right includes freedom from interference, and freedom to seek, receive and transmit information and ideas through any media and regardless of national borders, but only as long as it does not harm the freedom of others or the public. Quoting US President Thomas Jefferson: " Our liberty depends on the freedom of the press, and that cannot be limited without being lost".
●"Equal Access to the Media I": Interpretation No.364 (Constitutional Court, Judicial Yuan, R.O.C.): The expression of opinions by means of radio and television falls within the scope of freedom of speech guaranteed by § 11 of the Constitution. To protect this freedom, the state must fairly and reasonably distribute the use of radio wave frequencies and bandwidths. The equal rights of the people to "access to the use of media" should also be respected and prescribed by law, taking into account the principle of editorial freedom for the media".
●Comparison of Countries on Anti-corruption, Free Use of Media for Honest and Clean Government, and Participation in Government" with the Constitutional Standards, please refer to Part Five Attachments or PPP website-Attachment table list.. ↑
"Reformed Participation of Political Candidates on Television Networks": to keep the media from ruling the country and silencing the opposition. The mainstream media decide early on who is going to be the winner in an election. Regardless of the factors in play, they always stage a "king-making" drama. The radio frequency spectrum is also owned by the whole people. For any electronic or online media, at least one hour a week or one internet message should be free for political candidates. With reference to modern pluralist democracies, the average number of political parties is nine per country, and nine non-profit exclusive national radio stations are set up for political groups. Local TV and radio stations/channels should follow the same procedures. When illegal abuse occurs, the government should promptly terminate all broadcasts and transfer the case to the courts within 24 hours. For example: §55.11 of the Constitution of Ghana serves to provide all political parties with fair opportunities to present their agendas to the public by ensuring equal access to state-owned media. §55.12. On state-owned media, they should give all presidential candidates the same time and space to show their programs to the people.
●" Reformed Participation of Political Candidates on Television Networks I": Separation of politics and media: (1) the media shall not be exempt from the obligation of loyalty to all taxpayers; (2) the media shall not engage in false behavior; (3) the media shall tell the truth and shall not make false propaganda; (4) the media shall not create fake news; (5) The media shall not become the thugs of a specific organization through unexplained and anonymous placement marketing; (6) The media resources are limited, and it is forbidden to monopolize multiple political channels; (7) Electronic media with the same political or ideological direction (8) The media shall not have foreign capital (except international public facilities); (9) The media shall have the rights and obligations to safeguard basic human rights; (10) The media shall not use its influence Power, voice or resource advantages interfere in politics, distort academics or advocate autocracy, and violators should be punished by law.
"Free and Equal, Free and Open": this means being open to domestic and foreign countries; "Freedom is boundless, unless it hinders the freedom of others." Freedom is like air; one will suffocate if it is insufficient. The government controls freedom as if it were controlling people’s breathing. “Freedom originates from [me], it is also limited by [me], thus the essence of freedom! The key word for political constitutions is freedom, and the key word for democracy is equality. Humans are not gods, so they need the rule of government; and rulers are not gods, so they need people to restrain them. (US President James Madison). The most effective way to respect and protect the dignity and freedom of people is to vote, and vote often, so that politicians will be humbled in front of the ballot box. Therefore, open elections are the basis for all openness, so that state agencies and public officials will be humble in front of the ballot box. Only by fulfilling one's obligations to the ballot can freedom be guaranteed.
●"Free and Equal, Free and Open I": Freedom and equality: (1) The people have freedom of speech, lectures, writings, and publication; freedom of confidential communication and personal information; freedom of thought and belief; freedom of assembly and association; freedom of residence and movement; and the right of petition. There is freedom from fear and freedom from want; freedom from being stalked; freedom from enforced disappearance; and all freedoms people enjoy in other countries. The freedom and human rights that are not stipulated or exemplified in this Constitution shall not be unprotected. (2) Personal freedom should be guaranteed. Except that the arrest procedure of current criminals is stipulated separately by law, no arrest or detention is allowed unless the procedure is stipulated by a judicial or police agency; no interrogation or punishment is allowed unless the court stipulates the procedure according to law; arrests, detentions, interrogations, and punishments under legal procedures may be rejected. Regardless of whether the suspect is a current offender or the suspect’s crime, when people are arrested and detained for a crime, the involved agency shall inform them and their designated relatives and friends in writing of the reason for the arrest and detention and transfer suspects to the competent court within 24 hours at the latest for interrogation. The suspect(s) or another person may also petition the competent court for arraignment by the arresting authority within 24 hours. The court shall not refuse the previous request and shall not first order the arresting and detaining agency to investigate. The involved agency shall not refuse or delay the court's arraignment. When people are illegally arrested and detained by any agency, they or others may petition the court for investigation, and the court shall not refuse. The arresting and detaining agency shall be investigated within 24 hours. (3) All victims of enforced disappearance due to participation in political or all legal activities—regardless of where the perpetrators come from—relevant constitutional guarantors, from the president to the local heads, shall bear all political, criminal, civil and administrative responsibilities, and the parties shall have the right to request state compensation. (4) For anyone who has been subjected to improper harassment by audits, tax audits, etc. due to participation in political or all legal activities, the victim has the right to pursue the political and legal responsibility of the perpetrator and has the right to urgently request the court to declare a provisional status of freedom from harassment or petition the wardens for immediate protection and prosecution. (5) All other freedoms and rights of the people, or freedoms and rights guaranteed by a generally recognized free and democratic country, without harming social order and public interests, are protected. (6) No freedoms and rights may be restricted by law, except for those necessary to prevent hindering the freedom of others, avoid emergency danger, maintain social order, or promote public interest. (7) To build a community of permanent peace in the world and a community with a shared future for humanity, any law that is more restrictive than those of a fair, free and civilized country and deprives the dignity or freedom of the people, is presumed to be unconstitutional and invalid ab initio. ↑
"Elections Serve to Maximize the Value of Universal Education, Distribution and Dialogue": Voting is the starting point and origin of decentralization: (1) Practicing sovereignty rests with the people. The people indirectly exercise the right to govern the country through elections, recalls, taking examinations, and serving public office; through the rights of citizen creation, referendum, and self-determination, they directly exercise the country's ruling power. (2) Freedom is ensured by separation of powers, and voting is the starting point for the decentralization of the country. National sovereignty belongs to all taxpayers unconditionally. Part of the sovereignty of the people's cession will be exercised by the elected chiefs and legislators. (3) The value of dignity and freedom is determined in front of the ballot box. The administrative, procuratorial, and judicial chiefs are elected by the people by year, department, and division; the legislative re-election of a quarter of the committees every year reflects public opinion, absorbs public grievances, implements civil rights, and implements the people's ownership, the people's governance, and the people's enjoyment to ensure peace, stability and development. (4) The voting budget for the promotion of national dignity and value, and protection of people’s sovereignty and national security must be no less than 0.5% of the total budget of the central and local governments and will be directly allocated to the "Human Rights Action and Citizenship Exercise Committee" (abbreviated as the Human Rights Committee). for use. (5) The state establishes a corruption and confiscation foundation and incorporates all the proceeds of corruption into the foundation. The funds are earmarked for the exercise of citizenship, including elections and referendums, and the annual balance is turned over to the national treasury.
●"Elections Serve to Maximize the Value of Universal Education, Distribution and Dialogue I": “Authoritative Doctrine": “Democracy is about spreading the pain of poverty to those in power through elections and removal votes.” (Nobel Laureate in Economics Amartya Sen). The people indirectly exercise the right to rule the country through elections, recalls, and taking public office by examination; they directly exercise the sovereignty of the country through the rights of citizens to initiatives, referrals and self-determination. Voting serves to maximize the value of universal education, it also enhances redistribution of resources, and it is the cost of freedom and democracy which must be earned by human beings.
●"Elections Serve to Maximize the Value of Universal Education, Distribution and Dialogue II": On elections and education: Kant made it clear that people are the ends, not the means. Therefore, everyone must treat others as human beings. Immanuel Kant, Li Minghu tr., "The Foundation of Moral Education", Linkingbooks, 1990. US President James Abram Garfield: “Next in importance to freedom and justice is popular education, without which neither freedom nor justice can be permanently maintained”. Pope Francis’ 2022 World Peace Day announcement stated that tools for building lasting peace include intergenerational dialogue and education. Believe in the Constitutional Standards, use mobile phones to compare the advantages and disadvantages of all methods, choose the best and use them, and become a great politician and educator in seconds.
●"Elections Serve to Maximize the Value of Universal Education, Distribution and Dialogue III": Regarding elections and resource allocation: "This world will not be destroyed by those who do a lot of evil, but by those who stand aside and watch in cold blood and choose to remain silent" (Einstein). In the information revolution in the new century, artificial intelligence will replace labor in large numbers. In addition to inevitable globalization, unemployment will increase greatly, the middle class will disappear in large quantities, and after a social L-shaped division takes form, there will only be 1% at the top level, with the remaining 99% at the bottom. From individual to society to nation to the globe, whether it is vertical or horizontal distribution, the problems and desires will be endless, and resources are always limited. Legislators must implement a matrix organization with partial re-election of its membership each year to force it to be responsive.
●"Elections Serve to Maximize the Value of Universal Education, Distribution and Dialogue IV": On elections and just distribution: Voting guarantees life free from want and survival of fear and practices the basic elements of harmonious coexistence between people and people, people and the country, people and the environment, and people and all human beings. The frequency of voting and its procedural justice determine the level of human dignity, freedom and value. The frequency of elections and referendums shall not exceed any country or state; referendums shall not exceed once a month. The re-election or the second round of voting, which is uncertain whether it will be held or not, shall not be counted in the number of times of this project. The voting time is as far as possible on weekends or students' winter and summer vacations. All voting procedures should be in line with universal fairness and justice. Anyone who uses money, media or other resources that other candidates cannot use fairly should immediately be ordered to abandon the election, and even if they are elected, they are ineligible. Primary elections within the party shall be handled in the same way. Voting is the most effective tool for pros and cons. Citizens continue to vote, and constantly promote human dignity, freedom and value. Voting helps to overcome differences. Synthesize different value judgments (including irreconcilable reconciliation, combination of contradictions, and synthesis of opposites) to formulate policies and laws acceptable to the universal society.
●"Elections Serve to Maximize the Value of Universal Education, Distribution and Dialogue V": Voting is the root of all democracy, and only clean elections can guarantee the true democracy of the people's voting. Refer to South Korea Public Office Election Law (공직선거법), revised on March 3, 2016. The rules for election activities include: (1) Except for conducting lectures in accordance with the Electoral Law, any candidate may use public broadcasting systems for election activities to promote himself. The number of vehicles, boats, and loudspeaker equipment shall not exceed five. Anyone within the range of 300 meters (districts) to 500 meters from the lecture venue is not allowed to use loudspeaker equipment; (2)The purpose is to commend or slander the country’s political achievements (or the deeds of the parties) by broadcasting, newspapers, pictures, movies, posters, and other methods that are not in accordance with the provisions of the Electoral Law; (3) Do not make false and untrue comments and reports; (4) Newspapers and magazines that publish campaign reports shall not be distributed differently from usual; (5) Special relationships shall not be used for election activities for educational institutions, religious or professional groups; (3) Mass activities, associations, and self-improvement activities shall not be held for the purpose of influencing elections , Clan associations, and alumni associations; (7) Civil servants and employees of national investment institutions must not travel outside of normal business, do not make family visits for campaign activities, sign and seal, publish support polls, provide any meals, organize teams to go to the streets to shout, lobby for fundraising or fundraising; (8) Speakers must not be used in the car for election activities to provide investors with convenience in transportation. After voting, it is not allowed to provide voter gifts, condolences, and banquets due to being elected or not being elected. (9) The propaganda platform, propaganda materials, quantity, symbols, names, photos, and academic experience used in the publication of political opinions must comply with the rules set by the election committee; (10) Campaign flags, slogans, posters, candidate marks, photos, public address systems, video recorders, tape recorders (including cameras and audio equipment), etc., are not allowed to promote candidates within 100 meters of polling stations,; (11) Internet reminders, using the same phone. When a number is saved to the same sending and receiving account, it must not be repeated more than five times; (12) Candidates, their spouses, and relevant election staff, during election campaigns—when posting candidates’ pictures, names, and symbols, they must comply with the regulations of the Central Election Commission, and the price of campaign clothes, standard styles, long-sleeved shirts for election symbols, labels, flags held by activists, candidate mascots, hats, handwritten slogans, accessories and other marking colors must be based on the rules of the Central Election Commission and implemented; (13) During the election campaign, self-funded campaign advertising, including commercial programs, cannot exceed one minute at a time; radio messages can only be broadcast 30 times each; in proportional representation legislative elections only 15 advertisements can be broadcast in each group of television and radio broadcasts; and in city and provincial elections local radio, television and radio stations can only be used by each agency 5 times; (14) When using online campaigns, including voice, image letters, campaign videos, political parties, candidate chat rooms and other related websites during the campaign, the real-name authentication method must be used, but online media shall not be required to publish the user's social security number; (15 ) 180 days before the election, no one may set up, distribute or install election-related advertising wreaths, balloons, banners, billboards, posters or advertising signs, nor may they damage election advertisements, labels, etc.; and even election mascots cannot perform special actions, including a sudden fall, etc., to affect the election; (16) During election campaigns, film screenings, publications of works, entertainment performances, movie theaters, and films must be in accordance with the law and cannot affect the election. For the Chinese version of the Korean Constitution, please refer to the new "Compendium of World Constitutions", edited by Huang Chien-ming, published by the Law-Love and Social Virtue Association. ↑
"Essentials of governance" The legitimacy of governance must be achieved through elections. This is a basic rule of the game in democratic systems. As the time in power increases, legitimacy decreases. In the information age, the environment can change rapidly, and most economies operation on a five-year cycle, thus the five-year rule is most appropriate. Voting is the right to act of the people’s sovereignty; it is the only legal source of all power in the country; it is the maximum education for all; it is the most reasonable distribution of power and resources; it is the starting point and the end of the people’s command to the government; it is the broad foundation of all peace, liberty and justice. Vote to reconcile social conflicts: combine contradictions and synthesize opposites. The length of the voting interval is based on the strength of the contradiction. ↑
" The Absolute Requirements for Permanent Peace: The Frequency of People's Voting in Political Participation": Franklin Delano Roosevelt: Freedom is not an abstract idea; freedom is the very thing that makes human progress possible — not just at the ballot box, but in our daily lives. “Humans are not gods, so they need government to rule; and rulers are not gods, so they need people to restrain them. (James Madison). The most effective way to respect and protect the dignity and freedom of the people is through voting and more voting; next, let state organs and public officials perform their duties under the rule of democracy and the law. "Take Switzerland as an example": the number of elections and polls is the highest in the world and the per capita income is the world’s highest in the past century for nations with a population of 8 million or more. "Take Zurich of Switzerland as an example", from 2003 to 2019, citizens went to the polls 5.41 times a year, an average of 5.95 elections and 3.82 referendums (see Swiss Voting Frequency for details). "Take California as another example": this is the US state with the highest per capita income at $53,097 in 2020): its voting frequency from 1996 to 2015, after deducting the number of overlapping days, averaged 6 per year. For details, please refer to the Law-Love database. "Take Taiwan as an example": Central-level elections are held every four years. Once elected, you can earn four years. Public opinion cannot be raised. After the people vote, they regret it for four years. The cemetery where justice is buried. Only frequent elections to absorb public grievances and implement civil rights will allow the government, political parties, or politicians to curb the ever-present evils. “A man without a vote is a man humbled without protection.” (U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson)
●Absolute Requirements for Permanent Peace: "Frequency of People's Participation in Politics and Voting" vs. the Constitutional Standards, please refer to Part Five Attachment V.
●Absolute Requirements for Permanent Peace: "Frequency of People's Participation in Politics and Voting" vs. these Constitutional Standards
1. "Switzerland" boasts the world’s highest per capita income in a century with a population of more than 8 million, for example, excluding referendums, each person needs to vote "5.41 times" every year
National House Election
2003.10.19, 2007.10.21, 2011.10.23, 2015.10.18, 2019.10.20
Federal House Election
2003.12.10, 2006.06.14, 2007.10.21, 2007.11.25, 2007.12.12, 2008.12.10, 2009.09.16, 2010.09.22, 2011.10.23, 2011.11.27, 2011.12.14, 2015.10.18, 2015.11.22, 2015.12.09, 2017.12.20, 2019.10.20, 2019.11.17
Zurich Cantonal Assembly
2003.04.06, 2007.04.15, 2011.04.03, 2015.04.12, 2019.03.24
Zurich cantonal government elections
2003.04.06, 2006.07.09, 2007.04.15,2009.11.29, 2011.04.03, 2015.04.12, 2019.03.24
Zurich City Council election
2006.02.12, 2010.03.07, 2014.02.09, 2018.03.04
Zurich City Council Election
2006.02.12, 2010.03.07, 2014.02.09, 2018.03.04
Election of city government officials and city administrators
2006.02.12, 2010.03.07, 2014.02.09, 2018.03.04
Election of Justice of Peace
2006.11.26, 2007.06.17, 2007.11.25, 2009.02.08, 2009.03.29, 2015.03.08, 2017.11.26, 2019.09.01
School authorities election
2004.05.16, 2004.09.26, 2005.02.27, 2005.06.05, 2006.05.21, 2007.06.17, 2007.11.25, 2008.02.24, 2008.06.01, 2008.09.28, 2009.05.17, 2010.06.13, 2010.09.26, 2013.06.09, 2014.05.18, 2014.07.06, 2015.11.22, 2017.02.12, 2017.05.21, 2018.06.10, 2018.07.15, 2019.05.19, 2019.09.01
Zurich district council members by-election
Zurich District Court by-election
Zurich Regional Constituency By-election
Roman Catholic Church elections
Evangelical Reformed Church Election
Parish/District council election
2006.02.12, 2010.03.07, 2014.02.09, 2018.03.04
Election of Governor of the Zurich Region
2006.02.12, 2010.03.07, 2014.02.09, 2018.03.04
City of Zurich: https://www.stadt-zuerich.ch/
●The Comparison of Referendum in European Democracies: Issues, Timings and Results, Issues and results of Swiss referendums (1940-2007), Average 6.1 per year
Did not pass
Average voter turnout (%)
Number of times
Average voter turnout (%)
Number of times
Passing rate (%)
Average voter turnout (%)
Constitution and Institutions
Sovereignty and territory
Morality and life
Economy and Society
Issues that cannot be answered
Source: C2D (Center for Research in Direct Democracy)
2. With a population of over 8 million, Switzerland has had the world’s highest per capita income for a century and stands as an example. Excluding election votes, each person must vote "3.82 times" in referendums each year
No of Issues
February 9, May 18, September 7, November 30
February 8, May 16, September 26, November 28
February 27, June 5, September 25, November 27
May 21, September 24, November 26
March 11, June 17, November 25
February 24, June 1, September 28, November 30
February 28, May 17, September 27, November 29
March 7, June 13, September 26, November 28
February 13, May 15, September 4, November 27
March 11, June 17, September 23, November 25
March 3, June 9, September 22, November 24
February 9, May 18, September 28, November 30
March 8, June 14, November 22
February 28, June 5, September 25, November 27
February 12, May 21, September 24, November 26
June 10, September 23, November 25
February 10, March 4, May 19, September 1, November 17
Source: PPP and Zurich Statistics Office: https://www.stadt-zuerich.ch/prd/de/index/statistik/publikationen-angebote/datenbanken-anwendungen/abstimmungsdatenbank.html
4. For local governments or federal states take California, which has the highest per capita income among the 50 US states, as an example. The population is more than 40 million, and each voter goes to the polls on average 6 times each year
A. At the state level──California state elections
For 20 consecutive years (from 1996 to 2015), there were 120 voting days in total. Voting items include federal elections, state elections and referendums, county elections and referendums, city elections and referendums, public school elections and referendums.
March 03, March 10, March 17, May 19, November 03
March 04, March 25, June 03, August 05, August 12, November 04, December 09
March 03, March 05, March 12, May 14, May 21, June 23, July 23, September 17, September 24, November 05, November 19, December 03
January 17, March 13, June 05, November 06, December 03
February 15, March 08, May 17, July 12, November 08
April 13, May 04, May 25, June, June 08, November 02
March 03, March 24, April 21, May 05, May 19, June 23, June 30, July 14, September 01, September 22, November 03, December 08
February 05, June 03, November 04, November 28, December 09
March 06, May 15, June 05, June 12, June 26, August 21, September 25, November 06, December 11
March 07, April 04, June 06, November 07
March 08, May 17, November 08
March 02, November 02
January 28, March 04, April 15, May 20, June 03, September 23, October 07, November 04
March 05, June 04, November 05, November 26
March 06, April 10, April 20, May 15, June 05, September 11, October 23, November 06, December 11
January 11, March 07, June 06, June 20, November 07
March 03, April 13, April 20, June 08, November 02, December 14
January 13, April 14, June 02, July 28, November 03
April 01, June 01, June 03, November 04, November 18
March 26, November 05, November 22
Sources: PPP and
B. Municipal ── Los Angeles City Citizens elections
Mayor, City Council, Council Committee, City Superintendent, City Attorney
March 03, March 10, March 17, May 19, November 03
March 04, March 25, June 03, August 05, August 12, November 04, December 09
March 03, March 05, March 12, May 14, May 21, June 23, July 23, September 17, September 24, November 05, November 19, December 03
January 17, March 13, June 05, November 06, December 03
February 15, March 08, May 17, July 12, November 08
April 13, May 04, May 25, June, June 08, November 02
March 03, March 24, April 21, May 05, May 19, June 23, June 30, July 14, September 01, September 22, November 03, December 08
February 05, June 03, November 04, November 28, December 09
March 06, May 15, June 05, June 12, June 26, August 21, September 25, November 06, December 11
March 07, April 04, June 06, November 07
March 08, May 17, November 08
March 02, November 02
January 28, March 04, April 15, May 20, June 03, September 23, October 07, November 04
March 05, June 04, November 05, November 26
March 06, April 10, April 20, May 15, June 05, September 11, October 23, November 06, December 11
January 11, March 07, June 06, June 20, November 07
March 03, April 13, April 20, June 08, November 02, December 14
January 13, April 14, June 02, July 28, November 03
April 01, June 01, June 03, November 04, November 18
March 26, November 05, November 22
C. Referendums and elections at the district level (counties, counties, cities...)【not included in these statistics】
7. Legislatures are subject to partial re-election every year., and elections cannot be held on the same day as central-level elections. On average, there will be no more than two elections a year.
●"Voting Frequency and National Income I": Frequency of voting determines the value of the people: (1) Voting is the sovereign’s right of action; it is the only legal source of all power in the country; it is the maximum education for all; it is the most reasonable distribution of power and resources; it is the people ordering the beginning and end of the government; it is the broad foundation of all peace, freedom and justice. (2) Vote to protect life from want and survival from fear, and to practice the basic elements of harmonious coexistence between people and people, people and the country, people and the environment, and people and all human beings. (3) The frequency of voting and its procedural justice determine the level of human dignity, freedom and value. The frequency of elections and referendums shall not exceed those of any country or state; referendums shall not exceed once a month. The re-election or the second round of voting, which is uncertain whether it will be held, shall not be counted in the number of times of this project. The voting time is as far as possible should fall on weekends or students' winter and summer vacations. (4) All voting procedures should be fair and just. Anyone who makes use of money, media or other resources that other candidates cannot use fairly should be dealt with immediately and ordered to quit the election. Even if elected, they are ineligible. Primary elections within the party shall be handled in the same way. (5) Voting is an effective tool to promote pros and cons and eliminate corruption. Citizens continue to vote, continue to protect human dignity, freedom and happiness. (6) Vote to overcome differences, synthesize different value judgments (including irreconcilable reconciliation, combination of contradictions, and synthesis of opposites) to formulate policies and laws acceptable to the universal society.
●"The Absolute Requirement of Permanent Peace: The Frequency of People's Voting in Political Participation II": The rights and obligations of voting: (1) In terms of [human rights] [legal rights], there are no rights without obligations and no obligations without rights. Voting is the most sacred right and the most basic duty of the owner of the country. (2) Those who have reached the age of 18 must participate in voting. (3) The following citizens can decide whether to vote: ① illiterate; ② people over 70 years old; ③ people over 16 but under 18 years old; ④ physically and mentally handicapped; ⑤ living in remote areas and sparsely populated, and the election agency has no supporting measures ⑥Working abroad, in a foreign country, or overseas, and the election agency has no supporting measures; ⑦Foreign citizens residing in the country who are citizens of a completely free and democratic country. ⑧ Officers and soldiers who are willing to show that the military transcends regions and parties, and the military should be nationalized and globalized. (4) The following citizens are not allowed to vote: ① Those who have been deprived of their citizenship; ② Multinational citizens from an incompletely free and democratic country; ③ Those who work in an authoritarian country and cannot return to vote; ④ Active military personnel during their compulsory military service; ⑤ The current president . In legislative votes, when the number of votes is the same, the president has the right of the deciding vote. (5) Mandatory voting is required for the following elections and referendums: ①The election of legislators. Election of members of the Parliament and Regional assemblies; ② Referendums at the supranational level (including global and regional): (1) Change of national territory; (2) Confirmation of sovereignty or transfer of sovereignty to international organizations; (3) The right to self-determination guaranteed by universal human rights standards; (4) Referendums for withdrawal from universal, general and mandatory international arbitral agreements for world peace and the settlement of international disputes; (5) A referendum announced by the President in accordance with the law; 3. 1/4 minority party or party group in Parliament which proposes a referendum for a bill against the majority party. (6) For those who have not specified that voting must be compulsory in the preceding paragraph, the law may stipulate whether voting is required. If voting in an election or referendum is not mandatory, a registration system must be adopted. (7) National elections adopt a domestic absentee voting system. Voters who register within the prescribed time limit may vote at any polling station in the country designated by themselves. (8) For all matters related to elections or voting, the norms of democratic advanced countries may be invoked according to model transfer or universal law. (9) The people have the obligation to perform military service, electoral service, democratic service, social service, judicial jury service, and world service, as well as to vote, pay taxes, and promote freedom, democracy, and human rights worldwide. In alternative service as military service, democratic service, and also listed as promotion assessment criteria for soldiers, public officials and schoolteachers.
●"The Absolute Requirement of Permanent Peace: The Frequency of People's Voting in Political Participation III": Electoral service refers to citizens under the age of 60 who have been exempted from military service and are obliged to assist in democratic voting for one day each year. The labor of service men can be transformed into political resources for the people to deepen democracy. The participation of men in democratic service in political work is equivalent to using national financial costs. The reason is that freedom and democracy require human costs. If you can use men to perform democratic service, putting them into democratic politics and reducing policy errors is equivalent to reducing fiscal expenditures and enhancing freedom and democracy.
●" The Absolute Requirement of Permanent Peace: The Frequency of People's Voting in Political Participation IV": Interpretation No.490【Obligation to Perform Military Service Case】(Constitutional Court, Judicial Yuan, R.O.C.): The concept of the social service system is derived from the so-called "conscientious objection to military service" in Christianity and humanitarianism. It attaches importance to protecting the people's right to religious beliefs and respecting the conscientious choice of military men not to bear arms. As the world situation eases, countries have gradually reduced their sources of troops and transferred reduced sources of troops to "alternative service to military service"—social service and provided huge human resources for public welfare and public institutions, so that the country can actually use manpower to meet social needs. ↑
"In a world under the rule of law, there are no rights without obligations, and no obligations without rights." Voting is the most sacred right of the owner of a country, and it is also the most basic duty to defend freedom. For details, refer to the footnote on "Absolute Requirements for Permanent Peace: Frequent Citizen Participation in Politics and Voting" vs. "This Constitution" (1) Large and medium-sized countries (over 8 million people) with the highest per capita income in the world over the past century, "Switzerland" as an example. "Voted 5.29 times" (2) For a local autonomy entity in a very large country, take "California" (population 40 million), with the highest per capita income in the US as an example: they "go to the polling place 6 times a year" on average. "Free Voting": The French existentialist philosopher Jean Paul Sartre once said, "Freedom is a choice." Our past choices result in today's results; and our future is derived from today's and tomorrow's free voting choices. Let us ask ourselves: For the good governance of the Parliament, which chooses the political center of a democratic country, is it better to do it every four years, or every year (partial elections)? The answer is clear and bright. ↑
"Those who participate in politics without pay should have their votes weighted by at least 20%": The Constitutional Standard of Permanent Peace presents to the world an eternal "Constitution of Constitutions, Morality of Moralities, Faith of All Faiths and Fraternity of Fraternities" to eradicate the origins of war (this Preface to the Charter), several papers could not finish on this merit. In a word, if elected public officials—including representatives of public opinion, legislators, presidents and other civil servants are not greedy for money, and military attachés are not afraid of death, the country’s peace, rule of law, morality, faith, fraternity, etc. must be the North Star of mankind, and there will be no peace in the world! Take Taiwanese civil servants as an example: "You can retire after 25 years of service", the author's older brother entered the Forest Service at the age of 18 and retired at the age of 43; after the reform of civil servants' pensions, the average retirement age was extended to 57 years old; Taiwan's Ministry of the Interior 2021 The "2020" was announced on August 6, 2020. The average life expectancy for Taiwanese is 81.3 years old; the total number of current military personnel, civil servants, public-school teachers is 633,383 (October 1, 2021). In addition, there are more outstanding talents retired from industry and commerce. With such a huge and rich national human resource, if you are willing to run for public office without remuneration (there is already a retirement salary), and you can lead the society, how great will the country and the people be? Will anyone betray the country? Who would want such a country?
● "Those who participate in politics without pay I": "The public sector offers more opportunities to serve people and accumulate good deeds." Don't waste such an excellent national treasure as civil servants with outstanding social experience, reducing them to going to temples out of boredom and corrupting the rest of their lives.
● " Those who participate in politics without pay II ": In European and American countries, most people are successful in business before participating in politics. This is not like Eastern societies where many run for public office in search of "promotion and fortune"—especially the rich second generation born with a golden spoon, or politicians supported by political families or financial groups. Participation in politics costs money, and politics is never clean.
"Safeguarding Freedom": This is one of the national defense strategies, defined by "an elected president may be elected to a second term” and amendment of the 28 Natural Laws of the Constitutional Standards for Permanent Peace is not permitted". Democratic constitutions have self-defense mechanisms, an acknowledgement that the only cure for the evils of democracy is more democracy.
●"Safeguarding Freedom I": Responsibility for Defense of Freedom: (1) Free and democratic constitutional order cannot be violated. No one may use freedom to destroy freedom, nor allow state agencies to infringe on it for any reason or in any way. (2) People do not have the freedom to choose to be a slave or to choose an authoritarian system. Any action or propaganda that suppresses the freedom and democracy of the people and favors an autocratic system is presumed to be unconstitutional and illegal. (3) Freedom is based on the principle of not obstructing, monopolizing, oligopolizing, and jointly monopolizing the free development of others. All speech and activities that are anti-human, anti-civilization, anti-freedom or anti-democracy shall not enjoy the right of freedom of speech and activities. (4) Freedom of speech does not apply to 1. War propaganda; 2. Propaganda for the enemy; 3. Violent agitation; 4. Dissemination, incitement or advocacy of hatred based on race, gender, belief or religion. (5) Any abuse of freedom of speech, especially freedom of press, freedom of lecture, freedom of assembly, freedom of association, correspondence, secrets of mail and telecommunications, property rights, or asylum rights, to attack the basic constitutional order of human freedom, democracy, human rights, and good governance Those who do so shall be sanctioned by law, deprived of their basic rights and deprived of their public rights. If it is an organization, a group, etc., immediately block all its electronic communication media, punish according to law, including disbanding the organization, all its organizations will be disbanded, and alternative organizations will also be prohibited. The deprivation of party organizations and their scope shall be proclaimed by the Constitutional Court. (6) To enjoy freedom and democracy, the obligation of loyalty to all taxpayers shall not be exempted. Anyone who violates international criminal responsibility, terrorists, comforts the enemy, and uses freedom and democracy to undermine freedom and democracy shall be punished by law; those who have foreign nationality may also have their own nationality revoked and deported. (7) Based on tyranny, it is always the destroyer of human peace. Those who enjoy and use freedom and democracy to promote autocratic dictatorship should deprive them of public power; those who serve public office should be dismissed; those who retire should cancel all benefits and recover their income. (8) The people's inherent duty. The earth is our homeland, and human beings are our family. As long as there is one person on the earth who is still living in an oppressed dictatorship, the countrymen who are the angels of liberty will have the freedom to liberate them from captivity according to the destiny and the will of heaven. (9) The bounden duty of public office is that freedom is the foundation of permanent peace and sustainable development. Any public official should uphold the destiny of saving an unfree person to save the world on behalf of the country and have the mission of building a community with a shared future for humanity.
●"Safeguarding Freedom II": Defense of freedom should be implemented through free education: (1) People have no distinction of gender, age, ability, region, ethnic group, religious belief, political philosophy, socioeconomic status and other conditions, and the opportunity to receive education is equal for all. (2) The purpose of education is to encourage people to increase their wisdom, enhance their vision, discover truth, and realize value. (3) The core meaning of the existence of the country should keep the people born free and keep saving others' freedom happier than being saved by others, experience the preciousness of freedom more and defend freedom more effectively. (4) To ensure a world composed of human freedom, required subjects in education for the course in freedom requires at least: (a) Basic human rights; (b) Liberalism; (c) Political freedom; (d) Civil freedom; (e) Personal freedom; (f) Freedom of entry and exit; (g) Freedom of assembly; (h) Freedom of association; (i) Freedom of speech; (j) Freedom of thought; (k) Freedom of belief; (l) Academic freedom; (m) Freedom of press; (n) Freedom of privacy; (o) Freedom of information; (p) Freedom of connection; (q) Freedom of love; (r) Freedom of trade; (s) Economic freedom; (t) Freedom from fear; (u) freedom from want; (v) Freedom from enforced disappearance; (w) Freedom from stalking; (x) Freedom from taking pictures and videos; (y) The right to be forgotten (including official records); (5) The Constitutional Standards directly authorize paradigm transfers: textbooks of the free world may be directly transferred to national textbooks to practice these constitutional standards.
●"Safeguarding Freedom III": To defend freedom, we must strengthen the culture of freedom: (1) Through the integration of all laws, implement global freedom and equality, and shape the local culture of freedom. (2) Everyone has the right to freely participate in the cultural life of the society and share the benefits of scientific progress and peace. (3) Everyone has an obligation to society; the free and full development of individual personality is the general source of the momentum of social development. (4) Everyone shall only be restricted by law when exercising his rights and freedoms, and the sole purpose of such restrictions shall be to confirm and respect the rights and freedoms of others and seek to meet the fair conditions necessary for morality, public order, and general welfare in a democratic society. (5) The exercise of the rights and freedoms listed in the Constitutional Standards shall not violate the purposes and principles of permanent peace and the United Nations under any circumstances. (6) To implement global localization and localization, the architecture of relevant state agencies should have a world view that symbolizes "universal freedom".
●"Safeguarding Freedom IV": Freedom is the foundation of national peace and security. For example, the media war is the forerunner/first war of all wars. Its financial resources should be completely open and transparent, and crimes of unknown financial sources should be prosecuted and tried according to the constitution. Nobel peace prize laureate Liu Xiaobo's “Discussion on Taiwan, Hong Kong and Tibet," Taiwan: Mainstream Publishing. "Take Germany as an example". Article 5.2 of the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany: Freedom of teaching shall not exempt anyone from loyalty to the Constitution; Article 9.2: The purpose of an association or its activities that violate the law or violate the constitutional order or international understandings shall be prohibited; Article 18: Anyone who abuses freedom of speech, especially freedom of press, freedom of lecture, freedom of assembly, freedom of association, correspondence, privacy in mail and telecommunications, property rights, or asylum rights to attack the basic order of freedom, democracy, human rights, and the rule of law shall be deprived of these basic rights; Article 21.2: It is unconstitutional for a political party to damage or abolish the basic order of freedom and democracy or to endanger the existence of the Republic in accordance with its purpose and the behavior of its members. ↑
"Disturbing the Peace", see the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany §26.2: Weapons designed for warfare may be manufactured, transported or marketed only with the permission of the Federal Government. The broad definition of disturbing the peace should include conduct including military service, voting service, democratic service, peaceful service, international promotion of the standard of permanent peace, taxation, and other obligations. Disruptors of the peace should be banned immediately, including suspension of pay, pensions, and prosecution or arrest. ↑
"Abuse of Freedom Norms": e.g., "Freedom of Speech": Principles of free speech (1) If all humanity has a common public opinion, and only one person holds an objection, this counter-argument should still be allowed to exist; for four reasons: (a) The objection may be the truth; (b) Even if the counter-argument is wrong, it may lead us to seek the whole truth; (c) General public opinion, even if it is completely correct, must go through opposing debates before it can become a reasonable argument; (d) Generally correct public opinion must be accepted at any time Only by opposing the challenge can it not lose its vitality and function. Principle; (2) there are prerequisites for freedom of speech, and there are four reasons: (a) Do not hinder the freedom of others; (b) Do not harm human dignity; (c) As required by law, it is “respect for the rights and reputation of others”, “protect national security or public order, "for public health or morals" (International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights §19.3); (d) The constitution stipulates that the necessary restrictions for "eternal peace of mankind" and "sustainable development of the earth" must not be violated. US President Theodore Roosevelt: "Lasting peace cannot be bought at the cost of other people's freedom." See the Constitutional Standards §9 "A nation founded on human rights".
●"Abuse of Freedom Norms I": General restrictions on liberty (The constitutions of various countries sanction the abuse of freedom to attack freedom and democracy (examples), please see Part Five Attachment or PPP website-Attachment table list.
●"Abuse of Freedom Norms II": On abuse of freedom of assembly and association, see § 8 of the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany: All Germans have the right to assemble peacefully and without arms, without prior reporting or permission. The right of open-air assembly can be legislated or restricted in accordance with the law. See § 9 of the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany: Associations whose aims or activities contravene criminal laws or that are directed against the constitutional order or the concept of international understanding shall be prohibited. My Constitutional Act (Denmark) §78.2. Associations employing violence or aiming at the attainment of their object by violence, by instigation to violence, or by similar punishable influence on persons holding other views, shall be dissolved by court judgement. In 2021 the Danish Supreme Court ordered the dissolution of ‘Loyal to Familia’, a shady organization that flouted constitutional laws and lacked a legitimate purpose. (Danish Supreme Court, September 1, 2021, Sag nr. 123/2020.) This case was very unusual because it was the first time since 1924 the Supreme Court had ordered dissolution of a bad organization. (Sag nr. 53/1924.)
●"Abuse of Freedom Norms III": Emblems, signs or signals misused deliberately. In addition to §18 of the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany in 1945 (Forfeiture of basic rights), since 1991, Latvia has banned the use of Soviet and Nazi symbols in political activities. In April 1993, the Hungarian Parliament passed a bill prohibiting the sale and exhibition of communist and Nazi symbols. The Estonian Parliament passed amendments to the Criminal Law, prohibiting the use of Soviet and Nazi emblems in public. Violators were fined US$1,500 and sentenced to three years in prison. In November 2009, Poland passed legislation prohibiting the preservation, sale, use and dissemination of communist signs. Violators were fined and imprisoned for two years. In May 2011, the Georgian Parliament also passed legislation banning the Soviet Union and Nazi symbols. In July 2012, the Moldovan Parliament passed an amendment to the regulations, imposing 10,000 lei (Moldovan currency) on those who use the symbols of the former Soviet Union. On April 9, 2015, the Ukrainian Parliament voted to pass Bill No. 2558, condemning Nazi and communist totalitarian rule in Ukraine, and prohibiting the promotion of their signs, including street names, flags, and monuments; various regions, streets, and even companies, The names of the leaders of the Communist Party and their activities are prohibited, including the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917. Violators will be sentenced to 5 to 10 years in prison. On December 17, 2015, the Ukrainian court passed a lawsuit filed by the Ministry of Justice of Ukraine to ban all Communists and ordered a total ban on the activities of the Communist Party in Ukraine.
●"Abuse of Freedom Norms IV": Power tends to corrupt, and absolute power corrupts absolutely., and this applies equally well to the media people. The media and messages are already weapons of unrestricted warfare with no restrictions on time or space. In particular, false messages signaling "when able to attack, we must pretend to be unable; when employing our forces, we must seem inactive" fall under the strategy of unlimited warfare. If we believe false news, we lose our true future. Thus, the media must be responsible for the truth; it must verify and restrain
sreports; it must be independent of reported objects; it must be monitored by an independent supervisor; it must report in a comprehensive and balanced manner; and it must act according to personal conscience, which is the responsibility and obligation of the media itself. Thus, the disseminator should bear civil and criminal liability for truthfulness of the message, otherwise it should carry the caveat that "this message has not been verified as to whether it is true or not."
●"Abuse of Freedom Norms V": Intent to damage or abolish the basic order of freedom and democracy. "Basic Law of the Federal Republic of Germany § 21.2": It is unconstitutional for a political party to damage or abolish the basic order of freedom and democracy or to endanger the existence of the Federal Republic of Germany in accordance with its purpose and the behavior of its members. According to jurisprudence of the German Federal Constitutional Court (BVerfGE 2, 1; BVerfGE 5, 85, 112, 140 ff)-the definition of the fundamental order of freedom and democracy is: an order bound by values excludes any violence and arbitrary rule, and is established on the basis of the people The rule of law is a rule of law based on majority decision, freedom and equality. Refer to footnote "A world under rule of law".
●"Abuse of Freedom Norms VI": On " in adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort." Refer to US Constitution §3.3. Take Denmark again as an example: "Any attack on safety or freedom, or issuing or obeying orders against safety or freedom, shall be regarded as treason." See §34 of the My Constitutional Act (Danish Constitution). Thus, abuse of the media and the internet to incite the masses, the use of democracy to oppose democracy, and co-opting freedom to oppose freedom should be immediately prohibited, including the prohibition of §2 of the Constitutional Standards: free television, radio, internet, etc., rights, with immediate investigation and prosecution of all cases. Litigation may take up to ten years. Do you still have to litigate when the country is betrayed? Justice delayed is justice denied. ↑
"Democracy Defined": True democracy—the people are the masters of the country, false democracy—the people are the tools of the country.
●"Democracy Defined I": Democracy is "One for All, All for One". (1) This is the collective defense principle of NATO. (2) Swiss traditional motto. (3) The idea of the European Union.
●"Democracy Defined II": Democracy is "A better me, a better we, a better world," the philosophy of Tibetan Buddhism and the motto of Sangdong Rinpoche.
●"Democracy Defined III": Democracy is "a political system dominated by the people. The highest power belongs to the people. It is directly exercised by the people or exercised by the people's agents through a free election system." In the words of US President Lincoln, democracy is A regime that "owns the people, governs the people, and enjoys the people". According to the theory of political scientist Larry Diamond, democracy is composed of four key elements: (1) the formation of a government through free and fair elections; (2) active participation in politics and civic life as citizens; (3) protection of the human rights of all citizens; (4) Laws and procedures are equally applicable to all citizens.
●"Democracy Defined IV": Under a democratic system, the people have the highest sovereignty over legislators and the government:
(1) Democracy is a government in which all citizens—directly or through freely elected representatives—exercise power and civic responsibilities.
(2) Democracy is a series of principles and behaviors that protect human freedom; it is an institutionalized manifestation of freedom.
(3) Democracy is based on the principle of majority decision while respecting the rights of individuals and minorities. All democracies respect the will of the majority while trying their best to protect the basic rights of individuals and minorities.
(4) Democracies take care not to give the central government the supreme power. Government power is dispersed to regions and localities. They understand that local governments must be as open to the people as possible and respond to their demands.
(5) A democratic government knows that its primary function is to protect basic human rights such as freedom of speech and religion, to protect everyone's equal rights before the law, and to protect people's opportunities to organize and participate fully in social, political, economic, and cultural life.
(6) Democratic countries regularly hold free and fair elections in which all citizens participate. Elections in democracies will not be the facade of dictators or single political parties, but real competition for the support of the people.
(7) Democracy enables the government to follow the rule of law, ensuring that all citizens receive equal legal protection, and their rights are protected by the judicial system.
(8) The various democratic systems reflect the characteristics of each country’s political, social and cultural life. What determines the democratic system is its basic principles, not a specific form.
(9) In a democratic country, citizens not only enjoy rights, but also have the responsibility to participate in the political system, and their rights and freedoms are protected through this system.
(10) A democratic society pursues the values of tolerance, cooperation and compromise. Democracies recognize that reaching a consensus requires compromise, and it is often impossible to reach a consensus. In the words of Mahatma Gandhi: "Intolerance is a form of violence in itself, an obstacle to the development of a true democratic spirit."
"Founding a Nation on Democracy": The Second Law of Innate Human Rights (Natural Law) positions Taiwan as the beacon of democracy around the world, and the constitutional Standards as a compass for the people's democracy. "The meaning of a country’s existence is to protect democracy and develop a global democratic community." Its connotation and extension are the spirit of "fighting for the surviving value of democracy", which has become one of the dominant democratic international orders. Winston Churchill: “No one pretends that democracy is perfect or all-wise”. Democracy is government "of, by and for the people" (US President Abraham Lincoln). It is not a government with party ownership, party governance, and party sharing (as in North Korea).
●"Founding a Nation on Democracy I": Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865) once said: "Only a country owned, governed and enjoyed by the people can avoid withering away." Implement our country’s practice of global governance—democratic deliberation: the people have the rights, and the country has the obligations, and it is the sacred mission of all our people to promote the rise of a global civil society and the establishment of an international political system.
●"Founding a Nation on Democracy II": The standard of this constitutional democracy is the greatest core interest of mankind and the greatest civilization consensus: the process of human civilization has come to the era of the global village, and a world government with a duchy and a family of mankind is a political entity that can and should be achieved. This political entity interprets and enforces international law. In fact, the world government has added an administrative level above the existing countries. Generally people think of international institutions (such as the United Nations, the International Criminal Court, the International Criminal Police Organization, the International Monetary Fund, the World Trade Organization, the World Bank, the World Health Organization, the Universal Postal Union, the International Olympic Committee, the International Hydrographic Organization, and the World Conservation Union) And various supranational associations (such as the European Union, the African Union, the Organization of American States, the Association of South American Nations, and ASEAN) are the embryonic forms of the world government system.
●"Founding a Nation on Democracy III": (1) Building a country with democracy. My country has become a great democratic sacred place for politics, economy, society, culture, peace and development of global democracies-the principle of the country's perpetual foundation. For those who jointly sign the promotion, regardless of nationality, the state should award the "Highest Medal for Permanent Peace of Mankind." (2) Democratic diplomacy. The country should regard universal democracy as a prerequisite for handling all international relations. (3) Democratic governance. Where there is power, there must be checks and balances. Any democratic operation cannot be determined solely by one. The administration adopts a dual-head system; legislation, judicial prosecution and judicial trial adopt a collegiate system. (4) Democratic Constitution. The true purpose of democracy is "distribution." Demonstrating the "big democracy" in global action is the basic obligation of the country. (5) To ensure that democracy will never lag behind for a day to other countries, and to ensure that global democracy will lead Asia for a hundred years is the obligation of all state agencies and all public officials that cannot be changed or exempted. (6) Except for elections, any committee's decision, or meeting, or referendum decision, must be passed by 60% of the members. (7) In order to ensure the permanent peace and sustainable development of mankind, it is necessary to join an international or regional collective security and peace organization. When withdrawing, it must be passed by a mandatory vote of 60% of the voters. ↑
"Democratic Reform" is defined as "Democratic globalization and reform of legislatures /local councils must never lag behind for a day to other countries" and "The only cure for democratic ills is more democracy/true democracy" as the basic principles of democratic reform (per philosopher John Dewey). Democracy must have four basic elements: "free and fair elections to replace the government; people actively participating in politics and civil affairs as citizens; the protection of human rights for all citizens; and a legal system where everyone is equal" (American political scientist Larry Diamond). There are two masters of true democracy, the "people" and the "law" (Aristotle). Democratic reform of party politics, “Black Gold politics, media politics, dictatorships, or other political ills with various ethnic characteristics requires constant re-election, reforms, and continuous standardized integration and integrated operations (See Figure 1). ↑
"Constitutional and International Law Examination Program": Constitutional Examinations: (1) The constitution is the incarnation of the spirit and soul of the country, and it is a compulsory subject for any examination. (2) Anyone has the right to participate in the constitutional examination at all levels, the examination question bank is publicly displayed, downloads and information are free, there is at least one examination room in each county and city for examinations, and people can take the examination anywhere. There are oral examinations for illiterate persons. The examination room is protected by facial recognition and public video surveillance, and test papers are kept for at least 10 years. (3) Those who are required to take examinations must pass the Constitution, the Charter of the United Nations, International Law and various professional examinations. (4) Candidates for public office must pass the Constitution, UN Charter and International Law examinations at each level. (5) The president, prime minister, legislators, commanders-in-chief of various services, ambassadors, mayors of municipalities under the jurisdiction of the hospital, or other persons with important constitutional affairs must pass the general constitutional examination. Prosecutors, judicial officers, lawyers, senior judicial civil servants and other personnel with important constitutional relations must pass the constitutional college entrance examination. (6) Public officials should pass the constitutional re-examination regularly before their terms can be renewed; elected public officials must pass the constitutional re-examination every 10 years; examination questions at any level should all include loyalty to taxpayers. (7) Soldiers should be familiar with international humanitarian law and the laws of war. (8) Candidates of foreign nationality must pass the general constitutional examination within two years of being elected before they can enjoy all the benefits after the expiration of their term of office. The test questions must be in their native language. (9) The update of the constitutional examination question bank at all levels must be announced one year in advance. Except for public officials and legislators, the question bank language of the elected leaders at all levels should have various official language of the United Nations and be available for download on the Internet. (10) Anyone who passes the constitutional examinations at all levels shall be given the [Global Law Award at the National High School, High School, Bachelor, Master, and Doctoral levels, as well as the [Peace Angel Medal] for promoting the standards of Great Law. The hierarchical examination procedure shall be prescribed by law.
●" Constitutional and International Law Examination Program I": Employment of public officials is guaranteed by the state. They should have basic constitutional qualities under favorable treatment. Only public candidates who pass the examination can be more qualified to serve the whole people. This paragraph also proposes the practice of accessing the question bank to ensure that the examinations of all public officials have a clear basis.
●" Constitutional and International Law Examination Program II": The global environment changes rapidly, and the Constitution must keep pace with times to ensure that the protection of people’s human rights never lag behind for a day to other countries. As guarantors of the constitution, public officials should also keep pace with the times in the operation and updating of the constitution. Therefore, regular constitutional examinations are held to allow public servants who pass the constitutional examination to serve the people and mankind. ↑
"Democratic Opening Up" is based on the Western concept of "The world as a common country (the UN), one human family (from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights)", the East’s "Vasudhaiva Kutumbakum" (the world as one family, India), the world is a public place/universal peace and universal love, reform/opening, peaceful development (China) Such political thinking is an axis which can be directly implemented in a constitution to be actively used. Authoritarian political science giant Robert Alan Dahl once said: “The core value of any new democratic system should be to maximize competition and participation.”
●"Democratic Opening Up I": Sovereign country—Vatican leaders have not been limited by nationality for more than a thousand years; Buddha, Jesus... they were not natives, as everyone piously worships and believes. As long as we can hear the sounds of the suffering and help all living beings, we can truly increase the happiness of people, not to mention that leaders are elected by the "sovereignty of the people" and one vote, one ballot. Those with vested interests would of course lock up the country in order to defend them and oppose allowing outstanding people from other countries to participate in elections in Taiwan.
●"Democratic Opening Up II": In order to recruit world-class elites and allow the people to have multiple choices, the nationality limit for presidential candidates is lifted. People from any country have the right to participate in elections. This prevents the people vote with distaste and gives full play to the people. The greatest value in voting is selection of talent and ability. ↑
"Completed registration six months before the election": Registration for elections should be completed at least six months in advance. During this period voters have the right to ask questions on public issues, and candidates are obligated to answer. Enough time is allowed for candidates to explain their policies and for voters to make choices. Dialogue on public issues is seen as part of constitutional exams of candidates by the sovereigns (voters). The answers given are a "constitutional contract to serve humanity" and the creative ideas of its content are protected by intellectual property rights, and the citing person must indicate the source. Candidates have the right to decide the number of co-signers of the questioner. The short campaign time is a tactic used by backward thinking and/or vested interests against voters. This is one of the long-term incurable diseases in politics, which causes the wrong votes and the wrong people to be elected.
●" Completed registration six months before the election I": The selection of merit and ability is a central issue in the defense of democracy. (1) Registration for any regular election should be complete at least six months in advance. Voters have the right to ask questions and candidates are obligated to respond—for candidates, a policy declaration; for voters, a part of a constitutional exam: voters or organizations have the right to ask questions on public issues, and any candidate is obliged to answer. This allows candidates to explain their policies and voters have time to pick and choose. (2) The dialogue on this public issue is regarded as part of the constitutional examination of the sovereign (voter) for the candidates, and the content of the answer is part of the "constitutional contract to serve mankind", with content protected by intellectual property rights. Sources must be noted. (3) Candidates have the right to decide the number of co-signers or the number of days between the questioners. A few people are not allowed to ask hundreds of thousands of questions in one day, and hundreds of thousands of people cannot make proposals to destroy the democratic order. (4) After election registration is complete and candidates are public figures, the state is responsible for their personal safety; activity expenses must be declared by election committees, and 3/4 of candidates must be able to afford the same level of activities. (5) Ensure political integrity. Elected public officials whose term of office is less than 3/4 complete may not run for other public offices. With the exception of force majeure or manpower shortages, none shall relinquish their post without authorization. Violators shall return all public funds they have received and pay punitive damages for breach of contract. (6) Voters have contractual expectations for voting in elections. One year after the election of an elected public official, voters may petition with a certain number of co-signers, to call for honoring election political views and/or oaths of office. Except for force majeure, voters may file a lawsuit for invalidity of election to the relevant high court. This should be resolved within six months at the latest. (7) Proposals for whoever, when, where or whatsoever must be accompanied by an assessment of financial sources, cost-effectiveness and impact on the environment and future generations. (8) Promote good governance. No policy can violate the constitutional requirement that no one be victimized, no matter what country or people, when or where. unless the disadvantaged person is compensated reasonably and satisfactorily. (9) The rules for implementing rational dialectics of political opinions, justice of voting procedures and free speech channels shall be prescribed by law. ↑
"Only citizens of fully democratic countries can participate in politics”: People who hold foreign residency rights are not allowed to be ‘candidates’ (general provisions of current national election and recall laws.) This constitutional standard is based on the concept of Permanent Peace and universal harmony in the global village and humanity. Anyone who has lived in a fully democratic nation for 30 years and does not hold the nationality of a non-fully democratic nation can come to our country to run in elections for leaders at all levels in accordance with the law and at the same level as the world’s fully democratic nations. They will have international competitiveness and comprehensively enhance the national power so that people’s theories of Permanent Peace can be solidly advanced in practice. Let those who will only incite populism or waste public funds building mosquito houses, and other uncompetitive chefs, all be eliminated.
●Democracy index statistics for 32 nations, 2008-2021, please refer to Part Five Attachment or PPP website-Attachment table list..
●Comparison of "Political openness in all countries with lawful participation in elections for leaders at all levels" with the Constitutional Standards , please refer to Part Five Attachment or PPP website-Attachment table list..
●"Only citizens of fully democratic countries can participate in politics I": Democratic politics is open politics, one of its essences is that the elected leader does not limit the nationality. To build a global village "world capital", make the world a public, and become a super country, we must start from the following aspects, including: (1) We must use international law and the constitution of all nations to cultivate our people to become world elites for the world and end feudalism and fooling the people, and withdraw support of autocratic regimes; (2) It is necessary to recruit the world's elites for the use of the country and society, and gather the world's elites to run for all positions of leadership, break autocratic dictators’ dominance, allow the people self-fulfilling choices, and break dominance of spoiled parties over democracy; (3) All democratically elected leaders (heads of villages and communities, township chiefs, county and mayors, municipal leader, and presidents) should compete with global elites before the country and society can be competitive; (4) make up for the shortage of domestic talents, integrating global elites, sustainable leading creativity and social and economic development. Then the global competitiveness of countries, cities, and villages can compete in the world; (5) Elected leaders have no restrictions on nationality (except in authoritarian countries); only then can the world meet the requirements of the public for selection of talent and ability; (6) In elections, the leader’s unlimited nationality is a precise value decision to cure the ills of democracy (false democracy) and move towards a more democratic and true democracy; (7) If there is a powerful intent to annex our country, there is no need for cultural attacks and military intimidation, and no economic blockades, as long as you come to our country to participate. Election of the president [improved semi-presidential system]: Let the sovereigns make value decisions; (8) Use the driving force of innovation, production, consumption and distribution of elites in the world to open the way for long-term prosperity; (9) People from other provinces and cities are not necessarily better than foreigners; (10) Return power to the people—the light of our country will be seen all over the world, and the whole people will become the world's elites, the world's first-class country host, and first-class world citizens.
●" Only citizens of fully democratic countries can participate in politics II": The election of heads is not restricted by nationality according to law: (1) Those who have reached the age of 25 have the right to be elected as directors of the Community Development Association and representatives of villages and towns; those who have reached the age of 30 have the right to be elected as township chiefs, county and city councilors; and those who have reached the age of 40 have the right to be elected as county magistrates. Those who have reached the age of 50 have the right to be elected as president. (2) Ensure permanent peace and development, leading global democracy, practicing the Constitutional Standards and building global competitiveness. In addition to representatives of public opinion, chiefs elected by the people include: the heads of village and community development associations, township chiefs and county magistrates, mayors, and presidents, all of whom are not restricted by nationality; all citizens of a fully democratic country can come to our country to stand in elections, to ensure that the world is the public and to select talent and ability. (3) The elected leader shall have a term of 5 years, and neither he/she nor close relatives shall be allowed to run serve again for six years after the end of the term of office or leaving the office for any reason. During this period benefits and remuneration shall remain unchanged according to the law. (4) When there is only one presidential candidate, if the votes received are not more than 1/3 of the total number of voters, and in other races the number of votes received is not more than 1/4 of the total number of voters, the election shall be annulled and held again. (5) Should a foreigner be elected president, follow the European Commission approach: he/she will swear and certify his independence from his/her original country (mother country) on taking office, and shall be loyal to his/her post and fulfill all obligations in accordance with the Constitution and the law. (6) The elected leader must not have multiple nationalities or permanent residence permits of other countries. Anyone who rejects this set of laws in the world shall not stand for election or hold public office. Those who conceal other nationalities or permanent residence permits shall be subject to legal sanctions with no time limit. (7) In addition to the provisions of this constitution, in order to encourage international elites to come to their country for election as chief executive, they should prove they are from a completely free and democratic country, support one set of laws for the world, and have held that nationality for more than 30 years; if in the past, for those who have multiple nationalities or permanent residency less than 30 years, all of their nationalities still need to meet the definition of complete freedom and democracy. (8) Under unity, talents are recruited and paid generously to nourish integrity. When the world's elites come to Taiwan to run for election as the leader to serve the voters, their treatment and honor shall not be lower than the treatment and honor of equivalent positions in the world. The standard for comparison should be a country with a larger population than ours. (9) Any elected leader of this nationality must run against global elites to prove that they are world elites of the same level and possess international competitiveness for training of talent. (10) The date and title of the elected leader’s re-election shall be announced monthly to the global public, proving that each leader is a global contemporary elite.
●" Only citizens of fully democratic countries can participate in politics III": Open up to parties in fully democratic countries that have seats in their parliament: (1) Political parties and political groups participating in formation of people's political opinions may be formed freely. Freedom of association is guaranteed. Everyone has the right to form or join political parties and political groups and to participate in their activities. The internal organization must conform to democratic principles, and no one may be forced to join a political party or political group. (2) The purpose and activities of any organization must meet the universal requirements of "nature, justice, fairness" and "freedom, democracy, human rights" and other universal requirements; and must also meet the “One earth, one set of laws” and other requirements for permanent peace and sustainable development. Any attempt to interfere with this requirement or to endanger permanent peace is unconstitutional. Parties aimed at disrupting or abolishing the fundamental order of liberal democracy or endangering the very existence of a permanent peace should be denied state funding because of their purpose or the conduct of their followers. If such exclusions are established, any favorable financial treatment to and payments to those parties shall cease. Whether it is unconstitutional or state financial subsidies should be canceled shall be decided by the Constitutional Court. (3) Political parties and political groups shall publicly explain the source and use of their funds and properties and shall be subject to review by impartial authorities in accordance with the law. Political parties and political groups or their members are prohibited from accepting foreign or foreign funds. Refer to footnote "Freedom to Reform IV". (4) No organization may meet secretly. Political parties of a secret nature or secretly affiliated organizations are prohibited, and responsible individuals shall bear legal responsibility. (5) Political parties may not establish organizations or engage in activities in state institutions or local self-government agencies, armed forces, state-owned enterprises, or educational institutions. (6) Open democratic political parties to participation in construction of human civilization. Any political party that has members in the National Assembly of a fully democratic country may set up branches in our country to promote its ideas, recommend candidates for election as presidents of our country in accordance with the law, receive subsidies from political parties in accordance with the law, and become a guarantor of the constitution in accordance with the constitution. (7) Foreign political parties stationed in Taiwan may use radio stations, television stations, and internet platforms on an equal basis and free of charge in accordance with the laws of their own countries. Any international public opinion representative can use free speech channels in this country to promote the concepts of freedom, democracy, human rights and the rule of law. (8) Political parties should be completely clean of corruption and should be fully and unconditionally loyal to all taxpayers. Foreign political parties or party members shall not be exempt from the obligation of loyalty to domestic taxpayers. (9) The aims of political parties and associations and actions or activities of party members that violate criminal law, or violate the basic order of freedom and democracy, or International Law and the Charter of the United Nations or intend to damage or abolish the basic order of freedom or democracy or to endanger the existence of democracy in our country, or those who violate the international understanding of ideas, should all be prohibited. Deprivation of political party qualifications and its scope shall be determined by the constitutional court. (10) Political parties are obligated to jointly defend freedom and democracy. Political parties have the right to supervise, exercise checks and balances, and prosecute other political parties for violations of the constitution and the law, and can directly exercise this right of litigation in the Constitutional Court.
"Safeguarding Democracy": this is one of the national defense strategies. (1) The democratic constitutional order cannot be violated. Anyone who abuses democracy to attack the basic order of democracy shall be deprived of basic rights and be punished by law. All media that are engaged in attacks on democracy should be ordered to suspend business, and their rights of speech access should be fully controlled, and those who use radio waves should fully withdraw their permit to use. (2) Democracy cannot be betrayed. Anyone who is an elected representative, administrative officer, or judicial officer who has sworn an oath of loyalty to all taxpayers but rebels against the country or helps or consoles enemies outside the country, cannot serve as a representative, run for office or serve as a public official in the central or local government, or receive a pension or any remuneration. [See "Amendment to the US Constitution" § 14.3. ] (3) The goals of democracy. The earth is our home and human beings are our family. As long as there is one person on the earth still living in an oppressed dictatorship, our people who are in charge of the angelic destiny of democracy have the natural obligation to remove their shackles. (4) Official duty. Democracy is the foundation of permanent peace and sustainable development. All public officials should approve: To save a person who has been enslaved by autocracy represents the country's destiny to save the world, and it has the mission of building a community of human destiny. "Building a community with a shared future for mankind" here refers to the concept proposed by China and adopted by the resolution of the United Nations General Assembly on March 11, 2017. (5) Government responsibility: Regardless of nationality, the state should grant honors and compensation to anyone who makes democratic contributions to a community with a shared future for mankind. Regardless of domestic and overseas, all donations for this purpose should be fully tax-free and tax-deductible. To this end, the country should set a budget to promote global democracy, provide assistance, and fulfill its mission of exterminating nuclear and chemical weapons. (6) Global democratization is the foundation of world peace, and the defense of democracy is a global common cause. There are only two roads for humanity in the end: peace and destruction. Faced with the endless development of nuclear weapons, once a nuclear war breaks out, everything will be ashes; justifying peace is life, truth, and road. To defend the system of permanent peace is to defend the eternal truth of human life.
●"Safeguarding Democracy I": "Danish Constitution" §42: "When a bill is passed, one-third of the parliamentary seats can jointly sign a request to the president to submit the bill to a referendum within three weeks." §11 of the French Constitution stipulates that one-fifth of the parliamentary seats, coupled with signatures of 1/10 of voters, can refer important matters such as approval of relevant national economic, social or environmental policies or authorized international treaties to a referendum. The "Italian Constitution" §138, "Albanian Constitution" §150 and "Austrian Constitution" §41 and §44 have similar regulations. Please refer to the "Encyclopedia of World Constitutions" published by Law-Love, edited by Chien-ming Huang.
●"Safeguarding Democracy II": "Annual voting frequency should reach 1/2 of that in Switzerland or California; Congress approves joining democratic world security organizations, and withdrawal from such organizations must be approved by 2/3 of voters in a citizens' referendum." Of course, any attempt to amend the 28 natural laws cannot be accepted. We should learn from advanced democratic countries, especially regarding mandatory voting in legislative elections, to reflect public opinion, resolve public grievances, and implement civil rights.
●"Safeguarding Democracy III": "Take Australia as an example": All elections entail compulsory voting. One of the core methods to defend and develop democracy is to re-elect a portion of the legislature each year in separate elections. It is strictly forbidden to hold such elections at the same times as elections at central level, including presidential elections, to prevent voters from losing the policy focus of various ministries. Refer to footnote "Elections held separately".
●"Safeguarding Democracy IV": "Serving democratic service and military service" is also the core obligation of defending democracy: maintaining democracy is the most important national defense, and citizens have the obligation to serve democratic service, military service, social service, and human service. “Take France as an example": French Electoral Law L45: "Anyone who does not have reasonable proof that he/she has fulfilled the obligations of conscription cannot be a candidate in elections." Take "Israel, Switzerland and Sweden" as an example: all people serve as soldiers. Do the same to save your own country. Abraham Lincoln: "Elections belong to the people. It's their decision. If they decide to turn their back on the fire and burn their behinds, then they will just have to sit on their blisters."
●"Safeguarding Democracy V": William Dobson noted in The Dictator's Learning Curve: Inside the Global Battle for Democracy: "Today's totalitarian regime leaders are different from the dictators of the 20th century. They are not completely frozen in time like North Korea, and they regularly use labor reforms. labor camps, violence, and brainwashing to control the people. Emerging totalitarian countries such as China, Russia, Venezuela and Iran will not become police states. Instead, they will give the people a lot of superficial and procedural freedoms and infiltrate these freedoms. The dictators of various countries will not directly sanction their opponents—they use the short attention spans of the people to distract them with new issues so that sanctions and restrictions are not needed. ↑
"The Fragility of Democracy": The rise of dictatorship stems from the fragility of the democratic system. "Greece as an example": In Ancient Greece from the 8th to 6th centuries BC, Athens was large and democratic, but it was destroyed by Sparta, a small autocratic country. Look at Hong Kong: In 2020 the National People's Parliament of the Communist Party of China forcibly passed the "Hong Kong version of the National Security Law," washing away most human rights. Lawyer Sang Pu notes that Hong Kong’s journey to this point did not happen overnight —Early Chinese capital quickly penetrated Hong Kong and completely rotted the local economy. Hong Kong residents were shocked to realize the seriousness of the problem; but it was too late to react.
●"The Fragility of Democracy I": To remedy the fragility of democracy, we must implement democratic education: (1) Democracy helps the world. Promoting global democracy, giving birth to the Constitutional Standards (ISO), improving resource allocation, and advancing permanent peace are the most sacred rights of the people and the most urgent obligations of the country. (2) Democracy is a government in which all citizens-directly or through freely elected representatives-exercise power and civic responsibilities. (3) Except for elections, democratic decision-making is determined by a 60% majority while respecting the rights of individuals and minorities. While respecting the wishes of the majority, all democratic countries should strive to protect the basic rights of individuals and minorities. (4) Democracy enables the government to follow the rule of law, to ensure that all citizens receive equal legal protection, and their rights are protected by the judicial system. (5) In a democratic country, citizens not only enjoy rights, but also have the responsibility to participate in the political system, and their rights and freedoms are protected through this system. (6) A democratic society pursues the values of tolerance, cooperation and compromise. Democracies recognize that reaching a consensus requires compromise, and it is often impossible to reach a consensus. (7) Democracies should educate their people on the psychological qualities of "defending permanent peace and sustainable development", "courage and commitment", "responsibility and judgment" and other critical life issues in order to consolidate democracy. (8) Our time sequence has reached the era of the global village, and all ethnic groups on earth are free and equal. History has proved that nationalism is the last refuge of dictators, the last fig leaf of autocratic preference, and the shackles of vested interests kidnapping people and unable to evade development. The state should educate people not to recommit the same mistakes.
●"The Fragility of Democracy II": To remedy the fragility of democracy, we must deepen democratic culture: (1) Our country urges world citizens to participate in world democracy and participate in government management. Citizens of a fully democratic country have the right of public participation at all levels and all citizenship rights at the local level, shaping global localization and deepening localized democratic culture. (2) In the face of tremendous global changes, global citizens connect with citizens of other countries through the internet in various ministries or Parliament platforms in our country, building collective decision-making capabilities and jointly leading to the great era and great future. (3) Petitions are mainly made on the internet, regardless of nationality or level, and free use of the media in accordance with the law. Within 100 days, if a people’s petition is signed by more than 10 people, the village chief must respond; if more than 100 people have signed, the township chief must respond; if it exceeds 1,000, the county or city mayor must respond; if it exceeds 10,000, the mayor of the special municipality must respond; if it exceeds 100,000, the Prime Minister and President must respond; if it is a legislative matter, the relevant legislature must list the case for discussion, and if it is a prosecutorial or judicial matter, it should be handled accordingly. If more than 1 million global citizens have signed, the state has no right to interfere, and it should be handed over for a referendum. If the abovementioned petition has not received a reasonable response, it is presumed to be unconstitutional, and the petitioner may be subject to a lawsuit. (4) No one is allowed to sign two referendum proposals of the same level within 180 days. An electronic file should also be available for co-signers under this paragraph. (5) The general rules for ensuring the participation of citizens of the world in politics, decision-making, participation in legislation or petitions, petitions, and litigation shall be prescribed by law. (6) The national legislative, administrative, procuratorial, and judicial organs shall set up petition committees respectively to handle the handling of requests and petitions made by citizens of the world and the people of the whole country to the highest organs of the country. (7) The architecture or edifice of buildings housing relevant state agencies should have an image that symbolizes "universal democracy".
●"The Fragility of Democracy III": Mahatma Gandhi) said: "Intolerance is a form of violence in itself, an obstacle to the development of a true democratic spirit." ↑
"Limited terms of one five-year term—Safeguarding Democracy ": "Uruguay" has long been an internationally recognized fully democratic country. Uruguay’s Constitution §152: The President and Vice President serve for 5 years and cannot be re-elected. If you want to hold these positions again, your only option is to wait 5 years after leaving office. This has led to 2016 GDP per capita of US$21,944". On the other hand, consider Belarus: After 3 years of independence, the constitution was changed to a presidential system and term of office for president was 5 years. In 1994, a presidential election was held. Lukashenko was elected. (2020) and he has been re-elected for 26 years now, yielding a 2016 GDP per capita of $4,855. Take a look at India’s devastating COVID-19 pandemic: Modi and his Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) created an election machine that frightened their opponents to win the election, but their continued aggressive thinking sacrificed governance capabilities. Now Modi is great, but the image of the leader "has been shattered" (political scholar Vinay Sitapati). "UN Regulations", the Secretary-General has a term of 5 years. The "China Constitution" stipulates that the president of the country will serve for five years, and the CCP has established its 14th "five-year plan." Montesquieu said, "Those who are in power must gain power," and too many of them exploit tenure to destroy peace. Absolute power, absolute corruption, the longer the term, the deeper the corruption. In short, the list of powerholders playing with tenure to undermine the peace goes on. An independent panel of international experts to investigate the pandemic believes that the world has not taken the threat of a pandemic seriously and called for reform of the WHO. On 2021/05/12, it recommended that the post of Secretary-General be limited to one term and not be re-elected to reduce political influence.
●"Limited terms of one five-year term—Safeguarding Democracy I": "Ensure the political integrity of the tenure": All elected public officials who have less than 3/4 of their tenure are not allowed to participate in other public positions, nor can they abandon their posts without authorization. A constitutional amendment that limits the term of office to defend democracy cannot be established, including the 28 natural laws. During the limited re-election period, if you do not engage in politics or business, the original salary shall remain unchanged in accordance with the law, and the principle of morality and fraternity is the principle of generous remuneration to maintain integrity. High salaries and honesty will remain unchanged through the ages. Good treatment, good benefits, value and dignity, and enough food and clothing enable one to distinguish honor from disgrace.
●"Limited terms of one five-year term—Safeguarding Democracy II": The advantage of the "5-year single-term system" is that after an election the elected can make drastic reforms and realize their political views and promises. The disadvantages of "re-elected for four years" are too great, and it is the same for all parties. After winning election, the elected official does not dare to reform in order to seek re-election, and even tries to win over hostile voters; after winning a second term, he himself is the reform target, and the vicious cycle is endless; therefore, the elected should concentrate only on one term to govern seriously for the people. ↑
"Prohibit modification of tenure": Attempts to modify tenure are deemed acts of rebellion": Constitutional amendments to change the term of office or the principles of Permanent Peace are not allowed. The word "deemed" means that the legislator, based on the consideration of the legislative purpose, directly determines that the fact has legal effect, and does not allow the party or parties concerned to provide evidence to refute." History has repeatedly shown that governing authorities use large-scale actions including launching revolutions, creating civil disturbances, fomenting treason or constantly launching wars with the outside world to consolidate their power. Small-scale actions include threats to commit overt or covert acts to lead to amendments or using illegal means to change the Constitution. The aim is to extend their powers, but everything is kidnapping the people, unless the power of the people is far greater than the power of the ruler. There are few exceptions. They are the starting point of international turmoil of the social state. Conspirators are punished with rebellion and aggravated crimes. The Constitutional Standards state that "the right to formulate and amend the constitution belongs only to the people. The state, its organs, and public officials shall not deprive them of this right. No one can trespass the power of the state (Ukraine Constitution §5.3)". But regardless of the means, current elected public officials and civil servants shall not be eligible for office after the people amend the constitution.
●" Prohibit modification of tenure I": Constitutional revisions by those in power will always tie personal interests to the public welfare of humankind in disregard of permanent peace and sustainable development, and completely return the power to the people, and no agency may propose a bill to amend the constitution.
●" Prohibit modification of tenure II": The power to amend and draft the constitution is in the hands of the people, and the representative legislature shall not exceed its authority. All citizenship rights are in the hands of the people by the independent and transcendent "Supranational Human Rights Action and Citizenship Exercise Committee". Citizenship will not become a tool for politicians to kidnap the people. ↑
"Reforming defects in direct democracy": If there are special provisions in the constitution or referendum, the provisions shall be followed. In general, human beings are rational, and they need at least 60 points in their lifetime formative education to pass the grade. Referendums are like elections, where one vote determines victory or defeat. This kind of direct democracy will repeat the lessons of the subjugation of the country 2.500 years ago, direct democracy and rich Athens. Destroyed by the tyrannical and weak Sparta. The current war has progressed to "psychological warfare", "ideological warfare", "legal warfare", "Internet information warfare", "economic warfare", "diplomatic warfare", "space war", "bacterial warfare", "total warfare" and the pervasive "unrestricted warfare". Therefore, the defense with a minimum of 60% without the attendance threshold definitely has its legitimacy. In the Brexit referendum, 51% of voters in the UK agreed with the proposal. The EU, which was manipulated and divided, did not even know it, which should be taken as a warning. “In countries with severely divided ideologies, opposition parties use democracy to oppose democracy every day. Although the number of signatories is not large, this has a vigilant effect. If referendum fails, they must give up the right to sign for five years.” US President George W. Bush: “Initiatives and referendums make government more responsive to its citizens, neutralize the power of special interests and stimulate public involvement in state issues."
●"Reforming defects in direct democracy I": A "mandatory referendum" is required to draft the constitution, change the country, withdraw from the international security organization, or major national cases, and more than half of the voters of the state, province and city and more than half of the national voters must agree at the same time. ↑
"Take Germany as an example": § 24.2~3 of the Basic Law: In order to maintain peace, the Federation may join the collective security system of mutual protection. For this purpose, the Federation may agree to limit its sovereignty in order to establish and ensure a lasting peace and order between Europe and the countries of the world; To settle international disputes, the Federation may enter into universal, general, and compulsory international arbitration agreements. ↑
"Permanent Peace Human Rights Standards": The human rights standards of the Constitutional Standards are designed to protect the rights of the people and limit the power of the government. The most important thing is the executive body of the Great Unity of Human Rights: "Super-National Human Rights Action and Citizenship Exercise Committee", member Half of the different nationalities are assigned by the world's authoritative human rights institutions to demonstrate to the world the basic human rights standards for permanent peace that are true, perfect, and beautiful, allowing the ideal of a community with a shared future for mankind to take root in countries that practice permanent peace. For this reason, two-thirds of the people in our country and the world living under the threat of tyranny lose only the iron curtain and chains, violence and lies, and have nothing else to lose, but have won the holy land of human rights for eternal peace and the eastern capital of great harmony in the world.
●"Permanent Peace Human Rights Standards I": (1) Founding a nation on human rights. The creation of the value of life, the birth of the Constitutional Standard, the improvement of resource distribution, and the promotion of permanent peace are the people's most sacred right and the country's most urgent obligation. Our country has become a holy land of equality for the global human rights country-the principle of the country's perpetual nation-building. All who jointly sign to promote the "Eight Principles of Innate Human Rights", regardless of nationality, should be awarded the "Highest Medal for Permanent Peace of Mankind" (2) Human Rights Equality. People have no distinction between men and women, religion, race, social class, party, or nationality. They are all equal in the dignity and rights of a set of laws on earth. (3) Human rights diplomacy. The country should regard universal human rights as a prerequisite for handling all international relations. (4) The state divides powers for checks and balances to ensure that human rights are not violated. All public powers should be tested by the people. The heads of administration, procuratorate, and trial are elected annually; a quarter of legislators face election each year. (5) Legislation incorporates checks and balances on power to ensure responsiveness to human rights. The committees of Parliament should work together to check and balance, absorb all kinds of dissatisfaction from society, and respond to society's diverse temporal and spatial needs. (6) Human rights constitution. The real purpose of the Constitution is "human rights."
●"Permanent Peace Human Rights Standards II": The Constitutional Standards guarantees human rights standards, it is the basic obligation of the state to model the "universality of human rights" in global action.
"A nation founded on human rights": The Third Law of Innate Human Rights (Natural Law) positions Taiwan as the beacon of freedom around the world, and the constitution as a compass for people's human rights. Whether it is international law, constitution, political power, or sovereignty, the core purpose and meaning of all laws in the world are to "protect human rights". The meaning of a country’s existence is to protect human rights and develop a global human rights community." Its connotation and extension are based on the spirit of "fighting for human rights", a phrase which has become one of the dominant international orders of human rights. The Constitutional Standards advocate that "human rights talent is not endowed by other humans" and that "human beings" are the "subjects" of sovereignty at the supranational level↹national level↹subnational level.
●"A nation founded on human rights I": US Supreme Court of Justice Anthony Kennedy: "The existence of the Constitution allows every generation to invoke its principles to seek greater freedom."
●"A nation founded on human rights II": The United Nations also takes "people" as the main body rather than the country. The first sentence of the preamble of the Charter: "We, the people of the United Nations, are determined to save future generations from the tragic scourge of war of this generation, and reiterate " Basic human rights, human dignity and value", as well as the belief in the equal rights of men and women and nations of all sizes, create an appropriate environment, maintain justice, and respect obligations arising from treaties and other sources of international law. "Social progress and better people's livelihood", every sentence includes the word "people".
●"A nation founded on human rights III": to protect all kinds of human rights, international law, including international conventions, has established global, stable and comprehensive norms, and there is no need to enumerate human rights in traditional ways. Take freedom of speech as an example: International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights §19: (1) Everyone has the right to hold opinions without interference. (2) Everyone has the right to freedom of speech; this right should include the freedom to seek, receive and disseminate all kinds of information and ideas, regardless of national boundaries, whether through oral, written or printed, artistic forms, or through his choice Any other media. (3) The exercise of the rights stipulated in paragraph 2 of this article has special obligations and responsibilities. Therefore, there may be certain restrictions, but these restrictions are limited to legal provisions and necessary: (a) to respect the rights or reputation of others; (b) to protect national security or public order, public health or morals. ↑
"To create the highest values in life (§1~§28), advocate the Constitutional Standards (§1~§28), reform all distribution of powers (§1~§28), innovate and implement Permanent Peace (§1~§28)." These are presented to the world as an eternal "constitution of constitutions, a morality of moralities, a faith of all faiths, a fraternity of fraternities (Foreword). Xi Jinping said on July 28, 2020: "Reform and opening up are the keys to determining a nation's destiny." The Constitutional Standards take "freedom, democracy, human rights, and the rule of law" as basic standards for "building the country, reform, opening up, and safeguarding it". For example, it is open to "citizens of a fully democratic country to be able to vote for the head of our country at all levels in accordance with the law" Governments are organized based on the "super-national level↹national level↹sub-national level" as defined by the UN Global Governance Council. This is a development of natural law, which is naturally the most sacred right of the people (subject) and the most urgent obligation of the state (object). The above-mentioned concept of "life" is based on the lives of natural things, including all animals, plants and life on earth.
●"Life Value" in a broad sense includes (1) material value: economic value, life-sustaining value; (2) spiritual value: political value, religious value, recreational value, aesthetic value, and scientific value; (3) Ethical value: moral value, ecological value, and life value.
●"Life Value I" The value of life referred to in the Constitution: "Life" includes (1) individual life, progressing to (2) national life, and progressing to (3) global life. The famous British physicist Stephen Hawking predicted in the BBC documentary "Expedition New Earth" that human beings have only 100 years left to live on earth, and over the years he repeatedly warned that humans need to escape the earth to develop space colonies or perish.
●"Life Value II" The goal of the country is to enhance personal happiness, increase the quality of life, and sublimate the value of life. This goal will never change. Maintaining human dignity and promoting self-realization are the bounden duty of all state agencies and the essential elements of their existence. ↑
"National Positioning": A nation's most urgent obligation is to advocate and defend the political entity of the Constitutional Standards to replace the traditional state theory of a sovereign state and take the place of the country's important functions such as peace, security, stability, and prosperity.
●"National Positioning I" ~ The Capital of the World under Permanent Peace: (1) The purpose of a country is to serve the people and all humanity. In the age of the global village, we must take care of our country and the world, and we must also take care of the future, observing the time and situation to determine the progress of the country’s struggle. (2) The country is a contributor to global governance, world unity, human security, and sustainable development. The government should implement the regulations of this constitution and model a government of permanent peace to repair the shortcomings of the United Nations. (3) The country is at the supranational level (United Nations, European Union, African Union, ASEAN, Great Britain...), national level (China, Russia, US, Japan); sub-national level (state, region, province, special zone, such as California and Puerto Rico (US), Sichuan-(China); the micro-national level (city, capital, district, such as Los Angeles (California), Chengdu (Sichuan)and other fourth-level global village organization models. (4) The state is a development partner that models constitutional minimum standards. The framework of this charter provides the same legal effects for 249 political entities around the world. (5) The state is a universal moral model. Construct a peaceful development system which any political entity in the global village can operate forever, and practice a kingdom of truth, goodness, beauty and sacredness. In accordance with the concepts disclosed in the "UN Declaration on Social Progress and Development", it is the country's main responsibility to create conditions that are conducive to the development of all people and individuals. (6) The nation is a model of human charity. Demonstrate a community of human destiny in which life is free from want, survival is free from fear, everyone lives and works in peace and contentment, and is prosperous from generation to generation. The national minimum standard of living shall be guaranteed. The state should assist its citizens to enable them to engage in economic work and obtain the opportunities they need for life. Those who fail to obtain appropriate labor opportunities due to illness, disability, or other legitimate reasons should take care of their lives as necessary. For the disabled who are willing to work, the state should actively assist them to receive functional training in related jobs, provide employment opportunities, and help improve their working environment, or assist them in obtaining special tools that are beneficial to their work to engage in economic activities. The standards concerning national labor wages, working hours, rest and other working conditions shall meet the needs of healthy living. (7) The nation is the creator of world law, the pioneer of the unity of all laws, and the model of the rule of law in the world. (8) The nation is a peaceful sacred place of freedom, democracy, human rights and the rule of law, and the capital of world of great harmony. (9) The nation is a leader in ushering humanity into the future ten years ahead of schedule, ending internal strife and external troubles, destroying the nuclear weapons of autocratic nations, and inaugurating a system of permanent peace.
●"Countries ensure that the dignity and value of human beings will never lag behind for a day to other countries." See the PPP website https://www.lawlove.org/tw/book for a comparison with the Constitutional Standards. ↑
"Human rights reform" defines the principle that "human rights reform will never lag behind for a day to other countries". Constitution-making is the people's most sacred political right and the country's most urgent guarantee obligation. Make sure that you start with constitutional reforms, and other reforms will be effective. The constitution is your own talisman. The sovereign must personally make the constitution and make the constitution yourself. The only things that count and are believable: (2) “…government as long as it is bound by fixed laws, which the people have a voice in making, and a right to defend.” Founding Father of the United States-President John Adams. “…in questions of power then, let no more be heard of confidence in man, but bind him down from mischief by the chains of the constitution.” (founding father of the US President Thomas Jefferson). (3) The constitution is the general will of the people, and the right to make the constitution is always with you. It cannot be transferred or dominated (Schmitt, the master of constitutional studies). (4) Any value that comes from others will be taken away by others, and only oneself can take it away. (5) Letting others decide your constitution is tantamount to surrendering your soul to others to dominate your body. (6) You are the master of your destiny, and you are the commander of your soul. To dominate the constitution and amend the constitution, you must decide for yourself.
●Nations are guarantors of human dignity and must ensure they will never lag behind for a day to other countries. Comparison with the Constitutional Standards, please refer to Part Five Attachment or PPP website-Attachment table list.. ↑
"Innate human rights are superior to sovereignty": Democracy vs. In the long-term system competition of autocracy, natural law is the ultimate strategic tactic: as far as political philosophy is concerned, it is the root of civilization; as jurisprudence is concerned, it refers to the inherent law of justice in nature; as far as international law is concerned It is also based on natural law: "Assuming that God does not exist, it still exists" (Glautius); as far as the constitution is concerned, laws formed by agreeing to achieve a balance of interests are also natural laws. Democracy and autocracy correspond to "innate human rights" and "human rights granted by humans" respectively. US President Thomas Jefferson: " A free people [claim] their rights as derived from the laws of nature, and not as the gift of their chief magistrate." Human rights are inherent rights, not conferred by the constitution. The role of the constitution is only a means to protect and realize human rights. In history, there have also been precedents of using positive law to deny human rights. For example, the fascist and Nazi regimes used positive law as a legitimate way to commit genocide.
●"Innate human rights I": Human rights must not be transferred or divided and are inviolable. But political power is a human endowment and must be divided. Legislative, administrative, procuratorial and judicial elections are the starting point for the separation of powers.
●"Human rights take precedence over sovereignty": "Human rights are always higher than sovereignty. The purpose of fighting for sovereignty is to protect human rights. If human rights are gone, what is the use of sovereignty"(Hu Shih) Modern international law inherits and absorbs the ideological achievements of John Locke and others. It is recognized that sovereignty is no longer the sovereignty of the monarch, and of course it is not the sovereignty of tyrants and dictators who oppress the people, but rather sovereignty of the people. What international law protects is sovereignty of the people, not the sovereignty of all kinds of autocrats. Liberalism also provides academic support for the theory of "human rights over sovereignty." Liberal common sense tells us: the state is the means, the individual is the end, and the value of the individual is always higher than the state. From this common sense, we can logically deduce: Sovereignty is a means, human rights are an end, and the value of human rights is always higher than sovereignty. The concept of absolute sovereignty means that the international community is in a barbaric "jungle” state, and the principle of "human rights supremacy" will lead us to a more democratic, free, just and benevolent civilized world. (This is the jurisprudence basis for the theory of "human rights over sovereignty"). The core purpose of constitution is to protect human rights, and the core value of constitutionalism is that sovereignty rests with the people. For this reason, human rights are naturally higher than the sovereignty of power. According to the declaration of the Conference of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe: Human rights are not the internal affairs of a single country, but the common internal affairs of all countries. "The protection and promotion of human rights, fundamental freedoms, and the strengthening of the democratic system are not entirely subordinate to the internal affairs of relevant countries." The 1992 conference was held in Helsinki, with the participation of more than 50 countries including the United States and Canada (Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe-1992 Helsinki Summit, page 2 item 8).
●"Human rights take precedence over sovereignty I": The sovereignty of the people is higher than that of the constitution—constituent power belongs solely to the people: (1) Only with sovereignty can there be human rights. National sovereignty belongs to all taxpayers in a comprehensive and unconditional manner. (2) The constituent power and amend the constitution belongs only to the people, and the state, its agencies, and civil servants shall not interfere, deprive or restrict this right. (3) The President and Prime Minister shall take the lead in abiding by the Constitution. Anyone who proposes, instigates, supports, or intends to constituent or amend the constitution shall be subject to impeachment by the Parliament, judgment of the Constitutional Court, or removal by referendum. (4) The constitution-making process is not subject to legal or political interference but shall be handled in accordance with the democratic principles of impartiality, objectivity and civilization, or full democracies and/or the Constitutional Standards’ referendum law of are allowed to be exercised. (5) In the constitution-making process, the democratic countries of impartiality, objectivity and civilization should be invited. After being reported by an international authoritative organization (e.g., the UN Human Rights Commission, etc.), a delegation will be organized to supervise constitution-making in Taiwan. If the oversight report is rejected, the drafting of the constitution will be invalid due to lack of international legitimacy. (6) Taiwan is a pioneer in realizing global governance by the UN, and one of the political organizations that model global village ownership, co-governance, and sharing. Constituent constitution or amendments must not violate international law, the purposes of the UN and the general policy of international understanding. (7) Constitutional amendment drafts must be proposed with the people’s joint signatures to pass the referendum threshold, submitted to the Parliament for improvement and compilation, and approved by 2/3 of all members of Parliament, send it to the first instance for the approval of the judge of constitutional court, and then go through the second term (after the next year's re-election), and approved by 2/3 of all members of Parliament, it will be proposed in a referendum for approval by 3/5 of the electorate. Compulsory voting is adopted for all constituent or amendments constitution. (8) Amendments shall not be considered if the constitutional provisions are of essential importance and are the basis for the existence of a normative order. ("German Basic Law" §79: amendments that affect the federal system, the joint participation of various states in legislation, or the basic principles of §1 and §20 shall not be considered. The Constitutional Interpretations of the Council of Chief Justices of Taiwan (No. 499 and No.721) in the Constitution has essential importance and is the basis for the existence of the normative order. If the provisions are allowed to be revised, the overall normative order of the Constitution will be destroyed. The amended clause loses the legitimacy it should have.) ↑
"Any victim has unlimited rights to pursue private prosecution": Unlimited means "no time and space limitations", the term "any" refers to any perpetrator including any matter of executive or judicial power, and any individual or group that is directly or indirectly victimized. The term "unlimited" covers both "time” and “space." Before, during and after litigation, complaints can be lodged with domestic courts or international organizations (currently only UN citizens meeting the qualification of UN member states are eligible), and relevant state agencies are obliged to assist. This is the ultimate clause of human rights protection and judicial remedy, as well as part of transitional justice. It is also forward-looking human rights norms, bad prosecutions and bad rulings, miscarriage of justice, wrongful convictions, false cases, enforced disappearance cases, and the high-ranking party and government officials behind them. The crimes of the underworld are endless and all over the world, and they are specified in the constitution. See the two human rights conventions (International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and International Covenant on Economic, Social and Culture Rights): the obligations of the state and the rights of the people. Transitional justice will continue to be carried out to ensure continuous review of transitional justice issues. In the past, if people were treated unfairly and unjustly, there was no time limit for accountability, and the country would always face up to any grievances. Liang Chen, "German Transitional Justice Always on the Road", Commonwealth Magazine, May 17, 2013; the practice of transitional justice and restoration of history will not have an end, it is progressive, always moving forward. ↑
"Human Factors Engineering": Human factors engineering is one of the important human rights. The constitutional standard is the starting point of the human rights standard. The constitution expressly stipulates that the guarantor guarantees: "Human rights, environmental rights, right to peace and right to development will never lag behind for a day to other countries". All laws covering the world, including international laws, national constitutions. The core purpose of which is to protect human rights, and any other laws, including national security laws, and so on. The time sequence has come to the age of the global village, and all nations on the planet are free and equal. History has proved that nationalism is the last refuge of dictators, the last fig leaf of dictatorship preference, the shackles of vested interests in kidnapping people and their development, and the source of evil for ethnic minorities or aboriginal peoples. The state should educate the people to stop copying ethno-centrism (not including nationalism). Nationalism and patriotism are the last refuge for dictators. The ability of human beings to do evil far exceeds people's imagination. Hitler's regime is barbaric as an example. He deprived human rights on the grounds of carrying forward the great national rejuvenation, and ultimately endangered the whole world. The examples are too numerous to list and continue to happen. According to "International Country Code": Currently, 249 countries and regions are included in the "ISO 3166-1" code. 249-193=56 countries or regions (excluding reserved codes). These are not recognized as sovereigns, and weak countries need to demand ""human rights" higher than "sovereign"", which is also a requirement of the United Nations human rights standards. "Human dignity is inviolable and inalienable". Therefore, the German people recognize the inviolability and inalienability of human rights as the foundation of all human society and world peace and justice. (German Basic Law § 1). In the era of the global village, international law has entered the protection of individuals, and of course everyone is equal in terms of rights in international law.
● "Human Factors Engineering I": In order to meet the requirements of physical and mental health, comfortable life, convenient work, environmental safety, etc., humans design humanized products through the concept of ergonomics, including land, sea and air public projects. Human factors engineering can be divided into three parts. The first is "entity" human factors engineering, which generally refers to objects and products that can actually be used, especially public projects. The second is the human factors engineering of "cognition", which is more inclined to the psychological level, such as traffic signs, smartphones, 3C products, medical prescriptions and medications etc., all belong to cognitive human factors. The third is the human factors engineering of the "organization", sometimes referred to as the design and management of the organization. This is a macroscopic view of human factors, especially to make the government organization meet the "human needs". In short, the most important things human-factors engineering does are matters related to people.
●" Human Factors Engineering II": Taking the road human factor project as an example. If due to poor government design, the victim should be compensated by the state. Such as roads and trees, signal poles, telephone poles, and bridge piers are poorly designed, causing deaths and casualties, the national compensation shall be paid. This government laziness can be traced back 10 years. Taiwan currently lacks good road safety design guidelines. In contrast to other advanced countries, such as the United States, federal regulations directly state that road design must comply with the Uniform Manual of Road Traffic Management Signs (MUTCD) issued by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), which must be followed by both public and private sectors; Japan follows the road law. Authorized to establish a road structure order at the administrative rule level, which clearly declares the structure of each part of the road and plans a clear road structure system by law; the United Kingdom has traffic sign regulations and general guidelines (TSGRD) and a set of eight traffic sign manuals which clearly stipulate the markings of various signs and the rules for their use.
● "Human Factors Engineering III": Taking the European Union as an example, the European Commission requires the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) to formulate "European Norms" suitable for EU member states and European countries. Eurocodes provide: a method to prove compliance with the mechanical strength, stability and safety requirements of EU law in the event of a fire. The basis of construction and engineering contract specifications. Create a unified technical specification framework (CE mark) for construction products. As of March 2010, the Eurocode has become a mandatory requirement of the European Public Works Code and aims to become the de facto standard for the private sector. As a result, Eurocodes replace the existing national building codes issued by national standards bodies (such as BS 5950). In addition, it is expected that each country/region will publish a national annex to the Eurocode, which requires a reference to a specific country/region (such as the United Kingdom national annex). The motto of the Eurocode is "Building the Future".
●"Innocent Death": Human rights as one. The government is responsible for those who die innocently on homeland. According to the relevant provisions of Israel’s National Insurance Law, for “deemed as a hostile action casualty”, the following two conditions must be met: the first condition is injuries suffered in hostilities, and the second condition is identity, the scope includes not Israeli citizens, who have no Israeli citizenship, enter Israel legally, or do not require a visa, such as those with diplomatic passports or tourists from visa-exempt countries in Israel, etc. And wounded in the territory of the State of Israel or in the Jewish territory of Samaria (territory controlled by Israel). People outside the country can be killed or injured due to "hostilities," and their family members have the right to receive allowances and various benefits designed to help and support their recovery. After a terrorist attack occurs, rehabilitation workers (social workers who have received special training) will immediately contact the victims and their families and provide them with advice and guidance on any issues and fight for their rights at any time and are in the State of Israel. Injured in the territory or in Samaritan Jewish territory (territory controlled by Israel). There was a bus explosion in Jerusalem, killing more than ten people, including two Chinese workers from Fujian. The Israeli government immediately contacted the Chinese side to negotiate compensation, but verification by the Chinese consulate showed the two were illegal immigrants and entered the country illegally, so the embassy no longer cooperated. Later, the Israeli government held a special meeting. The meeting held that the government is responsible for anyone who died innocently on Israel’s soil. As for whether this person was smuggled in or not, that is another matter. The meeting finally decided to treat the two Chinese who died in the same way and treat the aftermath in accordance with national treatment. After the meeting, the Israeli government sent a special person to Fujian to find the families of the two migrant workers. The pension standards are as follows: the living parents of the deceased will be paid at the standard of 1,100 dollars per month until the death of the elderly; the minor children will be paid at the standard of 1,100 dollars per month until the death of the elderly. Adults: those with wives will be paid $1,700 per month until death. The family of the deceased asked for one-time payments and the Israeli government agreed. The final payment was 700,000 US dollars for each deceased. All related investigation costs shall be borne by the Israeli government. (Spring Breeze Newsletter 2021/12/29). ↑
"The state shall not permanently retain the bad records of people": If it is a recidivist who may aggravate his criminal liability, general law stipulates a limit of five years. In legal practice, recording people’s mistakes for a lifetime, besides enabling use in political disputes and suppression, carries harm that far outweighs the benefits. For people who have been criminally punished— regardless of the severity of the crime, the magnitude of the related evil, or repentance—the crime is recorded and cannot be erased for life. As a result, a lifelong black background and threat remains and cannot be whitewashed, any mistakes remain black forever. This is the reason for countless major social problems. The purpose is seriously misguided, and it is also highly contrary to national moral fraternity. People make mistakes, which can affect the social environment, education, culture, ethos, and even all aspects of life and survival. It is said that "When people cannot meet material requirements, they will take risks because they are forced to stand up and endanger the interests of others to satisfy themselves." is a description of human nature. Human rights protection should indeed include this small number of people and vulnerable. For this reason, "Those who have not committed crimes for ten consecutive years are prohibited from leaving bad records" and present to the world the eternal "Constitution of Constitutions, Morality of Moralities, Faith of All Faiths, and Fraternity of Fraternities" in accordance with the Constitutional Standards to eradicate the root cause of war. As Roman philosopher Cicero: “Salus populi suprema lex esto [The welfare of the people shall be the supreme law].” The longest conviction record period shall not exceed the prosecution period for violations of the law. [Note: Those who have escaped the statute of limitations on prosecution are innocent and have no criminal record, but those who accept legal corrections have a lifelong bad record?] "Right to be Forgotten" The European Court of Justice pointed out in the judgment that when the basic rights of individuals are damaged by the disclosure of personal information and the disclosure is not in the public interest, "the links and information on the result list must be deleted". Please refer to 1. Directive 95/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 October 1995 on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data (OJ 1995 L 281, p 31). 2. Case C-131/12 of 13 May 2014 Google Spain SL, Google Inc. v Agencia Española de Protección de Datos, Mario Costeja González.
The definition of "human rights openness": "National Human Rights Action and Citizenship Exercise Committee members, half of whom are appointed by international authoritative human rights organizations", the Constitutional Standards protect human rights standards". Human rights need to be upheld by the rule of law. The basic principle of the rule of law is: "The people can do anything that is not clearly restricted by the law; the government can do nothing that is not clearly authorized by law. ↑
"National Human Rights Committee": This is the provision of the Paris Principles. The purpose of the constitution is to protect "human rights". "Human Rights as One" has been signed by 193 countries and listed as a universal human rights standard (Declaration of Human Rights) and included in the UN Charter. In fact, the persecutors of human rights also include countries. Our time period has entered the era of the global village. In order to implement the United Nations community of human destiny and enhance the principles relating to the Status of National Institutions (The Paris Principles), the national institution for the promotion and protection of human rights, the "National Human Rights Action and Citizenship Exercise Committee" (abbreviation: Human Rights Council) should be set up in the Presidential Office. Half of the Human Rights Council should be appointed by international authoritative human rights organizations; and since the rights of speech, media and communication are the first rights of human rights, the Human Rights Council must also have the personnel rights of the National Communications Commission in accordance with the law, so that it will not become a toothless tiger.
●"National Human Rights Committee I”: The Human Rights Committee controls the National Communications Commission’s final personnel appointment and removal powers including monitoring the practice of human rights; the right to review human rights bills; the right to investigate duties; extraordinary appeal power; handling elections, recalls and citizens’ self-determination rights, adjudicating elections, referendum disputes, and declaring voting results. The Human Rights Committee will set up a "Human Rights Monitor" to impeach of unfit guarantors to Parliament or local councils. The Human Rights Committee should issue a human rights bulletin to the world every year. In addition to the UN's routine reports, the right to peace, the right to a safe environment, the right to development, and other rights should be clearly listed as indicative governance indicators.
●"National Human Rights Committee II”: The Age of Democratization and the Age of globalization are unstoppable historical trends in human society. One of its important features is the increasing and increasing influence of transnational organizations and supranational organizations. Leading the great era to further protect human rights, the national "Super-National Human Rights Action and Citizenship Committee" that practices permanent peace came into being.
●"National Human Rights Committee III”: The members of the Human Rights Council are composed of international elites, and the national human rights protection for the practice of permanent peace will be in line with international standards through the recommendations and suggestions of international elites. ↑
"Election fairness to serve the public": This is the source of most election disputes. For example, on February 1, 2021/ the military that has controlled the Burmese regime since ancient times, launched a coup against the democratically elected government of the ruling "National League for Democracy" on the grounds of "election fraud", deposing President Win Myint and actual leader Aung San Suu Kyi. Several top ruling party leaders were arrested by the military. Another example is Belarus' "election fraud". The August 14, 2020, Foreign Ministers' Meeting of the EU considered the election results corrupt and initiated sanctions procedures. Those who violate human rights or civil rights always those in power who hold public powers, especially in authoritarian countries. Generally speaking, there are internationally recognized and authoritative human rights institutions in the private sector, such as the Red Cross, Amnesty International, International Human Rights Watch, International Transparency Organization, etc., all of which have their own nationalities. If they are appointed by their headquarters, they can also serve on the Human Rights Action and Citizenship Exercise Committee. Gene Sharp, the godfather of nonviolent resistance: "Dictators won’t allow elections that could remove them from their thrones. "
"Safeguarding Human Rights”: This is one of the grand strategies of national defense. In accordance with the UN Charter and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights signed by all members: "Human rights issues are global internal affairs that begin with separation of powers of the country and come into effect through the people's vote". Safeguarding Human Rights is a two-way concept. On the one hand, it prevents the state from abusing the power of punishment and violating human rights; on the other hand, it prevents criminals or potential criminals from committing crimes and violating human rights. It protects criminals and potential offenders, as well as victims and potential victims, and at the same time maintains the two ends of the rule of law, rather than just constructing a "victim-centered" judicial litigation system. More broadly speaking: the ability of human beings to do evil is far beyond people's imagination. Hitler's barbaric regime is an example. He deprived human rights on the grounds of carrying forward the great national rejuvenation, eventually endangering the whole world (as mentioned above). See also: How did the rise of Nazi Germany and the creation of an economic miracle become a disaster? US President Franklin D. Roosevelt: "We had to struggle with the old enemies of peace… We know now that Government by organized money is just as dangerous as Government by organized mob."
●"Safeguarding Human Rights I”: The UN General Assembly declared Human Rights Day on December 10, 1948. This universal declaration is "the common standard that all people and all countries strive to achieve” and calls on all member states and people everywhere to promote and guarantee the various the effective recognition and compliance of these rights and freedoms.
●"Safeguarding Human Rights II”: Human rights education: (1) The education and culture of freedom, democracy, human rights, and the rule of law are the foundation of the nation's constitution. (2) Free education. The country must have a comprehensive human rights education policy, including schools, society, public officials, and clergy. The country should continue to promote a perfect lifelong education system and coordinate the national policy of lifelong education for human safety and sustainable development; lifelong education funds should occupy an appropriate proportion in the budgets of governments at all levels. (3) All state agencies, organizations, governments at all levels, and industrial organizations should clearly define the key performance indicators (KPIs) for human safety and sustainable development, as an annual performance appraisal, report to the people, and guide the people to learn. (4) Every year, the president shall publicize the administrative performance of national agencies in implementing human security, permanent peace, and sustainable development to the entire people and all mankind. (5) The government should ensure that all residents can use Internet bandwidth at a sufficient speed to obtain instant access to all life and education information for human safety and sustainable development, and to enjoy all government public services. (6) The internet is free for the poor. Implement life-long education for sustainable learning. For citizens below the poverty line, the basic cost of Internet access is absorbed by the information industry, sharing education is free, and sharing government public services. (7) Free vocational education and training. With free education, the poor can stand up, classes can flow, and society can be stable for a long time. (8) The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural, and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights are the basic teaching materials for human rights education.
●"Safeguarding Human Rights III”: The lifelong education system allows you to live and learn until you grow old. According to §31 of the Korean Constitution, all citizens have the right to education. Item 5 also stipulates that “the country should promote lifelong education”, which clearly defines the country’s responsibility and obligation to promote lifelong education; up to Item 6 stipulates that “the law shall Formulate education and operating systems related to school education and lifelong education, as well as basic matters such as education finance and faculty", clearly defining the basic constitutional responsibility of the country to promote lifelong learning. The "Social Education Law" was passed in 1982, and the "Social Education Law Enforcement Order" was passed in 1983, establishing a legal basis for lifelong learning. In 2000, in response to the international lifelong learning trend, the "Social Education Law" was changed to the "Lifelong Education Law", and the "Basic Plan for the Revitalization of Lifelong Education" was stipulated every five years as a criterion for promotion. In 2013, when Park Geun-hye took office, she called for "building a national lifelong learning system until the age of 100", combining "work-learning-ability" into one, and through the following three specific implementation methods, including: 1. Improve the proximity of lifelong learning 2. Construct an on-off online lifelong learning comprehensive support system; 3. Create economic activity, strengthen local social learning energy, to create a new vision and goal of lifelong learning. Source: National Constitutional Reform League, Cai Suzhen, April 23, 2015, "Constitution of the All-Constitution League, Does Lifelong Education Work in the Constitution (Part 1)".
●"Safeguarding Human Rights IV”: Human rights culture: (1) Clear distinction between right and wrong. Any political, economic, social, cultural, and food, medical, housing, and travel information, instructions, advertisements, and news must not be falsified, and representatives of public opinion have no right to falsify and demean others or the public's speech. (2) Any order should be accompanied by a declaration to protect basic human rights. The principal shall first indicate his identity and basis of power and inform the appointee of his rights. (3) There is a glorious country only if there are glorious citizens. The people's glorious record has the "right to be preserved," and it will remain on the internet for at least 100 years. Implemented rules, stipulated by law (4) Those with shameful records have the "right to be forgotten," including the right to erase criminal records within a limited time. The longest conviction record period shall not exceed the prosecution period for the violation of the law. [Note: Those who have escaped the prosecution period are innocent and have no criminal record, but those who accept legal corrections have a lifelong bad record?] (5) The constitution is the highest and greatest common belief of the people; the dignity of a person is guaranteed by the constitution for life. When a person passes away, the chairman of the village community development association and the village secretary can represent the country’s founding spirit of freedom, equality and fraternity, can assist the family in handling related matters; and at the request of the family, awarded the Constitutional Court's Human Contribution Certificate of Commendation for deceased, and let him leave his beloved country with great honor. (6) People's taxes are spent wholly on the people. No public agency or legal person funded by the state treasury shall misappropriate people’s taxes or encourage donations to political parties, religious groups, or individuals. (7) Separation of religion and state. Pan-public officials shall not use public resources or influence to fund religious groups or individuals by any name, nor may they accept financial assistance from any religious group or individual. State-owned property is owned by the whole people, and public officials are not allowed to play with the legal system in any form and transfer state-owned assets to religious groups or their related legal persons. Principle of Separation of Church and State: Although a country that practices the Permanent Peace Charter is a country with religious freedom, this paragraph clearly stipulates that religion shall not intervene in politics, and that the public resources enjoyed by the people will not be appropriated or misappropriated in the name of religion. (8) Personal religious beliefs are protected by the Constitution; those who spread religion have the obligation to jointly spread common sense of the Constitution. This common sense is compiled by the constitutional examination agency. Freedom of religious belief is protected by the Constitution, and of course it has a duty of loyalty to the Constitution. The constitution is also the biggest consensus of the whole people, and it is also the biggest educational foundation. Therefore, of course, religious propaganda must not get rid of the meaning of the constitution and should not treat the sacred and solemn constitution as if it does not exist. (9) The legal status of religious organizations and their individual leaders is the same as that of other organizations, and both have the obligation to pay taxes in accordance with the law. (10) People's donations to think tanks, schools, education, hospitals, non-government, non-political parties and non-religious public welfare organizations are fully tax deductible. (11) Separation of government and business. Continuous improvement of resource allocation is the cornerstone of permanent peace and development. Companies should make good use of lobbying to meet publicly in official offices. Any appointments to meet elsewhere, regardless of whether they are civil servants or businessmen, should be punished by law regardless of whether there is a specific violation of the law. (12) Any organization that invests with public funds, or decision-makers of publicly funded, or stock-listed companies should declare their assets. Those whose sources of assets are unknown should be punished by law. (13) Separation of government and media: (a) The media shall not be exempted from the obligation of loyalty to all taxpayers; (b) The media shall not behave falsely; (c) The media should tell the truth and shall not make false propaganda; (d) The media shall not create fake news; (e) The media shall not become a thug for a specific organization through unexplained and anonymous placement marketing; (f) Media resources are limited and monopoly of multiple political channels is prohibited; (g) For electronic media with similar political tendencies or ideological directions, the national competent authority has the right to request mergers or draw lots to approve licenses; (h) The media cannot accept foreign capital (except for international public equipment); (i) The media has the right and obligation to safeguard basic human rights; (j) The media cannot use its influence, voice or resource advantages to interfere in politics, distort academics, or advocate autocracy. Violators are subject to legal sanctions. (14) Separation of political party and government. (15) Separation of underworld and law enforcement: Politics or parties are not allowed to connect with secret organizations (underworld/black gold forces). (16) The Law on the Separation of State and Religion, the Law on the Separation of Government and Business, the Law on the Separation of Government from the Media, the Law on the Separation of Party and Government, and the Law on the Appraisal of Political Tendency shall be prescribed by law in accordance with the principles and principles of the separation of powers to protect human rights. (17) To implement global localization and localization, the buildings of relevant state agencies should reflect the world-view pf a cultural establishment that symbolizes "universal human rights".
●"Safeguarding Human Rights V”: Since 1966 the United States police must inform the suspect’s rights as follows before interrogation: (i.e. the "Miranda Declaration") "You have the right to remain silent, otherwise everything you say can and will be in court As unfavorable evidence against you; before the interrogation, you have the right to talk to a lawyer and get help and advice from the lawyer; during the interrogation, you have the right to have a lawyer present; if you want to hire a lawyer but cannot afford it, the court will appoint a lawyer for you." ↑
"Human rights issues are global internal affairs": Recall that one of the main drafters of the "Universal Declaration of Human Rights" was the Chinese scholar Zhang Pengchun (1892-1957). The chairman of the UN Security Council meeting on May 07, 2021, was China’s Foreign Minister Wang Yi. In a meeting with US Secretary of State Antony Blinken, the American warned: “The actions of some powerful countries (implying China and Russia) have set an example of impunity for evil for other countries." He also said: "Insisting on internal jurisdiction does not mean you can do whatever you want, enslaving and torturing people, making them disappear, imposing ethnic cleansing, or violating human rights in other ways." That is to say, everyone is equal before unified global human rights laws. When the truth of jurisprudence conflicts with the conditions of the country and the conditions of the people, what should be adjusted is the conditions of the country and the people; when jus cogens conflicts with international law, adjustments are made in international law; when international law conflicts with national law, it is national law that yields. The right to peace, the right to a safe environment and the right to develop, which have been internationally recognized as a new generation of human rights standards, cannot be deprived by legislation. The legislature can approve joining international organizations related to major development, but withdrawal must be okayed by a 2/3 majority in a referendum. Nobel Peace Prize winner Dr. Martin Luther King: “Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere.”
●"Countries’ Human Rights Issues Are Global Internal Affairs". Comparison with the norms of the Constitutional Standards, please refer to Part Five Attachment or PPP website-Attachment table list.. ↑
"Environmental rights": Take Taiwan as an example: the definition of "environment" in Article 2, Paragraph 1 of the Basic Law of the Environment refers to the general term for various natural resources that affect the survival and development of human beings and natural factors that have been influenced by human beings, including sunlight, air, water, soil, land, minerals, forests, wildlife, landscape and recreation, socio-economic, cultural, cultural and historical sites, natural relics and natural ecosystems, etc. ↑
"Guarantors for participation in elections": The true meaning of democracy—an elected president, executive heads at all levels, and representatives of public opinion at all levels are originally the guarantors of constitutional enactment (Constitutional Standards §24), and they must ensure the promotion of basic human rights, environmental rights, peace rights, and development rights (the third generation). Human rights will never lag behind for a day to other countries. This is not an obligation to be better than others. This is just asking for the citizens to be like "other people", not asking to be more than others. If the basic duty to participate in elections is not to protect "human rights," it is to prevent the devil from coming to rule us. Elections are a basic condition for defense of human rights: "The inherent dignity of all members of the human family and their equal and inalienable rights" are described in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the UN Charter, the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, and the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. These international laws have long been in place and are higher than constitutions, and they should not be degraded by being written into constitutions.
●"Guarantors for participation in elections I”: On October 17, 2015, the Provisional National Party Parliament of the Kuomintang decided to change the party’s presidential candidate in 2016 to Eric Chu, who was elected mayor of New Taipei City in 2014. Source: Lai Yuzhen, "Eric Chu selected, Zhu Hong-xia ousted; Provisional Parliament Gets its Wish as Eric Chu chosen in Plenary Session", October 17, 2015, ET News. At the same time, many members who were elected in 2014 wanted to run for the legislature in 2016. Chen Huiping: "As soon as she was elected, she moved to the legislature. 23 DPP members compete in primary election." March 11, 2015, Liberty Times Digital News. Once a candidate is elected, it is equivalent to signing a contract with the people, and at least 3/4 of the term must be completed. Politicians will not be opportunistic in the future and will not violate tenure promises given to the people.
●"Guarantors for participation in elections II”: Guarantee that human rights will never lag behind for a day to other countries: (1) The inalienable and inalienable nature of human rights affirms the inviolability and inalienability of human rights, the foundation of all human societies and world peace and justice. (2) Great Harmony of Human Rights. Acknowledge the intent declared in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the International Human Rights Covenants and confirm that everyone has the right to enjoy all the rights and freedoms contained in these documents, without any distinction. Therefore, it is the nation's basic obligation to ensure that human rights will never lag behind for a day to other countries. (3) All International Laws and the Universal Charter of Nature that are conducive to the protection of human rights constitute a part of the national law and override the national law (including the constitution), and directly create rights and duties for the people of our country. [Australia sued an international court in 2010, alleging that Japan's whaling industry violated international conventions. The International Court of Justice ruled against Japan, which at the time was the world's second-largest economy but promptly complied.] (4) All laws that have universal values and protect human rights constitute a part of the nation's constitution and laws, and the people have the right to refer to and use them. No agency can exclude them without due legal process. (5) The country is obliged to implement the United Nations universal human rights norms, to actively accept the review of the United Nations Human Rights Commission every year, and to implement its corrections, accounting for negligent acts by organs and public officials.
●"Guarantors for participation in elections III”: According to the universal human rights standards signed by all countries, the issue of human rights is a global internal affair, and everyone should be protected equally. The basic obligation of the constitution is to protect human rights from being violated by the state and not to fall behind the standards of other countries.
●"Guarantors for participation in elections IV”: The right to human security: (1) Ensuring human security in accordance with the UN Charter is the most basic obligation of the guarantor of the Constitution. Including: (a) Economic security: freedom from poverty and deprivation: including unemployment, job insecurity, poor human engineering, income and resource inequality, poverty and lack of housing. (b) Food safety: to ensure the quantity and quality of food. Unconditional basic income. (c) Health and safety: free from disease, water, land, and air pollution). (d) Environmental safety: free from pollution and forest destruction in technological processes, products, power generation, etc. (e) Personal safety: freedom from lynching, war, violence, conflict, poverty, drug-related crimes, violence against women and children, terrorism, and personal data and privacy rights. (f) Traffic safety: road, land, sea, air, internet, post, information, etc. (g) Community safety: Family, ethnic group, community, and culture are free from unequal treatment. (h) Educational safety: The state is responsible for the safety and development of childbirth, nurturing, education, sports, sports, music, art, amusement parks, zoos, botanical gardens, parks, etc. (i) Political security: freedom from ideological persecution, violation of human rights, civil rights, and democratic principles. (j) Financial security: The state sets up a financial supervision and management committee that is independent of the system and structure. Only legal experts and mathematics experts are allowed in the meeting, and financial officials are prohibited from entering. (2) Everyone is responsible for the rise and fall of the earth. Every citizen of the earth has the right and responsibility to safeguard the global environment, climate, air, water resources, nuclear pollution, and other common issues of mankind. (3) Doctors who affect the right to life shall not make a diagnosis alone. They should be reviewed and consulted by those with the same qualifications. After the consultation, they must double-check before the diagnosis, and they are fully responsible at all levels. (4) The state should strive to develop this "prediction system" for various industries and technologies. In particular, hospitals and courts that concern human life should give priority to development and implementation. (5) The state should ensure environmental safety, the health of humans, animals and plants, and the protection of the ecological environment in accordance with the "early warning principle" (also known as the "prohibition of leakage principle (transition of burden of proof)") in accordance with the international conventions. (6) All professions have rights and responsibilities, including physicians, pharmacists, judges, prosecutors, lawyers, accountants, pilots, engineers, etc., should be retrained regularly before continuing to practice. (7) The basic norms of political security. All public officials have the obligation to declare loyalty to all taxpayers. The following public positions shall be nationals who were born in my country and settled in my country for a long time: (a) Prime Minister; (b) Chairpersons of the National Assembly; (c) President of the Central Bank; (d) President of the Supreme Procuratorate; (e) President of the Supreme Court; (f) Diplomats; (g) Military officers; (h) Other national security personnel.
●"Guarantors for participation in elections V”: The "precautionary principle" is a part of the practice of environmental human rights which is linked to the London Declaration (1987 International Conference on the Protection of the North Sea), Rio Declaration (1992 United Nations) and European Union Charter (2000 EU). Its purpose is to ensure environmental safety, human, animal and plant health, and to protect the ecological environment. For details, please refer to the theme published by the UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) on the "Early Warning Principles" in 2005. For domestic documents, please refer to Zheng Xianyou, April 26, 2011, The Practice of Environmental Human Rights: Local Governance and Early Warning Principles. Therefore, the guarantor stipulated in the Constitutional Standards must have the ability to foresee, avoid and handle crises in the relevant part of its scope of power and responsibility, and take full responsibility for security.
●"Guarantors for participation in elections VI”: The "precautionary principle" interprets the connotation of the "early warning principle" from a further perspective; specifically, when an act threatens the environment or humans, such as a case of environmental hazard, the decision to seek compensation It is necessary to apply the "Prohibition of Leakage Principle" to the target; that is, even if the cause and effect relationship may not be fully proven scientifically or technically, the burden of proof should be borne by the "initiator" who caused the impact, not the general public who suspect or report this situation (change of burden of proof). Furthermore, as long as there is reasonable evidence that he may be the "initiator" of an environmental hazard case, he should be found "guilty", and the burden of proof to overturn this determination must be borne by the "initiator" himself to provide evidence to prove he is "not guilty".
●"Guarantors for participation in elections VII”: The right to sustainable development, the right to the environment, and the right to peace: (1) The purpose of life is to enhance the life of all human beings, and the meaning of life is to create a life that is inherited from the universe-the creed of the country's right to sustainable development. (2) Human beings are the subject of all laws and the ultimate goal of the sustainable development of the United Nations. All sustainable development must be never lag behind for a day to other countries or the United Nations. (3) People are the main body of the constitution and the ultimate target of the country's sustainable development. Each item in this constitution is the basic obligation of the constitution to guarantee the sustainable development of the person. (4) Each standing committee of the National Assembly should have a member specializing in sustainable development participating in legislation. (5) The government has the responsibility to promote the "cradle to cradle" policy, which is applicable to all sustainable development targets. Such as: formulating relevant laws and regulations, requiring industrial processes and all products to be achieved in order to return to nature safely. (6) The sustainable development benchmark law for environmental rights, peace rights, and development rights, supplemented by laws.
●"Guarantors for participation in elections VIII”: Human rights responsibilities — (1) The people’s responsibilities: Human rights are the spirit of nation-building and the soul of the Constitution. As long as there is one person on earth still living in an oppressed dictatorship, and a Chinese who is an angel of human rights and destiny, he has the natural mission of liberating his human rights. (2) Public responsibility: The earth is our home and human beings are our family. Any public official should uphold the rescue of a person enslaved by a dictatorship, representing the country’s destiny to save the world, and at the same time should shoulder the responsibility of building a community with a shared future for mankind. Divine mission. (3) State responsibility: Regardless of nationality, the state should grant honors and compensation to anyone who makes democratic contributions to a community of shared future for mankind. Regardless of domestic and overseas, all donations for this purpose should be fully tax-exempt and tax-deductible. (4) International responsibility: the human rights advantages of all the laws of the past have flowed into our country, and the human rights advantages of the laws of all the countries will flow out of our country in the future, which will give birth to human rights standards and construct the Constitutional Standards. The country should set a budget to fulfill its international responsibilities, market the Constitutional Standards for Permanent Peace to the world and explain why our country's success or failure is related to the world's great civilizations. ↑
"Permanent Peace and Rule of Law Standards": Rule of law standards: The Constitutional Standards adopt the supranational, national, subnational, and micro-national levels as defined by the UN’s Global Governance Committee as the longitude, and take natural law, jus cogens, international law, and all laws of all countries as the latitude, presenting a new compass to the world, thus responding to the demands of mankind for more than two thousand years: "The law must conform to nature, justice, equality, and freedom, democracy, and human rights." Build a peaceful system that mankind can operate forever. This "requirement" itself proves that there is indeed a great law that is worthy to be obeyed until death: "the Constitutional Standards for Permanent Peace for the truth and path of all life in the world” and does not lie in the definition of the ten thousand years of peace system. Conceptually, we must get rid of the old thinking of the traditional ruler of consolidating the power and controlling the people, that is, whether to accept universal values, international law or other countries’ good laws, is the arbitrary choice of the ruler, that is, the "+addition" system. The call of the era of perpetual peace in the global village should be "all laws into one," which means that all laws of the whole world are integrated, so that the people have the right to choose the best from the best. To balance stability, the country still has a phased right of rejection. This brings the continuous integration and improvement of human beings, that is, the "-subtraction system". Time will eventually merge into a common law of the world. In practice, we must emphasize the rule of law rather than the rule of man. No longer listen to the great jurists who compose music for the "voice of the dictator", the great entrepreneurs who applaud the "delivery of the authoritarian", or the politicians, media scholars and experts who cheer for the "smiling faces of the totalitarians" - they are all accomplices in robbing the beneficiaries of the structure. Don’t give your soul to others to dominate your body. Believe in your own eyes and your own hands, because none of the individuals, groups or countries you hear or see will be higher than what you possess in your hands for thousands of years, the wisdom of regulations. Finally, the law has the purpose it wants to pursue and the value it should achieve. For this reason, the two-thirds of the people in our country and the world living under the threat of autocracy will lose only the iron curtains and chains, violence and lies. Nothing else will be lost, but they will gain prosperity and happiness in one fell swoop---everyone realizes themselves and lives in peace and contentment. The creative society that prospers for generations and generations will lead humanity to realize global law, personal dreams, national dreams and world dreams and enter the final human system early to achieve an eternal and blessed state.
●" Permanent Peace and Rule of Law Standards I": According to Joseph Raz, a representative of positivist law, the basic principles of the rule of law are summarized as the following eight guidelines: (1) All laws should be applied to future, public and clear events or cases; (2) Laws should be correspondingly stable; (3) Special laws (especially legal orders) should be guided by open, stable, clear, and general rules; (4) The judiciary should be independent and not dictatorial; (5) The principles of natural justice must be observed, and in particular, trials must be conducted without prejudice in an open and fair hearing process. Therefore, the ability to correctly apply the law and the guiding behavior of the law are obviously indispensable; (6) The court should have the right to review the implementation of other principles (right of unconstitutional review), including review of lower-level and parliamentary legislation, and administrative activities; but the role of such review itself is very limited, only to ensure that it conforms to the rule of law; (7) The court should be easily accessible; delays, high costs, etc. can turn the most enlightened laws into fictitious regulations. (8) Crime prevention agencies should not be allowed to use their discretionary powers to distort the law. He also pointed out that these eight basic principles are very incomplete, and that they are listed only to illustrate the formal concept and effectiveness of the rule of law. In the final analysis, these principles lie in their basic idea, that is, the law should provide effective guidance, and they are directly related to the country's systems and methods related to the rule of law. Source: Pang Zheng, "Diversity and Consistency of Legal Concepts", Zhejiang Social Sciences, Issue 1, 2008, pp. 67-73.
●" Permanent Peace and Rule of Law Standards II": "Definition of the Rule of Law": Many times in human history, ruler and law have been synonymous—the law is the will of the ruler. The first step to get rid of this tyranny is rule by law, which includes the notion that the ruler is also subject to the law and should govern according to the law. The democratic system goes one step further and establishes the rule of law. Although no society or government system can be perfect, the rule of law protects fundamental political, social, and economic rights and reminds people that they are not limited to choosing between autocratic and incapable systems.
⑴ The rule of law means that no one, whether the president or an ordinary citizen, is above the law. A democratic government governs through legal means and is itself bound by law.
(2) The law should express the wishes of the people, not the ideas of the kings, dictator, military leader, religious leader, or self-proclaimed ruling party.
(3) Citizens under a democratic system are therefore willing to abide by social laws because they are obeying their own rules. Only when the people formulate laws that they must abide by can justice be best implemented.
(4) In a society under the rule of law, a powerful and independent court system should have the power, authority, means, and prestige to make government officials, and even high-level leaders, abide by the law.
(5) For this, judges should be well-trained, professional, independent, and impartial. Judges must abide by democratic principles in order to play the necessary role in the legal and political system.
(6) The laws of democratic countries may have many sources: written constitutions, laws and regulations, religious ethics, cultural traditions and customs. Regardless of the origin, the law should contain provisions to protect the rights and freedoms of citizens: (a) Everyone is equal before the law, and the law cannot be applied only to certain individuals or certain groups. (b) Citizens must be protected from arbitrary arrest, unreasonable home searches or confiscated personal property. (c) Citizens charged with crimes have the right to be heard promptly and publicly and to confront prosecutors and ask them questions. If found guilty, they must not be tortured or severely punished. (d) Citizens shall not be forced to provide testimony against themselves. This principle protects citizens from coercion, abuse or torture, and greatly reduces the tendency of the police to resort to these methods.
●For complete information on §12, please refer to the PPP website https://www.lawlove.org/en/book ↑
"A nation founded on rule of law": The Fourth Law of Innate Human Rights (Natural Law) positions Taiwan as a beacon of rule of law around the world, and the constitution as a compass for people's rule of law. This law is "an imperial clause that sublimates the country's international peace and security." "The meaning of the existence of a country is to protect the rule of law and develop a global legal community." Its connotation and extension are the spirit of "fighting for the rule of law, which has become one of the dominant constitutional international orders. "International Law overrides National Law". This is a prerequisite for perpetual peace and the basis of a broad common law of one earth and one world to maintain present and future common order. "Authoritative Doctrine": As for the role of international law, it determines and limits the scope of time, space, and personal aspects of domestic legal order, including issues such as national recognition, territory, and nationality. The contrast between international law and national law and the scope of validity of matters—that is, the scope of jurisdiction of national law to adjust matters—is also related. Norms created by international agreements limit the power of the state to decide matters arbitrarily.
●"A nation founded on rule of law I”: When a state agency exercises its public duty, it should directly apply international law as a priority. When no international law is applicable, it should only apply national law, and can refer to the laws of other countries to make the people a subject with a complete international character. All state agencies and their public officials are executors of a global legal system. If an executor violates international law or the constitution, they shall be punished by law. The principle of rule of law is to rule officials first and then the people. The constitution is the general will of the people, and the operation of all legal systems should follow the principles of globalization of constitutions, localization of constitutions, contemporary constitutional interpretation, and accountability for violations of the constitution. All legislative, administrative, procuratorial and judicial organs act in accordance with the constitution and law; whether or not a party has the authority to grant permission under the constitution or laws of other countries, it must be accompanied by fair reasons. International laws that are only particularly obstructive to the country’s implementation, or that are clearly immediately dangerous, should be sent to the international organization and signatory countries that originally formulated the bill or request international arbitration. International non-arbitration can be suspended. Any laws and regulations must be published on public media, and electronic files must be kept for inspection at any time; laws and regulations that have not been published or cannot be accessed immediately shall not be applicable to the parties concerned. Because of laxity on the part of guarantors of the constitution in public agencies, good laws of the nations are not published in public think tank media in a timely manner for comparison and application. Everyone has the right to investigate guarantors of the constitution. Implement the general goals of "ruling the country by law" and "ruling the world by law": "All good should be encouraged and developed, and all evil should be prohibited and punished." Refer to footnote "A World under Rule of Law ".
●"A nation founded on rule of law II”: The principle of establishing a country under the rule of law: (1) A country is established under the rule of law. Create a set of laws on a planet, a set of peaceful legal systems (including natural law, international law, all laws in all countries...), that can be operated forever by all countries, directly creating rights and duties for people is the basic obligation of the country to last forever. Our country will become the holy land of the rule of law in the world—the principle of the country's perpetual nation-building. All who jointly sign to promote and world (common) legalism through pre-existing global rule of law. (3) The value of the rule of law. No one is above the law, and no one shall be deprived of the protection of the law~ Legislative power, administrative power and judicial power are all derived from authorization in the people’s elections. The supreme and local procuratorate, the president of the court and the chief prosecutor are elected by the people in accordance with the law. (4) A world under rule of law. Through the joint relationship of the global village [Léon Duguit expounded on the "theoretical basis of constitutional thought", saying there is an eternal fact in the universe—that is, all countries or individuals, because they all live in human society, must establish various channels with each other. The joint relationship includes ① the joint relationship of common demands, that is, human beings have common needs, which can only be satisfied by living together; ② the joint relationship of division of labor, that is, human beings have different abilities and needs, which must be met through mutual exchange of services. See French jurist Duguit, "Constitution", Beijing: Commercial Press, published in 1962], everyone becomes the ultimate subject of the unified world law, implements development of eternal global (multiple/common) law, and constructs the final system of mankind. To this end, global co-opetition in legislative, executive and judiciary power is an eternal obligation of the state that cannot be waived or changed. (5) To implement universal (multiple/common) laws, the universal laws do not need to go through the transfer procedures of domestic legalization: the people can directly invoke them, and they are directly applicable to legislative, administrative, prosecution and trial situations. With the exception of international law, state agencies may make adjustments. (6) The essence of the rule of law is the contradiction between the "democracy" that adjusts everyone's rights and the "republic" that balances power. That is, the irreconcilable reconciliation of arbitration, the combination of contradictions, and the synthesis of opposites. (7) The implementation of eternal peace and the birth of a set of laws on the earth, directly creates rights and duties for the people, which is the country's permanent and unchanging basic obligation. (8) The purpose of the law should be in line with peace and justice. It should establish a great cause for the country, a great love for mankind, a great law for the world, and a unity for all generations. Countries should model the rule of law in global action.
●" A nation founded on rule of law III”: "Real weapons to defend the eternal peace of humanity": From the Pope’s Message for World Day of Peace 1976: It is necessary before all else to provide Peace with other weapons - weapons different from those designed to kill and exterminate humanity. What is needed above all are moral weapons, those which give strength and prestige to international law…To be promulgated throughout the country for faithful and perpetual observance by all. This means "those who pledge to always follow and adhere to all the provisions and regulations of international law and customary international law."
●" A nation founded on rule of law IV”: According to legal positivism: 1. National issues are issues of national legal order. Each individual is a legal subject. 2. Of course, international law overrides national law, directly creating obligations and rights on individuals. "Individuals" are the "direct subjects of international obligations and rights." 3. A law is anything created in accordance with the procedures prescribed by the Constitution as the basis of this order (delegated legislation). 4. International law and national law are a unified system of legal regulations, and the international legal order governs the national legal order of various countries, and the effectiveness of international law determines the effectiveness of the national legal order. 5. The basic norms of international law are the ultimate reason for national legal rules. Excerpt from Hans Kelsen (1881-1973), The General Theory of Law and the State. ↑
The Practice and Source of International Law". Definition: "International Law is the basic law of the world and the parent law of the basic law of the country (the constitution)". Consider the fact that one earth and a set of common laws of the world are an absolute requirement for permanent peace. In order to break through the evil law and government, it led to wars at home and abroad, the people’s constitution unconditionally practiced the Peace of Westphalia (1648) derived from natural law. All international laws are equivalent to customary international law, overriding national constitutions, and directly create rights and duties for governments and peoples. According to §38 of the Statute of the International Court of Justice, international custom can take effect without being signed, and §2.4 of the Charter of the United Nations has also been recognized as customary law by the International Court of Justice and has become a jus cogens; Article 38 of the Statute of the International Court of Justice—(1) Main sources of law: (a) International treaties/agreements (meaning that the legislative type is not a contract type); (b) Customary international law (that is accepted as a law as a proof of general practice, may take effect without being signed); (c) General legal principles recognized by civilized countries (2) Sources of subsidies of law: (d) Judicial precedents; (e) The doctrine of the most authoritative public jurists in various countries; (f) Principles of fairness and kindness. Foreword of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties: It is confirmed that the rules of customary international law will still prevail for all issues not stipulated in the articles of this Convention.
●"The Practice and Source of International Law I": Customary international law is one of the legal sources of international law. For its establishment requirements, please refer to Article 38(1) (b) of the Statute of the International Court of Justice, to wit: "Based on universal practice, it is recognized as law." Specifically, the requirements for the establishment of customary international law include: (1) Universality: it has "universal state practice", which is characterized by (a) spatial universality; (b) practice consistency: the practices of various countries are substantially consistent (c) Representativeness: It is necessary to consider whether representative countries, including countries that have a special impact on their interests, have consistent practices; (2) Time continuity: That is, the consistent general practice must pass a considerable period of time and show continuity (3) Certain belief in law: that is, most countries believe that they are obligated to engage in a certain legal act, believe that the practice is compulsory, and are willing to be bound by it. "Customary international law ": This is one of the main sources of international law, and its constituent elements include consistent acts of states and legal beliefs. The main rules are seven basic principles: sovereignty, recognition, consent, fidelity, freedom of the high seas, international responsibility and self-defense.
●"The Practice and Source of International Law II": Technological progress and social change will produce many new concepts and practices. If problems arise and current law does not provide for them, there are natural laws, natural rights, precedents, customs, legal principles, etc. that can be used as the basis for judgments. The court system must not shirk its responsibility as the authority to adjudicate legal disputes between parties. Refer to the Civil Code of Taiwan §1: If there is no applicable act for a civil case, the case shall be decided according to customs. If there is no such custom, the case shall be decided according to the jurisprudence. §2: Only those customs which are not against public policy or morals shall be applied to a civil case.
●"The Practice and Source of International Law III": ‘Authoritative International Theory’: According to positivism, analytical positivism and neo-Kantian law, Kelsen’s theory of international law is represented in modern country is represented. International law and national law are laws with the same meaning because they have the main characteristics of law—force, retaliation and war are forms of sanctions imposed by international law on wrongful acts. If we can interpret the use of force by one country against other countries as two kinds of illegal acts or sanctions, then "international law is no less than national law."
From the perspective of the role of international law, it determines and limits the time, space, and personal scope of the domestic legal order effectiveness, including issues such as national recognition, the scope of national territory, and nationality. The scope of counter-effects of international law and national law, that is, the scope of jurisdiction of national law to adjust matters is also related. The norms created by international agreements limit the power of the state to decide matters arbitrarily.
Kelsen believed that international law and national law are unified (monism), but as far as the relationship between the two is concerned, only two types are possible: one is that national law overrides international law; or conversely, national law overrides international law. Another possibility is that the two are in an equal relationship; but if the two are claimed to have the same status, there must be a third order that is higher than the two. Since the third order does not actually exist, the relationship between international law and national law must be one of high and low levels. For them to exist side by side independently of each other and not belong to a higher order, is impossible.
Most international jurists oppose monism. The main reason for advocating dualism or pluralism is that "there is not only one domestic legal order—there are many." They believe that international law and national law are two mutually independent legal orders, adjusting different matters separately and with different origins. However, this view cannot be established even logically; in other words, for two different and mutually independent normative systems to have their effects at the same time and space system, but not part of a higher order, is mutually contradictory and not possible.
To prove that national law and international law are two equally effective norms, pluralists put forward the theory that national law "recognizes" international law, that is, international law is only valid for a country after it is recognized by a country's national law. However, this theory unconsciously denies the claim that national law and international law are mutually independent and derives the conclusion that "national law overrides international law." As a result, pluralism essentially becomes monism, although it also advocates national law and international law. International law is unified, but this unification means that national law is superior to international law. The latter obtains effect from the former, and international law constitutes a part of national law. Kelsen believed that this kind of monism is completely opposed to his monism. He advocated that international law is superior to national law, which is "empowered" by international law and is therefore a relatively low-level legal order.
●"The Practice and Source of International Law IV": Many international conventions and natural laws can provide the best protection for the people, including natural law and natural rights, the UN Charter, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the San Francisco Peace Treaty (The Treaty of Peace with Japan), the Sino-US Mutual Defense Treaty under the framework of the Constitution of the Republic of China, and the "Taiwan Relations Act", which replaces the “Mutual Defense Treaty between the United States of America and the Republic of China ".
● The Positioning of "International Law" in each nation’s constitution vs. The Constitutional Standards, please refer to Part Five Attachment or PPP website-Attachment table list. ↑
"Jus cogens/peremptory norm": It is by no means changeable by any regime or generation of people, and any law that contradicts it is invalid. According to Article 53 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (VCLT), a treaty is void if, at the time of its conclusion, it conflicts with a peremptory norm of general international law. The following articles are generally recognized by the scope of enforcement covering jus cogens: norms include prohibitions against crimes against humanity, genocide, piracy and human trafficking, also including 1) The prohibition of the use of threats or force in Article 2 of the UN Charter; 2) Conventions on the Prevention and Punishment of Crime of Genocide; 3) Conventions on Crimes Against Humanity; 4) Conventions on Human Trafficking; 5) Conventions on the prohibition of racial discrimination; 6) Self-determination; 7) The preamble of the UN Charter; 8) The relevant parts of the UN Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment - the Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness; 9) Enforced disappearance; 10) The crime of apartheid; 11) Forced religious belief or disbelief;; 12) Other inhumane acts of the same nature that deliberately cause serious suffering or cause serious harm to the human body or physical and mental health. Coercive law is the highest standard, which cannot be preserved and exempted from restraint. A country that violates the coercive law shall bear the responsibility of the state, and shall not offer excuses of violation of national law or force majeure to avoid responsibility; and 13) Crimes within the jurisdiction of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Jus cogens is the highest standard, which cannot be reserved or exempted from restraint. A country that violates jus cogens shall bear responsibility as a state and individual and shall not be exonerated by claims of violating national law or force majeure.
● "Mandatory law/Jus cogens I": For all rights and obligations, the procedural law is "jus cogens". The recent development of international law believes that if the offending country engages in aggression, genocide, or violates the basic rights of people, it will be regarded as an infringement on the interests of the entire international community, rather than a single country. In this case, every country in the world can file a lawsuit against the offending country for compensation. Chiu Hungdah, "Modern International Law" P.70.
● "Mandatory law/Jus cogens II": See Article §27 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties: the country concerned shall not invoke the provisions of its national law as a reason for not fulfilling the treaty; as stated in §15 of the Russian Constitution: "The country must abide by the international agreement, even if the agreement conflicts with national law."
●"Mandatory law/Jus cogens III": Jus cogens, also known as the international "coercive law or compulsory law", refers to laws that are recognized in the international community to be absolutely enforced and strictly abided by, and even more so the norms of international law that must not be arbitrarily abandoned, violated, or changed. § 53 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties: "A treaty shall be null and void if it is concluded in conflict with a peremptory law of general international law (jus cogens)"; § 64 also stipulates: "When a new compulsory law of general international law (jus cogens) is produced, any existing treaty that contradicts this law shall become invalid and terminated", which shows its authority in international law. Currently internationally recognized jus cogens include the “Principle of People’s Self-Determination”, “Principle of Prohibition of Aggression”, “Principle of Prohibition of Genocide”, “Principle of No Discrimination on the Basis of Race”, “Crimes against Humanity”, “Prohibition of Slavery and Piracy”, "Permanent sovereignty over natural resources", "Prohibition of torture" and "Protection of all persons from enforced disappearance", etc. Please refer to Huang-chih Chiang, "Introduction to Public International Law", 2013, Taipei: Sharing, pp 127-129; these mandatory laws will protect the human rights of all human beings in the world. ↑
"The Constitution determines direct implementation of International Law": The Pope’s World Peace Proclamation in 2011-"Religious freedom is the road to peace: International Law recognizes that the status of individual life and freedom is a law that can never be denied." Although the authoritative doctrine requires the state to perform its obligations in international Law, it does not ask how the state performs this task: (1) the state can choose to directly apply the International Law; (2) International Law can also be transformed into National Law through legislation; 3) Take administrative measures; (4) Take judicial measures; (5) The country decides based on its constitution (Chiu Hungdah, Modern International Law, Revised Third Edition, P121). In addition, contemporary people can also formulate a constitution to confirm that all international laws since the Peace of Westphalia (1648) are equivalent to international customs, guarantee to be superior to the national constitution and directly take effect on the government and the people. The Statutes of the International Court of Justice §38: international custom can take effect without being signed; the UN Charter §2.4: the International Court of Justice confirms that customary law has become the jus cogens; mankind should strive to construct a constitutional jus cogens for permanent peace. Obsolete and outdated authoritarian poisoners argue that "international law must be recognized by a country’s law before it is valid for that country." This theory has led to the conclusion that "national law overrides international law" (see the previous footnote- “A nation founded on rule of law”). Therefore, international law overrides national law and directly creates rights and duties for all people and individuals, as well as governments or non-governmental organizations, including for-profit or non-profit organizations (such as NGOs, temples, etc.). German pacifist Ludwig Quidde: “The security of which we speak is to be attained by the development of international law through an international organization based on the principles of law and justice.”
●"The Constitution determines direct implementation of International Law I”: The supremacy of international law-the necessary conditions for permanent peace: (1) The ultimate goal of international law and national law is to protect all the values of every individual human being, and to restrict the national government's obligation to govern well and fulfill its obligations to serve the people and mankind. (2) Implement the basic constitutional principle of the supremacy of international law. Regardless of the present or future, regardless of whether the law provides for it, whether the country has a contract or not, this Constitution recognizes International Law, including natural law, international human rights law, humanitarian law, jus cogens and customary international law of the same nature and other global international laws and is applicable to most countries (but not specific or multilateral international laws between a few countries, which is equal to the national law) directly constitutes the main part of the national law, which overrides the national law (including the constitution), and directly creates rights and duties for the people of our country. This ensures that the people's universal freedom, democracy, human rights and dignity are not violated by the regime. (3) There should be legal standards for everything. All legal norms are standards. International standards organizations (such as ISO) or the highest standards of other countries (such as the European Union) constitute the basic standards of the country. (4) The country shall participate in the formulation or revision of international rules or international standards and shall not be absent or delay for excuses. (5) State agencies should automatically perform their international obligations in accordance with this constitution and laws, and no agency may invoke national laws (including the constitution and laws) as an excuse for non-compliance with international laws or international standards. (6) The state and all agencies should make every effort to implement a set of legal systems on the earth and continue to repair the world's constitution for permanent peaceful development (referred to as the universal law, the common law of mankind, or the constitution of the great unity of mankind). (7) Regardless of whether the country has signed it or not, any public international law, convention, treaty, or agreement that has more than 35 signatories will automatically come into force; the new public international law, convention, treaty, or agreement will be 30th after the 35th signatory country ratifies it. Automatically take effect every day. (8) Demonstrate a peace system that can last for all nations. Each standing committee of the National Assembly has a member who specializes in the localization of international law to participate in the legislation, laying the foundation for the Permanent Peace of mankind.
●"The Constitution determines direct implementation of International Law II": Article 13 of the United Nations Declaration of Rights and Obligations: Every country has the faith to fulfill its obligations arising from treaties, international law and other sources, and it shall not excuse its constitution or laws to fail to fulfill such obligations.
●"The Constitution determines direct implementation of International Law III": The Constitutional Standards define International Law as (1) "Global international law" applicable to all countries in the world, and (2) "General international law" applicable to most countries. But it does not include (1) "Specified international law" (such as: European Union law) that takes effect among a few countries, (2) Contract-based international law, and (3) Private international law.
●"The Constitution determines direct implementation of International Law IV": Although international law requires states to fulfill their obligations, it does not ask how states fulfill their obligations. Countries can choose to directly apply international law, or they can transform international law into national law through legislation, or they can adopt administrative or judicial measures. See Chiu Hungdah, Modern International Law, p. 121.
●For complete information on §13, please refer to the PPP website https://www.lawlove.org/en/book ↑
"The individual is the direct and final subject of all laws": all laws are born of man. The legal concept of "world legal community" is defined according to the two supplementary elements of legal positivism, "international authoritative formulation" and "individual social effectiveness". This means, whether in international law or domestic law, the "individual" is the direct ultimate "subject" of rights and obligations. ↑
"Reform of Rule of Law ": This article "is an imperial clause that enhances the country's international peace and security." Definition of "all laws in one, one for all people, comprehensive reform and return of power to the people". Promote the constitutions of Asian countries and the standards of local self-government constitutions (ISO), establish a "One World, One World (Common) Law" that everyone can share for Permanent Peace. The specific norms of all laws in the whole world constitute a part of national law to ensure that universal values such as human rights are not lag behind for a day to other countries. Those who conform to better universal values, this Constitution recognizes/confirms/guarantees that human rights are higher than sovereignty, and all people can take it back. The exercise of sovereign agency, which is entrusted to the Parliament to legislate, is used by itself in accordance with the Constitution and Law, and is no longer allowed to be treated by government political parties in the way it deems appropriate. Such citizens are qualified world citizens. Only great citizens can create great countries. "The basic propositions of this Constitution are constitutional globalization, localization of constitutional implementation, modernization of constitutional interpretation, and accountability for constitutional violations." All legislative, administrative, procuratorial, and judicial organs have the right to authority for granting the permission whether to invoke the constitution or laws of other countries in accordance with the constitution and law, but they must be accompanied by fair and open and complete reasons. The general goal of implementing the rule of law and advancing the rule of law in the world: all good should be encouraged and developed, and all evil should be prohibited and punished. If the government refuses the people to invoke the better constitution or laws of other countries, causing harm to the parties or the public, the state should provide compensation. Xanana Gusma, father of independence in East Timor: "I fight because international law recognizes my right." ↑
"All laws of all nations and all systems constitute a part of national law"— Including the right to choose a system and the right of paradigm transfers:
(1) Choose a way of life: Use democratic life to educate people into going to the polls to vote instead of protesting on the streets.
(2) Choose a referendum system: Switzerland has a population of 8 million, and 26 sovereign cantons. Each canton has its own constitution as a model.
(3) Choose the degree of legislative governance: use the cabinet system and committee system as a blueprint to improve and innovate.
(4) Choose an administrative system: use various semi-presidential systems and California as models to improve on and innovate.
(5) Choose a procuratorial system: Take election of the attorney generals of 43 of the US states as a model.
(6) Choose a supervisory system: based on the Nordic countries' supervisory envoys and improved and innovated.
(7) Choose the degree of trial and governance, based on the 50 states of the US, then improve and innovate.
(8) Select a voting system: Take mandatory voting in Australia and Brazil as a model. Voting serves to resolve social contradictions, reconcile the irreconcilable, forge combinations of contradictions and synthesize opposites. The length of voting intervals determines the ultimate strength of contradictions.
●"All laws of all nations and all systems constitute a part of national law I": The unity of all nations and all laws-necessary conditions for permanent peace: (1) Based on the principle that everyone benefits and no one suffers, in order to ensure freedom, democracy, human rights, rule of law and sovereignty will never lag behind for a day to other countries, and to protect against violation by evil laws, all constitutions, laws and international standards of universal value constitute part of our country's constitution, laws and national standards, and the people may compare and substantively cite them. (2) The general principles of law generally recognized by a fully democratic country and fair and virtuous rules. (3) All nations and peoples in our country can exercise immunity in accordance with the constitution or laws of their own country. However, if a foreign law blatantly undermines the public order and good customs of our country, it shall not be invoked. (4) This constitution refers to the right to invoke all laws and regulations in a fully democratic country, excepting those "the content of which is impossible for anyone to achieve, the conduct required or permitted constitutes a crime, the content is contrary to public order and good morals, the content has major obvious flaws, or there are immediately obvious exceptions for those who harm", the legislative, administrative, procuratorial and judicial organs shall not arbitrarily reduce or deprive them. (5) Establish one set of laws on earth, and the people can directly choose the best and use all the laws of the world with universal value. Legislative, administrative and judicial organs may refuse to use it, but it must have a sunset time limit, and it will lose its validity from the expiry date of the time limit. (6) Where domestic and foreign laws or standards do not stipulate, the judgment shall be based on natural law, natural rights, global jurisprudence, human customs, and recognized legal principles. No right can be created for any wrongdoing. (7) State agencies should abide by following all laws in a one-level system, governing the country according to the constitution, and administering according to the law: First level: world law (including natural law) reservation ~ human rights talent, not human endowment; second level: jus cogens reservations ~ General international law mandatory norms; third level: international law reservations ~ legislative public international law, customs, treaties; fourth level: people’s reservations ~ constitutional rights, constitutional amendment rights, and creation rights; fifth level: constitutional reservations ~ must be regulated by the constitution ; sixth level: absolute legal reservations ~ contractual international treaties, statutory crimes and punishments, constitutional entrustment; seventh level: relative legal reservations ~ specific and clear legal authorization to delegate orders; eighth level: non-legal items of the scope of reservation ~ orders made by administrative agencies. (8) Demonstrate a peace system that can last for all nations. Each standing committee of the National Assembly has a member who specializes in internalization of all nations to participate in legislation and consolidate world peace.
●"All laws of all nations and all systems constitute a part of national law II”: All nations, all laws, and all systems incorporate the principle of international law that illegal acts do not generate rights. It is believed that acts that violate international law are legally invalid, and political forces cannot benefit from illegal means. This applies by extension to all nations, all laws and all systems.
●"All laws of all nations and all systems constitute a part of national law III”: The world's finest laws and systems ensure that the people will not be infringed by the evil laws and evil systems. Existing bad laws can be altered through this principle to ensure the people's freedom and rights will never lag behind for a day to other countries.
●"All laws of all nations and all systems constitute a part of national law IV”: Whenever and wherever, any other country's charter that is more conducive to the protection of human rights forms part of our constitution and laws. The people of our country and any individual residing in our country can directly cite those who have not been suspended by the Congress, refused to use it without judicial judgment, or have been excluded from the use of citizens' self-determination.
Open up Rule of Law—practice of the unity of all laws is the first step toward maintaining peace and order for humanity. In the past, the law was the inevitable product of civilization; now, the law is a necessary means to maintain civilization; in the future, the law will be an absolute requirement for the advancement of civilization. To advance from a "country under the rule of law" to a "world under the rule of law," a world (multiple/ common) law must be constructed, and the rule of law must be created for permanent peace vernacular saying: "All laws in one, and one law for all people". This is the basis for “an unjust law is no law at all" (Lex injusta non est lex), the prevention of legal loopholes, and a set of multiple common laws on the planet. As for the "constitutional interpretation principle": these principles are rooted in the concept of judicial self-restraint or judges' self-restraint. The law is a reasonable two-sided inference. The real responsibility is to explore the meaning of the law as much as possible and save it from its weak constitutional basis.” Another example is the German Constitutional Court: When the degree of unconstitutionality of the law is obvious, it is declared unconstitutional. If the law can be interpreted in multiple ways, one of which is unconstitutional and the others are constitutional, the Constitutional Court must declare the law constitutional based on each of the constitutional interpretations.” (This was written by Eunice Yi-Ju Chen, a constitutional researcher of the Law-Love and Social Ethics Association, a predecessor of this Association). ↑
"Create a great civilization under rule of law": According to Roscoe Pound, law relates to civilization in a certain time and space. In the past, the law was the product of civilization; in the present, the law is a means to maintain civilization; in the future, the law will be a means to promote civilization. Taking a closer look, this is a clause that gave birth to "all laws in one, a common law for the world." More broadly, when the Constitutional Standards are popularized, human civilization will be ensured and dictatorships cannot exist; there will be no battlefields for unlimited warfare, nuclear weapons will be useless and will eventually be scrapped, and the world will be able to reduce global defense spending. Swords will be forged into plowshares, human wars will end, and plagues, pollution and poverty will disappear. ↑
"The great civilization of the ultimate constitutional guarantors", the Constitutional Standards require supreme leaders to assume responsibility as guarantors of the ultimate constitution (Constitutional Standards §24), and also require them to give up party membership from political parties, becoming credible and fair people and uniting the nation, consolidating the power of the country, and being given operational powers, including: (1) Each presidential candidate nominates an ad hoc human generation and ethnic development commissioner, each standing committee of the Parliament allocates one person to be responsible for the supervision of the exercise of state power and the implementation of the concept of the general ruling country; (2) the procuratorate candidate nominates an ad hoc committee members for universal development of universal law; each standing committee in the Parliament assigns one person to be responsible for the supervision and implementation of the integration of all nations and all laws; (3) The head of the Judiciary nominates an ad hoc committee commissioner for the development of international law, and each standing committee commissioner in the Parliament assigns one person to see that international law is superior to national law. Implementation and national legalization: these Parliamentary ad hoc committees’ member, if configured according to the total number in Parliament, are 12 standing committees x 3 ad hoc committees = 36 ad hoc committee members. The term of the ad hoc committees is the same as that of the nominees. For details, please refer to the note: "Parliamentary Organization". Refer to Footnote on "Legislature Organization" for details. US Secretary of State Henry Clay: "The Constitution of the United States was made not merely for the generation that then existed, but for posterity- unlimited, undefined, endless, perpetual posterity."
●" The great civilization of the ultimate constitutional guarantors I”: "Judicial Prosecutors and Judicial Adjudication Heads Lead Civilization": When running for election, the head of the procuratorate and the chief of justice should each nominate 12 local deputies of international law who are over 45 years old, and they shall be placed in 12 professional committees of the Parliament for the same term of office with the procuratorate. When taking office, the prosecutorial and judicial heads should publicly swear to renounce party membership, suspend party relations, and withdraw from business activities at the same time. Members of the national law and the localization of international law committees have no right to vote in the impeachment of the President of the Procuratorate and the Chief of the Judicial Court of the National Assembly. Except for those who are nominated to continue to serve as members of the Universal Law or the localization of international law, members of the sustainable development of generations, or nominated as justices, their treatment will remain unchanged for 3 years after leaving office, but they are still not allowed to participate in politics and business. subject to legal sanctions.
●" The great civilization of the ultimate constitutional guarantors II”: The president of the judiciary is elected with 12 members of International Law for Domestic Legalization. After being elected, these members will enter various professional committees of the Parliament and implement the universal value of international law in policies in various fields. In addition, a time limit banning participation in politics and business is specified to prevent ad hoc members from seeking personal gain.
●For complete information on §15, please refer to the PPP website https://www.lawlove.org/en/book ↑
"Safeguard Rule of Law ": This is one of the major national defense strategies. Any defense, of course, including the constitutional amendment to the 28 natural laws of the Constitution, cannot stand. The only criterion for testing the truth is putting it into practice. Observing international law and achieving a "world legal community" are the prerequisites for permanent peace. The laws needed to create lasting peace are fundamental obligations of the state. If it violates international law, the constitutional guarantors must of course bear responsibility on behalf of the state and will not be exonerated due to force majeure or other reasons. Refer to footnotes on jus cogens. Nor shall it "violate the standard of equality before the law in the global village" The Universal Declaration of Human Rights declares that all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights, and that everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in the Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, color, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status and violators shall be punished by law.
●"Safeguard Rule of Law I”: Receive legal education in courses to cultivate legal knowledge to prevent public officials or public departments from violating the law and infringing on the rights of the people; at the same time, they cultivate the people’s awareness of the rule of law and know how to protect their own rights and interests.
●"Safeguard Rule of Law II”: For "Disloyalty to the Constitution" refer to §87 of the German Basic Law. The "Federal Constitutional Protection Agency" should be set up to monitor the activities of radical forces and collect evidence of violations of the constitution. The defensive measures are clearly defined in the constitution. In addition, the German Criminal Law §80a~91a stipulates the crimes against peace, treason, and crimes against the rule of law and democratic countries. Abolishing fundamental rights to avoid belated justice is not justice.
●"Safeguard Rule of Law III”: Loyalty and credibility are the foundation of governance. Anyone who has doubts about loyalty to and the credibility of the Constitution should not be appointed to important positions in the country to protect important matters of the country’s people and not deviate from the country’s development policy. ↑
No country can violate International Law": also means "An unjust law is not a law ": This expressly regulates the behavior of state agencies, and the people are not subject to infringement by "bad laws that are good laws." Under the guidance of the provisions of natural law, we do not recognize that "bad laws are also laws." Where there are bad laws, there is bad governance. We must prevent evil governance according to the evil laws. We advocate these laws lacking "Law Love", "great love" or "fraternity" are not laws, and we do not agree with authoritarian thinking, feudal thinking, or the theory of "bad laws are also laws" of those with vested interests. Otherwise, since November 20, 1945, more than 5,000 people charged with guilt in Nuremberg, Germany, and more than 800 civil and military officials who have been sentenced to death can all be exonerated by administrative laws (bad laws are also laws) as an excuse. Source: Jia-He Lin, "Taipei Society Review: According to Evil Law and Acting on Evil Governance", Liberty Times website, August 30, 2013.
●No country can violate International Law I": Any injustice and unjust laws and regulations formulated by the abuse of legislative, administrative and judicial public power are generally covered, naturally including transitional justice. If civil servants simply abuse their power, they can be given administrative penalties such as demerits, deductions from performance appraisals, etc. Therefore, it must be a serious abuse of power to enter the criminal law structure, whether in the Eastern or Western world, regardless of whether it is a democratic country or an autocratic dictatorship, abusing public power to legislate, Administrative and judicial violations are too numerous to mention, and Hitler was also an abuser of power, and of course there is no statute of limitations for abuse of power. "Any reason for violating international law" includes reasons such as not signing international law or having withdrawn or violating domestic law. Soros: "The sovereignty of nations must be subject to international law and international institutions."
●No country can violate International Law II": The ultimate purpose of international law and domestic law is to protect all the values of each individual human being, and to restrict the national government to have good governance and fulfill its obligation to serve the people. Implement the basic constitutional principle of the supremacy of international law. Regardless of the present or the future, whether or not there is a law or whether a country has a contract or not, this Constitution recognizes international law, including natural law, international human rights law, humanitarian law, jus cogens and international customary law of the same nature and other global international law and applies to most countries. The international law (but not including specific or multilateral international law between a small number of countries, equal to domestic law) directly constitutes the main part of domestic law, overrides domestic law (including the constitution), and directly creates rights and obligations on the people and the country. This ensures the people's universal freedom, democracy, human rights and dignity are not violated by the regime. There should be legal standards for everything. All legal norms are all standards.
●No country can violate International Law III": In terms of "all rights and obligations", according to the traditional concept of international law, only the injured country has the right to directly claim compensation from the country that violates international law and infringes its rights, but recent developments in international law hold that if the infringing country engages in aggression or violations of basic human rights, such as slavery and racial discrimination, it is considered to be infringing upon the interests of the entire international community, not a single country. In this case, every country in the world, not just a single country that was directly injured, could sue the infringing country for compensation. For example, the International Court of Justice pointed out in the "East Timor Case" that the right of peoples to self-determination has the character of "rights and duties to all", so the obligations of all countries under this Convention are not limited by national borders. Please refer to Chiu Hungdah, Modern International Law, p.70.
●No country can violate International Law IV": International standards organizations (such as ISO) or the highest standards of other countries (such as the European Union) constitute the basic standards of the country. Countries should participate in the formulation or revision of international rules or international standards, without excused absence or excused delay. State organs shall automatically perform their international obligations in accordance with this Constitution and laws, and no organ shall invoke domestic laws (including the Constitution and laws) as an excuse for not complying with international laws or international standards. The state and all institutions should make every effort to implement one legal system on one earth, and permanently revise the world constitution for permanent peaceful development (referred to as global law, common law of mankind or the constitution of the great unity of mankind). Regardless of whether the country has signed it or not, any public international law, convention, treaty or agreement with more than 35 signatories will automatically enter into force; new public international laws, conventions, treaties or agreements will automatically enter into force on the 30th day after the 35th signatory country ratifies them. To demonstrate a peace system that can operate permanently in all countries, each standing committee of the National Assembly has a member specializing in the localization of international law to participate in the legislation, laying the foundation for the permanent peace of mankind.
●No country can violate International Law V": When national conditions, people's conditions and culture conflict with natural law, truth and jurisprudence, it is the national conditions, people's conditions and culture that need to be adjusted, not natural law, truth and jurisprudence. PPP has accumulated 50 years of global constitution comparisons: legal constitutions such as that of the US, political constitutions such as the UK’s, strategic constitutions such as Switzerland’s, semantic constitutions such as North Korea’s and other countries with no rules to follow, in order to completely eliminate thousands of years of excuses by dictatorships. These include "Oriental values" and "national characteristics", and result in the autocratic cycle of internal strife, foreign aggression, and continuous killing. Human beings urgently need a global constitution and a set of constitutional standards (ISO). ↑
Montesquieu, the originator of the separation of powers: Those in power strive to enhance that power. Even if the Parliament passes a bill, if it is against the will of the people or if other members of parliament hold different opinions, there is still a chance to veto it through a referendum. Members who deviate from public opinion must be punished if their proposals are not passed and fail to reach 50% of votes cast; on the other hand, members who are close to public opinion should be rewarded. Details shall be regulated by law. § 4 of the Estonian Constitution: The activities of the Estonian Parliament, the President of the Republic, the Government of the Republic and the courts shall be organized in accordance with the principles of separation of powers and balance of power. Armenian Constitution § 4 Separation of Powers Principles: On the basis of separation and balance of legislative, executive and judicial powers, state powers shall be exercised in accordance with the Constitution and laws. ↑
"Permanent Peace Legislation Standards": Legislation is the core of a constitutional country, and the constitutional legislative system is a matrix-type committee quasi-cabinet system without contemporary shortcomings, forming a three-party political system which eliminates the chronic diseases of legislation around the world today, creating unlimited advantages. Through the establishment of the electoral system, equal value of votes can be achieved, and eliminate one-party monopoly, dictatorship corruption, two-party oligopoly, two-party division of spoils, and multi-party chaos, resulting in idle discussions, will all be eliminated.
●"Permanent Peace Legislation Standards I": The legislative standards of this constitution follow the "Parliament sets up a one-vote, single-choice, third-party system of checks and balances matrix committee-centric system." Since national legislative procedures include council-centric systems, committee-centric systems and modified committee-centric systems, the PPP has made a comprehensive analysis and comparison of their advantages and disadvantages. The pros and cons were found to be mixed. For this reason, this constitution is determined to transform the world under rule of law and listing the most important points: (1) There are no legislative shortcomings known to mankind. (2) The efficiency of legislation is unprecedented in the world, and the advantages are too numerous to count. (3) The system guarantees the existence of a third force, exerting the catfish effect, and eliminating the pedanticism and oligopoly of two parties; there is also a lesson in preventing and blocking the division of the society and the state, to prevent one party from rebelling and subjugating the country, a legacy which is still taking place. (4) Re-elect a quarter of Parliament members every year to reflect public opinion, absorb public grievances, and implement civil rights; let the people go to voting stations rationally, instead of fighting on the streets, and reduce the chances of counter-reformers disrupting society. (5) It is forbidden to hold other elections at the same time, and mandatory voting serves to focus the will of the whole people to pay attention to state affairs. This maximizes the effect of education for the whole people and prevents bad political groups from taking advantage of secrets. (6) According to the Hawthorne scientific experiment, the emergence of national elites is conducive to national inspection and strategic decision-making. (7) Initiate a permanent peaceful development system and create a model for global legislative competition and cooperation. (8) To cooperate with local legislation, learn from the US’ hundreds of years of experience, with complete election of the people’s representatives every two years to ensure that the public opinion at the grassroots community reaches the Parliament and the international community, and no public opinion is abandoned. (9) Transform the universe and establish a set of laws on earth to ensure that human dignity, freedom, democracy, rule of law, human rights, and sovereignty will never lag behind for a day to other countries. The Constitutional Standards adopt the "subtractive approach", which means that all laws under the world are unified, and the people can directly use the best to eliminate the evil politics and evil laws of evil political parties. The current "optional method" adopted in the world takes effect only after the arbitrary decision of the person in power is transformed into national law, and the people are not allowed to directly invoke good laws and good governance, which is like a permanent tool of those in power. (10) Twelve committee chairs are elected by the people, and both ministers and prime ministers can be elected by the ministers, which is equivalent to twelve shadow governments, and extreme ideologies find it difficult to co-exist.
●"Permanent Peace Legislation Standards II": The legislative system designed by the constitutional standards will be able to develop the legislative law of pluralistic government and the improved committee system that can keep pace with the times. Refer Duguit’s The Theoretical Basis of Constitutional Thought, the Constitutional Standard reveals the core value of God, and the parliament adopts a modified committee-centric system. It consists of 12 standing committees (12*12=144 people) across the country and ad hoc committees distributed in 12 standing committees. 12 people, (12 people from the Universal Law Commission, and 12 people from the International Law Commission) (12*3=36 people), a total of 180 people in an organic matrix-style coordination system of checks and balances, like 12 all-powerful, national and global administrations in a quasi-government/shadow cabinet with 12 legislative chambers or 12 parliaments incorporating all laws in the whole world and international laws. Legislation is more flexible, adaptable, and adaptable. Every year partial re-elections are re-incorporated into the temporal and spatial situation, and the current situation is renewed every year. Everything is ahead of the times, and the necessary conditions for permanent peace and sustainable development have an original and purposeful system for the construction of permanent peace (see Kant on Perpetual Peace). For other philosophical principles, please refer to "Philosophers Look at the Constitutional Standards for Permanent Peace" published by the Permanent Peace Partnership, edited by Australian Philosophy Professor Andrew Theophanous.
●"Permanent Peace Legislation Standards III": The Constitution's compliance with the law should conform to "nature, justice, morality" and "freedom, democracy, and human rights", and must not violate global (common) law, jus cogens, public international law, and the constitution. The law should conform to the principle of clarity: (1) the constituent elements of the law must not be difficult to understand; (2) the legal normative effect should be foreseeable; (3) post-event relief of the law should be reviewed.
●"Permanent Peace Legislation Standards IV": National legislation should comply with the "rolling transformation" that regulates more than 20,000 international standards (ISO), and then "standardize and integrate" the legislative constitutional standards for permanent peace and sustainable development: (1) Legislative amendments: Congress should formulate and improve One Earth, One Set of Legal Systems, leading to rule of law civilization and promoting the legislative standards of permanent peace. (2) Basic responsibilities of legislation: ① Legislative model: The country is a holy place for citizens of the world to participate in global competition and cooperation in legislation. Everyone is a legislative angel and a life-long representative of public opinion, and they all carry the heavenly vocation of eternal peace for mankind. Congress should promote the establishment of a holy place that symbolizes the birth of "world law". ②Responsibility on behalf of the people: global law is the spirit of the founding of the country and the soul of the constitution. As long as there is still one person on the earth still living under the oppression of tyranny and dictatorship, the people of the country who are the angels of the world's legislative duty have the destiny and mission to help with legislation. ③Public officials’ duties: The earth is our homeland, and human beings are our family. All public officials have the obligation to build a community with a shared future for humanity and have the duty to save a law that violates universal values, which is the duty to save world peace. ④ International Responsibility: Adhere to one earth and one set of laws, implement the advantages of all countries and laws in the past, and let them flow into the country in the future; the advantages of all countries and laws will then flow out of the country to build a legal system that human beings can operate for a long time and achieve permanent peace. The country should prepare a proper budget to market to the world the necessity of peaceful development of the country. ⑤ The country's major policies and guidelines should lead the way in demonstrating the goals and ideals of the future great civilization of mankind as outlined by the "United Nations Commission on Global Governance". Take the lead in setting up a Congress of Permanent Peace comparable to the Democratic Committee of the United Nations General Assembly and attract members of the United Nations Parliamentary Assembly to jointly promote the ideals and values of the United Nations. (3) Basic beliefs in legislation: Legislation should follow human rights, constitutionalism, international legalism, and global (multiple/common) legalism. (4) Basic legislative procedures: Laws should be clear, globally consistent, complete and predictable. Through rolling transformation, standardized integration should be carried out to ensure that laws keep pace with the times, and their quality and national strength continue to improve. (5) Basic majority of legislation: Except for elections and constitutional amendments, any bill or policy, for the sake of peace and stability, must not be decided by a fragile and turbulent majority; it must be approved by more than 60% of the members before it takes effect. (6) Legislative choice system: when there are various national systems or various versions to choose from, the “inclusive system” that is most in line with human nature, universal values, permanent peace and the unity of mankind shall be adopted first; and "extractive" systems will be eliminated first. (7) The legislature should join the international standards organization ISO and its related committees, formulate legislative standards laws that conform to the international standards ISO, and contribute to the world. (8) The Law on Legislative Standards shall be prescribed by law and shall be published after constitutional review and approval.
●"Permanent Peace Legislation Standards V": Parliament must establish a complete global network database of laws and regulations, so that the Internet can be intelligent and thinkable, so that we humans can compare the advantages and disadvantages of global laws and regulations, to increase wisdom, discover truth and realize value, and build a world that can be operated forever by all countries. The peaceful legal system seeks to become the ISO constitutional standard, and even eventually becomes the emergence of the new jus cogens (mandatory law) §64 of the International Convention on the Law of Treaties.
●"Permanent Peace Legislation Standards VI": The United Nations Parliamentary Assembly (UNPA) is an institution recommended by the United Nations system. The idea is to open up election of members of parliament from member states, so people around the world can directly elect members of the UN parliament. This idea was born as early as the establishment of the League of Nations in the 1920s. In February 2009, this idea gained the support of more than 600 parliamentary members from more than 90 countries around the world. The proponents proposed several implementation plans for the UNPA. These included: promulgating new agreements, creating a General Assembly as a branch of the UN General Assembly, and progressively promoting the UNPA among the International Parliamentary Union or other non-state organizations. Some of the above-mentioned bills propose distributing electoral votes in proportion to the population and economic strength of UN member states. The UNPA movement was created, initially to advocate giving UNPA advice, and then gradually increase its power in the UN. The Democracy Committee of the UN General Assembly also mentioned in its report "Promoting International Democracy" that the UNPA could be established in accordance with § 22 of the UN Charter or by reforming the National Parliamentary Federation. In 2006, the Council of Europe adopted a resolution stating that "the establishment of an experimental parliamentary body with the consultative function of the UN General Assembly is a decisive step in raising the standard of the UN parliament." Also see Bummel, Andreas (May 2005), Developing International Democracy, Committee for a Democratic UN. According to the above information, if a country can create members of the United Nations Parliamentary Assembly or develop related mechanisms, it is obliged to integrate the country into the international community and the UN and ensure international space for the country.
●Comparison of countries’ norms for global rule of law and integration of legislative power with the Constitutional Standards, please refer to Part Five Attachment or PPP website-Attachment table list.
"Supranational Legislation": The Fifth Law of Innate Human Rights (Natural Law)] positions "Taiwan as the beacon of global legislation in the world, and the constitution is the compass of the people's global legislation. The prerequisite for perpetual peace is "multiple/ common law of the world" on a single earth; that is, international law overrides national law and directly creates rights and duties for the people and governments. Therefore, global competition in legislative power will inevitably arise. This shows that in a "super-national level-such as the UN" its charter and passed laws must be obeyed by the 193 member states; conversely, the 193 member states cannot enact laws that violate those of the UN. "Authoritative Doctrine": According to Kelsen's "General Theory of Law and the State", it is argued that "national law is entrusted by international law" can be used to establish a better and more effective UN that is permanently peaceful and supra-national. In a word, legislative power at the national level: "When a country considers national laws and regulations to be necessary for the establishment of equivalent life relations or considering the interests of the people as a whole, to maintain legal order and economic unity, the Parliament has the legislative power."
●"Supranational Legislation I": Legislative principles for supranational, national and subnational level competitive and co-operative legislation: (1) Ensure one set of legal systems for one planet. National legislatures are representative bodies empowered by international law. Legislation with global participation, accelerating the construction of world (common) law, and safeguarding a community with a shared future for humanity are the never-ending obligations of the country that cannot be changed or waived, Regional international organizations do not enact laws to exercise their legislative powers, and only have legislative powers where they have not already been exercised. (3) National level: In order to establish a life relationship of equal value, or to maintain the legal order and economic unity, the state considers the national laws and regulations as necessary matters under the consideration of the interests of the whole people, and the Parliament has the legislative power. (4) Sub-national level: Regarding the levels of provinces, states, special zones, and municipalities, only international organizations and parliaments do not enact laws to exercise their legislative powers, and they have legislative powers where they have not already been exercised. The laws and regulations at the micro-country level can be deduced by analogy. (5) When exercise of this competing legislative power is controversial, obstructive, or clearly in immediate danger, it shall be settled by the Constitutional Court.
●"Supranational Legislation II": Concurrent Legislative Powers " refers to the same matter or behavior, but there are supranational, national, and subnational (including state, regional, provincial, special zone and/or local levels) legislative powers that compete with each other. For this reason, legislative power as expressed in this constitution at the supranational level is clearly higher than legislative power at the national level, so it will not be elaborated here. ↑
"The UN, the EU and other concurrent legislative powers": This is the natural order of legal power, except for the "Supranational Level, United Nations" as an example in the preceding paragraph. Once its charter and laws were passed, 193 member states were not allowed to enact laws that violate those adopted by the UN. Take the "Supranational Level, European Union" as an example: Germany, France and the other 25 member states cannot enact laws that violate or violate the laws of the EU. Other examples include the US, Germany, Switzerland, Argentina, etc. The legislative powers of states, provinces, regions, etc. must not conflict with national legislative powers. Take Germany as an example: the concept of §72 of the Basic Law (Concurrent Legislative Powers) is extended into global governance concurrent legislative powers. ↑
"Legislative Global Participation" allows world elites to enter Taiwan, and Taiwan's experience to flow to the world. Get rid of the shackles that must be attached to the rule of "own government", choose a government that honors your own interests, and global governance that pursues world peace will have a chance to come true. Take Taiwan as an example, so that Taiwan can get rid of the fate of historical geography and create infinite vitality for a better future. We hope that through this document we will "Give Taiwan a chance and promise a future for the world." ↑
"National Legislation": In the global village of a community with a shared future for mankind, the laws of the state will affect the world, and it can be said that "one law moves the world". The National Assembly has the power to legislate on matters deemed necessary by the state in order to establish a life relationship of equal value, or to maintain legal order and economic unity in consideration of the interests of the people as a whole.
Statistics: 70 countries adopt the list proportional representation system; 25 countries adopt the joint parliamentary system; 8 countries adopt the joint parliamentary system; 49 countries adopt the leader election system; 13 countries adopt the two-round voting system; and the remaining countries adopt another election system or function as a country with or without parliamentary elections.
2. Comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of various major congressional election systems, please refer to Part Five Attachment or PPP website-Attachment table list.
●"National Legislation I": "Renaissance of a great democracy. The Congress shall set up a matrix committee quasi-cabinet system with no shortcomings of the present and infinite advantages of the future": "The Congress has established a system of checks and balances for three people to be elected by one vote", so that the country's operation will not be biased or partial, that is, one person represents the remaining 12 members distributed in 12 committees to run for election, forming a matrix of 12 shadow cabinets "division of labor" ” and the society-state-international relationship of “common seeking” to adapt to the complex global environmental changes, abandon the outdated parliamentary thinking, and make the Congress the core of permanent peaceful development and maintenance. Refer to footnote "Legislative standards for permanent peace”
●"National Legislation II": The legislative procedures of the parliaments of democratic countries can be roughly divided into two types: "house-centrism" and "committee-centrism". For details, see "Committee-centrism". The second is the reformed parliamentary cabinet system, referred to as the "cabinet system". After all, this Constitutional Congress has set up a check and balance mechanism for three people (party) to be elected by one vote. On the third-party mechanism of checks and balances, refer to Lin Shuibo, "Political Paradox and its Management-Taking the Development of the Third Force as an Example", for background of the third force in the Journal of Policy Research: (1) Selection flexibility is too small; (2) It catalyzes policy changes; (3) Expanded interest representation; (4) Expression of political dissatisfaction; (5) Generation of political anti-corruption, (6) Mobilize political participation. However, the third-party checks and balances mechanism to complete the public pursuit of the objectives must include: (1) The rotation of political parties in power; (2) Strengthen direct democracy (public voices are allowed freedom of expression, special interests are suppressed, and legislative deadlocks are solved); (3) Intra-power integration; and (4) A fire protection mechanism is installed. Under political governance of polarization or dominance by two parties, or one-party dominance, voters may be disappointed in the exercise of power and lose interest. It is hoped that politicians will call on a group of people to form a third force, increase selectivity and increase political participation to display people-oriented political operations.
●"National Legislation III": It is used for matrix committee-centrism shadow cabinet system. After systematic interaction, a committee is a shadow cabinet. There are 12 shadow cabinets in Parliament. Chandler’s "structure follows strategy": structure follows strategy, and strategy follows environment. The quality and efficiency of legislation can theoretically be improved by a factor of 12, and the effect and efficiency of the interactive effects of various shadow cabinet systems have not yet been estimated. The above is exactly the application of the matrix analysis method of the grand strategy of the national organizational structure. As far as the "matrix" design is concerned, science is leaps and bounds. One of the sources is the result of information AI engineers turning 2D into 3D through the matrix-to-matrix method. However, 12 committees, that is, the 12D matrix base axis, must produce infinite N D, which will be sufficient to adapt to infinite global changes. This concept is modeled on the matrix organizational structure of Igor Ansoff, the “originator of strategic management". This is Chandler's “Structure follows strategy”. The performance is wonderful, and the mysteries are endless. Refer to footnote "Matrix Committee Centralism/Modified committee-centrism ".
●"National Legislation IV": The modified committee system is divided into 12 committees according to social function, each with a "social ties of division of labor"-that is, people have different abilities and needs, and they must exchange services to meet these needs; the government divides them according to their functions. There are 12 parts, each of which has a "socially connected social relationship"-that is, people have common needs and can only meet this need by living together. The above-mentioned "matrix" relationship must be reconciled throughout Parliament and the government. See Duguit, The Theoretical Basis of Constitutional Thought.
●"National Legislation V": The standing committees of the Parliament designed by the Constitutional Standards are determined by the population: 6 committees for those with a population of less than one million - 2-year term - 1/2 re-election every year; 9 committees for those with a population of less than 10 million - a term of 3 years- 1/3 re-election every year; 12 committees for less than 200 million people - 4-year term - 1/4 re-election every year; 15 committees for 200-600 million people, 5-year term - 1/5 re-election every year; 6 Between 100 million and 1 billion people, 18 committees will be set up with a term of 6 years - 1/6 of them will be re-elected every year; 21 committees will be set up with a population of more than 1 billion people, with a term of 7 years - 1/7 of them will be re-elected every year to ensure the effective existence of checks and balances by the third forces. Also, see for comparison: Election Reform Society (ERS) is an independent action organization headquartered in the UK to promote electoral reform.
●"National Legislation VI": A group of candidates or a group of political groups participating in the election is combined in one ballot, and voters can only choose one of them or representatives of the political group. The Parliament sets up 12 committees corresponding to the cabinet, and the chairperson is elected by the people. For example, three groups (1/4) of chairpersons are re-elected every year. Assuming that there are three groups of people running for each group of chairpersons, the total number of candidates is nine people combined into one ballot. Voters can only choose one of them. This is the "combined one-vote single election system"; the combined one-vote single election system can prevent a big party from "choking down the whole bowl." The effective participation of forces in politics and checks and balances is by no means comparable to a very small number of parties in a vase shaped layout. ↑
Matrix Committee Centralism/Modified committee-centrism": "One of the modified committee-centric systems": (1) The Parliament of a modified committee-centric system has 12 professional standing committees and several ad hoc committees connected with the national and global society in accordance with the needs of the country. Total number of members of Parliament: 180 in total, 15 in each professional committee. Each committee has its own right of proposal, review, investigation, hearing, and questioning. (2) There are 12 standing committees, corresponding to 12 ministries in the cabinet, and each committee has 12 members, one of whom is the chair, who is elected by the people on behalf of the political group to which he/she belongs (12 members are distributed among 12 committees). There are a total of 144 permanent members of Parliament, with a term of 4 years, and a quarter of the political group faces election each year. (3) The members of the ad hoc committee include: a total of 12 members for the sustainable development of generations (elected by the elected president-§ 6), a total of 12 members of the Localization of International Law Committee (selected by the president of the court-§ 7), the law of nations: There are 12 members in the Internalization Committee (selected jointly by the elected prosecutors-§8), a total of 36 members, arranged in each committee, the term of office is the same as that of the nominator, if a nominee resigns or faces a by-election, the terms of ad hoc members are not affected. (4) Election of members of the Standing Committee. Seats are divided according to duties rather than districts, and by political groups rather than parties. The chair's listed representatives can participate in elections, and the single-vote single-ballot system is combined. (5) When the chairman of the Standing Committee becomes vacant, his successor shall be selected from among the remaining 11 members of the political group to which he belongs. The chairperson who fills the vacancy cannot be the prime minister or minister. (6) When a seat in the Standing Committee becomes vacant, a replacement is nominated by the chairman, approved by the political group without objection, and submitted to the respective committees to fill the vacancies for review, and agreement by 2/3 of the members means approval. Ad hoc committees act accordingly. (7) The 50 days before the re-election of the Parliament is an adjournment period, and discussions will be held within 10 days after the election to ensure international competitiveness and reform the universal democratic abuse. Legislators are tested by public opinion every year, in order to focus on the overall situation, apart from referendums and local elections, they must not be held at the same time as other central-level elections. (8) Members of the participating political groups shall not be of the same gender, nor shall they lack indigenous peoples. (9) Members of Parliament must be at least 40 years old and have lived in the country for at least 30 years. (10) The legislative, administrative, procuratorial and judicial organization law and internal regulations formulated by the Parliament are subject to constitutional review. Matrix-style negotiation checks and balances the organism and promotes the status of the original committee through 12 professional committees. There are 12 specialized legislative chambers in Parliament, enhancing the advantages of committee-centrism. The global village division of labor should meet the standards of the rule of law and truth, which is to realize the value and utility of resource allocation and establish a "rule of law world"; legislation to balance and synthesize different value judgments (including "irreconcilable reconciliation, combination of contradictions, and synthesis of opposites") formulate socially acceptable and effective laws), establish a party system in a new era of multi-party cooperation and political consultation, repair the defects and blind spots of democratic or autocratic parliaments, and establish a global village great rule of law at the supranational, national and subnational levels.
●"Matrix Committee Centralism/ Modified committee-centrism I": Therefore, after 50 years of research, the Constitutional Standards put forward defuse the core causes of civil unrest: Ensuring Human Rights and Democracy" (1) National and sub-national elections must entail compulsory voting (the cost of freedom and democracy). (2) The number of councilors and committee members is determined by the size of the country/region; (3) Members with a two-year term of office two-year full re-election; 1/3 of those with three-year terms will face election each year; 1/4 of those with four-year terms will face election each year; and 1/5 of those with five-year terms will face election each year. Similarly, the annual committee election ratio is determined according to the length of the term of the councilors; (4) This selection system is designed according to a modified committee-centric system, three committees are re-elected each time, and a one-vote single-selection system is adopted to ensure that the third force checks and balances one-party monopoly and two-party oligopoly, effectively repairing the chronic diseases of the democratic system, and ensure the republic spirit, averting collapse of the democratic system. An example of the chronic incurable disease of democracy: As far back as 431 BC, Athens and Sparta went through the Peloponnesian War for 20 years. Economically rich Athens was a "democratic system", while economically weak Sparta was "autocratic." The splintered democratic parties in the Athens city-state fought inwardly, electing the grandstanding politician Kleon according to the democratic system and finally led Athens to destruction. Similarly, Hitler, who massacred millions of Jews, relied on election by the whole people as the head of state, which was 100% legitimate, and 100% brutally savage. The shortcomings of democracy are numerous. The constitutional legislature adopts the "matrix committee-centric system" and the "modified semi-presidential cabinet committee system" to eliminate all contemporary shortcomings. As for the cost of elections, politics will never be incorruptible, and it is self-evident that the exchange of "money" for "power" causes corrupted politics, so we will not elaborate on this here. Another key factor: if there is a party subsidy, it should be based on the party groups of various congressional committees to avoid the legacy of raising tigers.
●"Matrix Committee Centralism/ Modified committee-centrism II”: The "total number of members of Congress" is 180 in total, with an average of 15 members in each chamber. Only 10 people can attend the meeting. Unlike the current Legislative Yuan Committee of the Republic of China, which has 5 members of legislators can make a meeting, 3 members of legislators agree to an examine bill. One or two days before the end of the session, the agenda will be cleared, and hundreds of bills will be passed overnight. Given the current quality of legislation, in the competition of globalization, the people will of course be buried with them.
●"Matrix Committee Centralism/ Modified committee-centrism III": Splitting up 12 professional chambers (committees) is equivalent to having 12 legislative chambers with different functions to serve the people, deliberating on different matters, and solving the problem of budgetary crowding out, without causing financial imbalances and treasury bankruptcy. Implement self-discipline, professionalism, and committee-centrism, and specifically and effectively strengthen the functions of various professional committees.
●"Matrix Committee Centralism/ Modified committee-centrism IV": The so-called "election without division of labor" refers to functional election, that is, the whole country is not divided into divisions. The Parliament is divided into 12 professional chambers, corresponding to the functions of the executive branch divided into 12 ministries, elected respectively. The 12 professional chambers serve the interests of the people. The quasi-cabinet of the 12 permanent members of the Parliament, through system interaction, continuous rolling transformation; allows strategic matrix analysis, continuous standardization and integration into Universal Constitution (ISO) standards. This design avoids many drawbacks of the two-vote system for a single constituency for MPs, including the formation of two major parties, which will inevitably lead to social antagonism, splitting the spoils, localization of politics, vulgarization, variety shows, polarization and internal friction. National security is becoming more and more diluted, and political indulgence is deepening. If the head of state is not allowed to change the term of office again and again, it will take 30 years to be elected, such as Belarus. It also does not allow cabinet-based countries to fail to produce a cabinet government after more than 400 days, such as Spain. In short, there is still no example.
●"Matrix Committee Centralism/ Modified committee-centrism V": In addition to the standing commit members of Parliament the ad hoc members of Parliament nominated by the directly elected President, the Chief Justice and the Chief Prosecutor will firstly promote their political opinions; secondly, they will convey their different legislative opinions to the Parliament; third, supervise whether the law violates the sustainable development of generations, whether it violates international law, and whether it introduces universal laws. The term is the same as the nominee. If the nominee resigns or by-election for some reason, the term of the ad hoc member will not be affected.
●"Matrix Committee Centralism/ Modified committee-centrism VI”: "Improved committees are relatively "chairmen": due to the rapid development of technology, the impact of population and environment, changes in people's attitudes and social values, and the needs of international affairs, a large number of problems have surfaced; in traditional legislative organizations there is no time to even listen to the problem, let alone deal with it and solve it. In order to deal with the vast and infinite number of international regulations and paradigm shifts, in order to adapt to the vertical and horizontal division of labor in the global village and the rapidly changing environment of globalization, and to cooperate with the "improved semi-presidential system", the Parliament corresponds to the 12 ministries of the Executive Yuan and sets up 12 committees. This upgrades the status of 12 committees. Each committee has a chairperson, and each chairperson group has 12 members to participate in the political group (across 12 committees, each with one person), and the chairperson represents their political group to participate in elections for a term of 4 years, and 3 groups are re-elected each year during the term of office (1/4), the election adopts the national division of labor without division, and the combined one-vote single-ballot system. The chairman may concurrently serve as the prime minister or minister. The bill proposed by any member of parliament will be reviewed by 12 parliaments, surpassing the shortcomings of parliaments around the world; the effectiveness and effectiveness of legislation will be increased by at least 12 times.
●"Matrix Committee Centralism/ Modified committee-centrism VII”: "Relationship between Legislation and Administration": (1) The chairman of the Parliament Committee is the highest supervisory person in charge of this business and can be nominated by the President to concurrently serve as the Prime Minister; the chairman can be nominated by the Prime Minister to serve as the head of the committee. (2) The president's nomination of the prime minister without the status of chair must be approved by all members of Parliament. With the approval of the committees, the Prime Minister may choose to appoint national elites or elites from fully democratic countries around the world to serve as ministers or undersecretaries of government affairs. However, nationals of non-fully democratic countries or persons with multiple nationalities may not be appointed. (3) The State Council shall be accountable to the Parliament. (4) Any organization or individual that uses public funds, regardless of the amount used or the proportion of investment, should be supervised by the National Assembly or the local council. As long as there are three members co-signing, they can be held accountable for their business and finances. (5) Any committee organization should have a mechanism for concerted checks and balances and should come from at least three organizations or political parties that are not affiliated with each other. Anyone who has conflicts of interest with their functions and powers should be avoided. (6) The Speaker of the National Assembly is concurrently served by the Vice President and has no right to vote except for the possibility of the same vote. When the vice president is absent, the chairmen shall elect each other, but the term of office shall be limited to one session and shall not be re-elected during the term. (7) The Parliament may refer to the semi-presidential or cabinet-system countries' legislative and executive relations to adopt model transfers.
●"Matrix Committee Centralism/ Modified committee-centrism VIII": One facet of the relationship between legislation and administration" is checks and balances of each other. The administration is based on respect for legislation and should implement national policies in accordance with laws and regulations. Under the condition that the parliament is re-elected every year, the Parliament represents the latest public opinion, and the country should conform to the public opinion. Therefore, the country’s policy is responsible to the Parliament, that is, to the people.
●"Matrix Committee Centralism/ Modified committee-centrism IX": allowing the chairman of the professional chamber to concurrently serve as the head of the executive branch or concurrently as the prime minister, strengthening the interactive relationship between the executive and the legislative branch, and saving the time required for the promotion of the administrative and legislative branch bills. Increase the efficiency of serving the people. Through the design of the system, unconscientious legislators are eliminated.
●"Matrix Committee Centralism/ Modified committee-centrism X": After the legislative transition is completed, this item is automatically repealed: (1) Elected public officials shall not subject their rights to unprofitable changes due to constitutional reforms. (2) The term of office of current members of parliament may be extended until all members of the new system of parliament are elected. (3) Members of the new system of parliament are elected four times in two years, and the date of all elections is the expiry date of the old system of members. (4) Local councilors will serve until their expiration according to the current term. (5) This item will be automatically abolished as soon as the transition is completed. ↑
"Parliamentary Organization": The parliament is the heart of national politics. Most people need know only the following: "Any "political ideology" has its "Leftists, Centrists and Rightists." All are politicians with epoch-making plans to continuously integrate new divisions and “achieve political balance and stability." As for non-districts and one person, one vote, the aim of voting is to defend "democracy"; "one vote, single election, three-way election, balance, and decentralization are all aimed at defending the "republic". Democracy and republicanism must complement each other and coexist; as for federal states, there may be dual parliaments. In countries with an Upper and Lower House (or Senate and House of Representatives), the Upper House (Senate) is composed of three different political parties elected by each state, province or city. This Constitutional Assembly has the goal of recruiting candidates from the national elites, so that the majority of outstanding experts and scholars who will not be elected can also enter the legislature and contribute their strengths. Thus "national legislation establishes a non-district, one-vote, single-election system, and the three parties have checks and balances. This mechanism is used for the matrix committee-centric quasi-cabinet system.” It is recommended to organize according to the size of the population, with a population of less than 200 million and more than 5 million as an example. There should be 12 committees, and constitutional law will determine the number of committee members as 12×12= 144 people, see also "The rule of law is open, all laws are one, and three special committees are set up." Based on actual need to listen to public opinion and take care of the international community, the chair of each committee can also serve as a cabinet or minister. In order to fill vacancies, an additional convener should be added to assist the chair in performing all duties. Therefore, 12 standing committees + 3 ad hoc committees + 15 conveners, "the total number of members is 195", the efficiency is unparalleled. Part of the legislature is re-elected every year, which can best meet public opinion. The bill needs to be proposed by the quasi-cabinet (committee). Individual politicians cannot write blank checks in order to please certain voters, or build mosquito houses and airports... The advantage of annual partial re-election of the Parliament lies in the direct elimination of one-party dictatorships, the division of spoils between the two parties or the division of society, and the direct entry of new public opinion into the legislature every year, achieving the effect of laws and policies keeping pace with the times. Voters can only choose one of three groups at a time. It is very difficult for a party to align two groups (2/3) and engage the value of pluralism. This is a three-way political consciousness struggle that can focus on the left or the right, on liberal or socialist disputes, or on Taiwan reunification, independence, or maintenance of the status quo. History has repeatedly shown that one-party dictatorships are bound to be corrupt; two parties will be oligopolistic, and one-party rebellions will destroy the country or share in the spoils if there is no rebellion. Pluralism is the main driving force of European civilization. The Organic Law of the Parliament is prescribed by the Constitution, constitutional law, or law.
●"Parliamentary Organization I": The political participation of different genders and ethnic groups should be protected by legislation. According to the principle of §4.2.1 of this constitution that international law overrides national law and directly imposes rights and obligations on the people of our country, the rights of indigenous peoples are fully protected by the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.
●"Parliamentary Organization II": The main purpose is to eliminate the hereditary inheritance of evil powers such as political families and chaebols, and to ensure the quality of legislation, strictly regulate the qualifications of members of parliament, and allow the rich and poor to have a chance to move by living in our country for a certain period, truly understanding the national conditions and serving the people.
●"Parliamentary Organization III": (1) The people of the country promise to innovate the permanent peace and development system of humanity with a solemn constitution, recognizing that Parliament is the representative legislature of the global village division of labor, and is entrusted by international law and sovereigns to complete the localization of international law. (2) The Constitutional Standards, the laws of the state enacted in accordance with our constitution, and the treaties concluded or to be concluded in accordance with the power of the state are the supreme laws of the state. Including treaties concluded before the implementation of our Constitution. Conflicts between treaties shall be resolved by legislation of the Parliament. (3) Legislation should ensure that human dignity and freedom of personal development will never lag behind for a day to other countries. National legislation with global participation. The Parliament sets up a General Interpretation Bureau in accordance with the United Nations and/or the European Union to benefit the people and humanity. (4) Parliament has the power to resolve laws, budgets, martial law cases, amnesties, declarations of war, peace cases, treaties, corrections, impeachment cases, and other important matters of the country. (5) Within 3 weeks after Parliament passes a bill, if more than 1/4 of all members of Parliament sign the bill, Speaker of Parliament may request the President to submit the bill to a veto referendum. If the vote for the veto referendum does not reach 1/4 of the number of voters, then effective on the date of the referendum, the amount of all public funds allotted to joint members during their term of office will be reduced by 1/3. (6) The Parliament may file an impeachment case against the President, the Chief Justice of the Judicial Branch, the Procurator General, the Chief Justice of the Constitutional Court, the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, an ambassador, or a flag-rank military officer for violations of law or dereliction of duty. (7) Parliament should form an impeachment committee to review the impeachment case. If it is deemed that a case of impeachment should be brought against the President, it shall be established only after approval by more than 1/3 of all members of Parliament, the presence of more than 2/3, and the approval of more than 2/3 of the members present. (8) Parliament shall not enact laws that violate international law, violate world (common) law, violate the justice of generations, and deprive human rights or civil rights. (9) Parliament should clarify and punish criminal acts that violate international law, including violations of anti-corruption conventions and the use of "substantial influence" to commit domestic, transnational, or international crimes. (10) Parliament should set up dedicated television, internet, and radio stations for live broadcasts throughout. In addition to statutory confidentiality, the entire agenda should be open to the public, and the world's legal comparison database should be open to other media for free live broadcast or rebroadcast. (11) The Parliament should have the principles and spirit of pioneering, global, and comprehensive legislative competition to create a legal system with a balanced development of supranational, national, and subnational levels, and promote the final institutional model of mankind. (12) Parliament should establish a complete database for comparison of world laws and regulations, updating and translating them into the national language at any time and compiling effective data that adults can consult and apply at anytime and anywhere and lead the world to practice a set of living laws that can be permanently operated by humanity. (13) Parliament should set up a research body and try to advocate for conventions or laws that are lacking in the international arena. According to international regulations, the general convention will enter into force on the 30th day after the ratification of the 35th signatory country, and the country will enter into force on the same day, implementing the national spirit of one earth and a set of laws. (14) Parliament should strive to become a member of the United Nations for membership and strive for the establishment of the United Nations [Asia] headquarters in the country. (15) The law on the exercise of powers of Parliament and the legislation of the global participation law shall be stipulated by the Constitution or laws.
●"Parliamentary Organization IV": Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany, §38: Members of the German Bundestag... shall be representatives of the whole people, not bound by orders or instructions and responsible only to their conscience. The member of Parliament is a public servant elected by the people, not a bully who holds mountains and seas and presides over his own fortune.
●"Parliamentary Organization V": "Summary of National Assembly Conference Ethics": (1) People at all levels are representatives of all voters, in addition to obeying the international law and the constitution, they are not restricted by Command and Instructions, but only obey their conscience. (2) The reformed-committee Parliament should strive to avoid the fatal shortcomings of the current general Parliament. If the number of participants does not reach 2/3 of the number of participants, the meeting will not be held. Except as otherwise provided in this constitution, 3/5 of the members present shall be adopted as a quorum for approval. Local councils shall handle matters accordingly. (3) In the hearings of the National Assembly or the local councils, those who speak falsely or refuse testimony after knowing the facts shall be punished by law. The handling of closed-door hearings shall be prescribed by law. (4) Parliament, local councils, or other public opinion organizations have the right to vote on the case only if there are public opinion representatives participating in the hearing of each case. (5) The quorum for the resolution shall be constituted by the presence of 2/3 of the Parliament and various committees, local councils, or other public opinion bodies. However, if the quorum is not satisfied, the meeting may be postponed, and absent members may be compelled to attend the meeting in accordance with the procedures and penalties prescribed by the respective institutions. (6) The venue should have access control. Members of parliament who have not attended the committee for three consecutive months and whose actual hours have not reached 3/4 of the expected attending hours will automatically terminate their powers; local public opinion representatives who have not attended 3/4 of the expected attending hours in each session will have their powers Also automatically terminated. The vacant parliamentarians shall be filled in from the replacement list of the original political group; the vacant local councilors shall be filled in order by the highest-vote losers. Those whose powers have been terminated cannot run in elections for 10 years. (7) If more than half of the members of the Parliamentary political group have not reached 2/3 of the required time for attendance, all members of the political group will be dismissed and replaced by members of the unsuccessful political group; those who have served more than 3/4 of their term shall be recalled. (8) The council or each committee may stipulate its rules of procedure to punish members who disturb the order and may expel members with the consent of 2/3 of the members of the council or 2/3 of the members of the committee. (9) Parliament, or other public opinion organs shall be publicly responsible for resolutions on "things"; resolutions on "people" shall be statutory by organizations. (10) Parliament and parliament members, whether direct or indirect, obvious, or hidden, are not allowed to engage in business, investment, or part-time work; they are not allowed to contract projects, act as administrative agents, deal with public funds, issue public funds, issue orders to the people, or give officials fake public benefits; Violators, should be subject to legal sanctions. (11) The civil representatives at all levels fail to comply with the ethics of public opinion representatives, including but not limited to using violence, drinking in meetings, charging service fees or consulting fees, using influence to make money, taking advantage of the potential to make a living, or other corrupt officials, unless they are subject to the law. Except for sanctions, they may be expelled if more than two-thirds of the total number of the public opinion organs is passed. (12) When parliamentarians at all levels go abroad for inspection tours, the inspection report should be publicly available and kept online for at least 30 years. (13) Proposals and amendments proposed by members of parliament at all levels, if passed, will lead to a decrease in public finance revenue, or increase or create expenditures in public finance, they shall not be approved. (14) Parliaments at all levels shall not delete the government's budget for protecting the environment and ecology and maintaining the quality of life. However, this limit is not limited to those who have passed a secret vote by all members without objection. (15) The sessions and terms of office of the various levels of parliament shall end before election date; and meetings after the election, whether regular or temporary, shall be handled by the newly elected council. (16) Adjustments in remuneration of members will take effect from the next term. Changes in the benefits of members of Parliament shall take effect at the end of 4 years from the date of the announcement; changes in the benefits of local legislators shall take effect at the expiration of 2 years from the date of announcement. (17) Members of Parliament have the right to travel free of charge on national transportation. (18) Members should set an example for the people. The rules of procedure of the public opinion organs at all levels and the ethical norms of public opinion representatives shall be formulated by reference to the parliament and parliament of a fully democratic country.
●"Parliamentary Organization VI": Legislative law should become ISO's international standard law: (1) Legislation repairs all laws: Parliament should formulate one earth, one set of legal systems, lead the way to a rule of law civilization, and promote the legislative benchmark law for perpetual peace. (2) The basic duty of legislation: the law should conform to "nature, justice, morality" and "freedom, democracy, human rights", and must not contravene world (common) law, jus cogens, public international law, and the constitution. (3) Basic beliefs in legislation: Legislation should follow human rights, constitutionalism, international legalism, and world (multiple common) legalism. (4) Basic Parliamentary procedures: The law should have clarity, global consistency, completeness, and predictability. Through rolling reforms, standardized integration should be carried out to ensure that the law keeps pace with the times, and the quality and national strength continue to improve. (5) Parliament majority: Except for elections and constitutional amendments, any bill or policy must not be decided by a fragile and turbulent majority for the sake of peace and stability. It must be approved by more than 60% of the members before it becomes effective. (6) Parliament selection system: When there are systems or versions of various countries to choose from, the "inclusive system" that is most in line with human nature, universal values, permanent peace and human unity should be adopted first; and the "extractive system" is the highest priority for elimination. (7) The Parliament should join ISO and its related committees to formulate a legislative standard law that conforms to ISO standards and contribute to the world. (8) The Parliamentary standard law shall be prescribed by law and shall be announced after constitutional review is passed. ↑
"A quarter of the legislature faces election each year": to remain close to public opinion, and politicians will not write blank checks to please certain voters, which only increase the burden of national treasury expenditures. This time-space decentralization is one of the core system designs of this principle. The advantage of re-electing a quarter of the Parliament every year is to directly eliminate one-party dictatorship. Every year, new public opinion directly enters Parliament to achieve the effect of laws and policies that keep pace with time. The participation of the three groups of chairpersons in the election can easily form a third force of checks and balances through the system. It is very difficult for a party to limit the voters, only one of the 3 groups can be selected, crossing two groups (2/3), thus forming the value of pluralistic politics. There is a certain proportion of political ideologies that focus on the country’s current unification, independence, and maintenance of the status quo. Traditional struggles for reunification and independence have led to chaos in the current state of the country’s politics. One-party rebellions split the country resulting in destruction, and two-party cooperation just divides the spoils. Pluralistic politics is the main driving force of European civilization. Therefore, the fact that countries are not suitable for bipartisan politics is easy to see. It is necessary to re-elect a quarter of the parliament (3 groups of political groups) each year to form a "division of labor" with international parliamentary unity and "same demand" in global parliamentary unity. To adapt to complex changes in the global environment, to abandon outdated single- Parliamentary or dual- Parliamentary stale thinking and make national legislation efficiency the world's best. Regarding the meaning of "Tongqiu", please refer to Zhang Xunjia (2011), "Duguit-French Social Positivism Law Master", Yuedan Law Journal.
●"A quarter of the legislature faces election each year I": Jean-Jacques Rousseau said: People are free only when they choose representatives. After the representatives are produced, they will not be free; although we can control the representatives by dismissal, creation, referendum, etc., but the effect is limited and cannot change the rights or overrule facts. However, if the "invention" of the "mid-term re-election" is adopted, it can not only absorb new public opinion, but also allow good policies to continue.
●" A quarter of the legislature faces election each year II": The second president of the United States, John Adams once said: "When annual elections end, there slavery begins." No matter which party you may support, the party and many of its members will become arrogant and change from public servants to masters once they are in power. Only by holding elections every year can democracy be revived, and public servants restrained as servants of the public. ↑
"Separate elections" According to § 93.5 of the Commonwealth Electoral Act 1918: If the House of Representatives and the Senate hold elections on the same day, a person can only vote for the House of Representatives or the Senate once and has no right to vote multiple times. "Compulsory voting". The "Mandatory voting" obligation is one price of freedom and democracy. Why compulsory voting? (1) Voting is an obligation, like paying taxes and education; (2) Studies of political participation encourage it; (3) More accurate profiles of public opinion emerge; (4) Government should consider all public opinions; (5) Candidates can concentrate on policy debates, not just urging votes; (6) In fact, voting is not mandatory, because it is a secret ballot and voters still have the option of "not electing anyone"; (7) Candidates do not need to vote-buying to give out bribes; (8) It improves the allocation and utilization of resources; (9) It eliminates elections as a game for the rich and offsets the influence of money; (10) It helps prevent corruption; (11) Break up big party monopoly and divide the spoils; (12) Weaken ideological kidnapping and everyone votes, which will completely change the political destiny of this country; (13) The only condition for the prevalence of evil is the silence of the good, and the silence of any one person will produce the next victim. At present, more than 32 countries worldwide require citizens to participate in voting. Australia is one of them. Since 1912 compulsory voting has been a part of national elections. Commonwealth Electoral Act 1918 - SECT 245 Compulsory voting: It shall be the duty of every elector to vote at each election. it is an offense to fail to vote at an election without a valid and sufficient reason for the failure. Some are not compelled to vote according to law: illiterate; over 70 years old; over 16 years old but under 18 years old... etc., but their votes are equally valid. Other factors must include force majeure, otherwise it is illegal not to vote. The Australian constitution clearly stipulates that these two normal representative systems must entail compulsory voting, and other authorized laws stipulate them as well.
●Comparison of ''Countries in Safeguarding Freedom, Compulsory Voting Regulations'' with the Constitutional Standards, please refer to Part Five Attachment or PPP website-Attachment table list.
"Sub-national legislative power (sub-national level legislative power)": Regarding the state, province, city (municipalities) and other levels, only international organizations and parliaments do not enact laws to enforce them. As for provinces, states, special zones and municipalities, only where international organizations and legislatures have not already enacted laws, or do not act on the laws in place, do they have legislative authority. The laws and regulations at the micro-country level can be deduced by analogy. Take "the state of Hessen, Germany", as an example: The Constitution of Hessen, Germany, §67: International law rules are a binding part of state law and do not need to be specifically converted into state law. Laws that violate these rules or international treaties are invalid. The legislature is a representative body of local councils, "taking Switzerland as an example": the "Swiss Constitution" §55: Participation of cantons in foreign policy decisions: (1) Consultation with the cantons on foreign policy shall be carried out for decisions that affect their power or fundamental interests; (2) The Federation shall inform all states in a timely manner and conduct consultations with them; (3) If the power of the states is affected, their opinions are particularly important. In such cases the states should participate in international negotiations in an appropriate manner. §56: The relationship between states and foreign countries: (1) A state can conclude treaties with foreign countries on matters within its scope of authority. (2) Such treaties must not conflict with the law or federal interests or the laws of any other state. Before concluding such a treaty, the states must notify the Federation. (3) The states can directly interact with lower-level foreign authorities; in other cases, the Federation should develop relations with foreign countries on behalf of the states. “Take Germany as an example”: Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany §32.2, Charter for Local Autonomous States, External Relations: Before the conclusion of a treaty affecting the special circumstances of a Land, that Land shall be consulted in timely fashion. §32.3: Insofar as the Länder have power to legislate, they may conclude treaties with foreign states with the consent of the Federal Government. "Sub-national legislation": Voting and elections are the cornerstones for resolving social conflicts and differences. Voting and the length of term of office determine the strength of contradictions. The local level is one of the three main levels in the UN global governance system. Local politics can best fully reflect the quality of the people. "Take Taiwan as an example": During a local council's general questioning, an underworld spokesman slapped the chief of police in front of councilors. The underworld and other external forces have already entered the central system through local participation in politics. Thus, all politics are local politics (the late Speaker of the US House of Representatives Tip O'Neill)
●"Sub-national legislative power (sub-national level legislative power) I”: The foundation of democratic politics is local politics. If there is a dispute between the central and local governments, someone must handle it for the people. It is clear that disputes over the authority of the central and local governments must be interpreted by the Constitutional Court. Or reference Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany §93: (1) The Federal Constitutional Court shall rule… (3) The Federal Constitutional Court shall also rule on such other matters as shall be assigned to it by a federal law.
●"Sub-national legislative power (sub-national level legislative power) II”: Local legislation should be comparable to international standards, so that local autonomy entities have international stature and become local organizations in the global village. Please refer to "European Charter for the Protection of Urban Human Rights" §6: "In the era of so-called "globalization" at this stage, the (central) country is no longer the only legal person and capacity to act in the international community; local autonomy entities can also do so. There is "behavior" in the international arena which is specifically manifested in how local governments strengthen their internationalization strategy and seek their reputation as a "city" in the international community." Yang Junchi, "The Current Status and Functions of the Internationalization of Local Autonomy Entities in Japan", " National International Studies Quarterly, Vol. 3 No. 3, 2007, p. 216. ↑
"Local Council systems": Local Council Organizations: (1) Except for states, provinces, regions and cities (cities under the jurisdiction of the central government) with a large population, the election for members of Parliament may be compared of general county and city councils, township and city representative councils, or village community representative councils shall be adopted. A constituency has a three-member electoral system, that is, one vote for each constituency for one person, each constituency elects three persons according to the number of votes obtained (perhaps representing three parties or three forces); the term of office is 2 years. The election of local legislatures shall be determined by law. (2) In response to local needs, each City and County Council may select three members from different political parties to inform Parliament members for one session or one topic. With the exception of having no salary and no voting rights, all other rights and obligations are the same as those of members of Parliament. (3) Local Councils have the right to correct local self-government organs; all local self-government administrative officials have the right to submit impeachment proposals. Laws governing the exercise of the power of impeachment by local councils shall be prescribed by law. (4) Foreigners from a fully democratic country shall have the right of local election, recall, initiative, and referendum in accordance with the law. (5) Unless otherwise stipulated in this constitution, representatives of local councils, water conservancy associations, peasant associations, etc. whose term of office is 2 years, may be fully re-elected after the term ends, or one-half of the body faces election each year at the same time as the National Assembly; for those with 4-year terms, 1/4 shall face election each year. (6) All community residents have the right to participate in various parliaments, water conservancy associations, peasant associations, etc., but have no right to vote. The public opinion of the community directly connects Parliament to the international community. The method of residents' participation shall be prescribed by local law. (7) The organizational law and its internal regulations for local legislative, administrative, procuratorial and judicial organs must be reviewed by the Supreme Administrative Court of each jurisdiction before being reviewed and recorded by the Constitutional Court.
●"Local Council systems I”: The Speaker of the local council at any level, as well as the township and city representative council, or the village community committee, or the chairperson of the representative council, etc., shall have a term of office of one session, the current term cannot be re-elected, which can not only prevent the speaker from improperly obtaining positions, but also cultivate leadership talents.
●"Local Council systems II”: Responsibilities of local councils—the public opinion at the lowest level can directly express their opinions in the local council, and the local council is obliged to absorb the public opinions of township citizens, as well as the public opinions of village, borough and community residents, to parliamentary deliberation and referendum, involving national legislation or state affairs. Public opinion should be obliged to link to the public opinion and referendum of the Congress, and if necessary, the Congress is also obliged to link to the international level. The rules are set by the respective parliaments. The conditions under which each local voter may, by exercising the right of petition, require the local council to include matters related to its competence on the agenda shall be prescribed by law. See § 72-1 of the French Constitution.
●"Local Council systems III”: Reform the local parliamentary system to eliminate a basic source of political corruption in the country. The government is supervised by elections. The shorter the term of office and the more frequent elections, the more effective supervision of the government will be. The US House of Representatives, state representatives of 44 states, and state senators of 12 states all serve two years.
●"Local Council systems IV”: Supervising local public opinion organs for the people directly exerts a restraining effect on local organs, no longer relying on the central organs, increasing the power of local councils, and greatly improving the level of supervision of local organs.
●"Local Council systems V”: "Take the US as an example": Consider the success of American democracy. “…government as long as it is bound by fixed laws, which the people have a voice in making, and a right to defend.” Founding Father of the United States-President John Adams. President Jefferson, a founding father of the constitution, said: “…in questions of power then, let no more be heard of confidence in man, but bind him down from mischief by the chains of the constitution.” Therefore, more than 200 years ago, the constitution stipulated that member of the House of Representatives who had the right to pre-deliberation of the "financial and taxation budget" should be appointed for two years to safeguard the "democracy" principle of equality for all. The Senate has personnel powers and elects 1/3 of its seats every two years to safeguard the "republic" principle of equality among federated states and localities. This concept of two-year reelections has remained unchanged for more than 200 years. This legislative system in a democratic country is a model of power, because it "nourishes" the people's "illusion" that they are managing the country themselves, even if each vote includes bad people to enslave themselves. To move toward liberation, it is necessary to curb term limits. For example, the term of office of the chief executive is five years, no re-appointment for six years, MPs representing less than 200 million people are elected for four-year terms, 1/4 face election every year; regional assemblies of special municipality under central jurisdiction shall lave nine committees with three-year a term and 1/3 facing election each year; there are six committees in county and city assemblies, and the term of office is two years with 1/2 facing election each year, etc. Electoral districts do not necessarily have to match administrative districts. This is a common phenomenon in democratic countries. US President Harry S. Truman: " Term limits would cure both senility and seniority- both terrible legislative diseases."
●"Local Council systems VI”: According to the principles of parliamentary debate, voting on personnel usually adopts a "secret ballot" commonly known as an “anonymous" ballot, while voting on relevant motions adopts an open ballot. The main reason is that the former can avoid human pressure, threats and inducements, while the latter can demonstrate the political spirit of political party responsibility. All local council members shall be present at the local council unless legally absent and the decision shall not be passed unless more than half of the members are present. See §27 of the Norwegian Constitution. ↑
“Improving Democratic Reforms”: Completely resolve obstruction of minority voices of all individuals or groups in village councils, county or provincial and municipal councils or legislatures from the international community. These assemblies are essential for long-term prosperity of the country. The Parliament is the national political center, and the legislature is the political center of the states, provinces, and cities. Therefore (1) maintaining the three parties or three forces (such as the left, the right, the center; the independence, the reunification, the center) is a requisite for social stability. The basic elements of national security, including balanced suppression of Nazi parties, populist parties, ultra-nationalist parties, communist parties, authoritarian parties, one-party parties, two-party parties, multi-party parties, ultra-left parties, ultra-right parties, extreme political parties, industrial/agricultural parties, various extremist political parties rely on the method is one-vote single-choice three-party (party) election system; (2) in the legislative process, committee meetings should be broadcast live; (3) partial re-election every year; this is a necessary condition for the people to thoroughly and effectively monitor checks and balances; (4) An open legislature, so that handling of minority opinions both foreign and domestic should be publicly available online immediately; (5) Comprehensive reform of the fragile current global democratic system, quoting Plato’s statement: “One punishment for refusal to participate in politics is that you will eventually be ruled by your subordinates."
●" Improving Democratic Reforms I": In order to solve the problem of contemporary democratic participation, one of the effective methods of participatory democracy is that the constitution guarantees that all citizens have the right to directly express their views, and that they can directly participate in being able to directly participate in environmental, economic, social and political decisions that have an impact on their lives is the direct participation of voters in village councils, local councils, parliaments, and through parliamentary reflection to the international community. Take "Sydney City, Australia" as an example: the parliament allows residents to participate in meetings, council committees, local planning groups, Sydney Central Planning Committee and community forums, so that people can speak in the meeting and directly enter the local legislation and/or parliament.
●" Improving Democratic Reforms II": Parliament/local legislature should ensure that the three powers are balanced, and that each functional committee has the three powers to ensure that everyone in the world can directly propose legislation or inquiries to each functional committee on the Internet. Due to the partial re-election of the parliament every year, it is not easy for the members to form a group of raise illicit and oligopoly within one year. Parliament and/or parliament have the obligation to improve and reform the democratic system. Take "Lithuania" as an example: The Open Parliament Forum invited Lithuanian National Assembly Speaker Čmilytė to share her experience in opening up parliament on December 03, 2021. Via video, Čmilytė pointed out that through live broadcasts, regular website updates, external communication through social networks, establishment of visitor centers, encouragement of people to directly participate in the legislative process, and absolute openness to the media, "The Lithuanian Parliament is one of the most open in the world."
For the design of the tenure system of the Speaker of the Parliament, take the Federal Assembly — The Swiss Parliament— as an example, the Swiss Federal Constitution §152: The Speaker of the National Assembly serves a one-year term and cannot be re-elected. Setting out norms for tenure in office is a restriction and a guarantee of healthy operation of the system, term limits on public power is a great invention of mankind. The more a country uses the time limit design, the lower the cost of politics, the stronger the national power, and the higher the national income. As for curbing bribery in local councils, the chairman/speaker of the council should be elected at the start of each session, including temporary sessions; no re-appointment is allowed during the term, and a large number of new talents should be cultivated, heightening advantages and eliminating disadvantages and becoming a cradle of good governance of the country, not to elevate local black gold to the center. Of course, the biggest key is that the term of office of the members is two years, and general elections are carried out in synchronization with Congressional elections every year.
●For complete information on §19, please refer to the PPP website https://www.lawlove.org/en/book ↑
"Advocate legislation": The Parliament should take the lead in starting and promoting an international legislative organization that implements the basic standards of a permanent pacifist constitution, such as international law higher than national law. All parliaments or local autonomy entities with legislative power can participate, regardless of friend or foe. This is similar to the role of the "Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU)" in implementing international peace legislative tasks, including assistance to foreign countries to implement the basic Constitutional Standards for Permanent Peace. Funding should not be less than five ten thousandths of the country’s total annual budget, as a contribution to global and national peace and security. The organization and rules for such operations shall be prescribed by law. US Senator J. William Fulbright: “Insofar as international law is observed, it provides us with stability and order and with a means of predicting the behavior of those with whom we have reciprocal legal obligations.”
●"Advocate legislation I”: " Parliament should become a strategic partner of the United Nations": (1) Parliament should operate based on the basic principles of this Constitution and the above-listed advantages (including global co-opetition in legislation, establishment of a universal database for comparison of global laws and regulations, improved committee-centrism, local public opinion linked to international and legislative standards), and providing constitution-making services to 249 political entities (excluding disputed areas) around the world. (2) The Parliament, whether directly, indirectly or delegated by it, should set up institutions in the United Nations headquarters in New York and Europe, in addition to national headquarters, to help political entities formulate a peace and development constitution that can operate and prosper for a long time, and jointly become the United Nations Strategic partner. (3) Our examination of human experience over thousands of years confirms that a great country is the result of a group of great people who have made great contributions to mankind through a great system. National globalization saves itself, and global nationalization saves humanity and forms strategic partners of the United Nations for Permanent Peace. ↑
"None of the modern-day shortcomings and endless advantages for generations to come": Constitutional Design of Congressional Legislative System, creation to change the chaos of the world has absolutely no shortcomings of contemporary democracy or autocracy or any system but has infinite advantages. The basic political philosophy and legal philosophy are "state (central/federal) and sub-state (state, province and city)." The legislature must maintain a balance of power among the three forces, with local elections and compulsory voting every year based on this principle.” The above is based on time and space, including processing and responding to all things (for the philosophical definition of "things", see Chinese Encyclopedia). This shows that no two national systems are the same, and even the 50 states of the United States have 51 systems (including Washington DC.), and there is no model for transfers. The world is changing rapidly. In the global village, if you don't change it, it will definitely change you. You will be a scarecrow with a body but no soul. In constitutionally regulated parliaments of large and medium-sized countries—take the Republic of China (Taiwan) as an example—the Legislative Yuan has 12 standing committees, and three committee chairs face election each year. The one-vote single-election system can achieve zero defects. For example, in a country with a smaller population, the National Assembly sets up 9 quasi-cabinet committees, and members 3 committees face election each year. The term of office of committee members is 3 years, or according to the size of the country; this can be deduced by analogy. The US, China, India, Russia and other states, provinces, and cities are handled similarly, and federal legislatures remain unchanged while effectiveness is improved in an all-round way.
●"None of the modern-day shortcomings and endless advantages for generations to come I": Congress allows conflicting interests and opinions to be adequately debated and resolved, and through this process of conflict resolution, government rule has its basis of legitimacy. The "legislative" design of the Constitutional Standards will not have the common defects of: (1) general low political trust of the people, (2) the gap between the people's subjective expectations of the Congress and the actual performance of the Congress, and (3) the operation of the Congress. Conflict and opposition, (4) public doubts about the competence and representation of the legislature, etc. The design of the Constitutional Standards: (1) avoids erosion of the basis of legitimacy of rule for legislatures, (2) resolves conflicts and confrontations between parties, (3) resolves competing interests of parties, and (4) eliminates compromise between different interests and bargaining. We also analyze the results through the comparison of systems and countries. Such a mechanism does not have the fatal shortcomings of contemporary universal legislation, but its advantages have never been seen before as mentioned above. For details, see Sheng Xingyun and Huang Shihao, "Why do people in Taiwan hate the Legislative Yuan?” "Taiwan Democracy Quarterly", Vol. 3. Issue 3 (September 2006): 85-128. ↑
"Human Law Community": This is the premise of the "Human Destiny Community". International law and national law are a unified system of legal regulations, and the international legal order governs the national legal order of various countries while the effectiveness of international law determines the effectiveness of the national legal order. The basic norms of international law (including regulations of international organizations) are the ultimate reason for national legal rules. Hans Kelsen, The General Theory of Law and the State. We must improve global governance: in the world. There is only one international system, i.e., the international system with the UN at its core. There is only one international order, i.e., the international order underpinned by international law. And there is only one set of rules, i.e., the basic norms governing underpinned by the purposes and principles of the UN Charter. (Xi Jinping, in General Debate in the 76th Session of the UN General Assembly, September 21, 2021.)
●"Human Law Community I": According to Kelsen, The General Theory of Law and the State, since the evolution of international law may lead to the establishment of a "world state," it is naturally possible for those who act early to establish a "world capital in the global village " ↑
"Voluntary systems promote absolute systems": The Constitutional Standards are to be achieved in a voluntary manner and at different speeds. Based on the absolute necessity for Permanent Peace stipulates that international law is higher than national law, hoping to move from voluntary universality will become compulsory and become the current jus cogens of international law. This means that, human beings as a whole abide by the orders of international law. As for funding for this project, at least five ten-thousandths of the country’s total annual budget shall be used to contribute to world and national peace and security.
●"Voluntary systems promote absolute systems I": The Parliament supplements the norms of international law to ensure the integrity of the operation of international law for the people. On December 20, 2015, the International Law Society of the Republic of China issued a press release calling for the 9th Parliament to complete the Interim Regulations on Domestic Legalization of Multilateral Conventions as a priority after the 2016 general election. This constitution advocates not only multilateral conventions, but also the state should take the responsibility of transforming international law into national law. ↑
"Permanent Peace Administrative Standards": The administrative standards of this constitution must reach the greatest core interests of humanity and the greatest civilizational consensus: the Constitutional Standards for Permanent Peace =World Citizens Constitution=International Constitutional Standards (ISO)=Human Rights Guarantee=People’s Talisman=World Law=Eternal Law= 228 Charter. Article 6 refers to the definition of the United Nations Global Governance Committee—supra-national level, national level and sub-national level, and the design of the administrative competition and cooperation system up to the village community. The state system is a modified semi-presidential system. The Parliament sets up twelve standing committees and several ad hoc committees corresponding to the cabinet. The prime minister and ministers may be concurrently elected chairpersons of professional committees composed of elites from all over the country. The central government is responsible to the Parliament and is closely linked to the design of the system. To implement global governance and human unity, the elected leader is not limited by nationality, but must be a citizen of a fully democratic country. The three key bureau chiefs of local governments are also elected by the people, adopting the "three key bureau chiefs, one vote and single ballot election system", which systematically promotes a third force to enter the system. The Constitutional Standards require the government to increase wisdom, pursue truth, create happiness, and fulfill value; the constitution guarantees that Taiwan, which practices the Constitutional Standards, will be an administrative model for permanent peace and make contributions to the world.
●"Permanent Peace Administrative Standards I": This national system pursues the best administrative quality, efficiency, and effectiveness through comparison of various systems and comparative analysis with other countries. Such a mechanism has none of the fatal shortcomings common to all contemporary systems while its advantages are unprecedented. It is enough to show that the shortcomings of other systems are not in this charter. The advantages of the Constitutional Standards can serve as a model for all countries. They are capable of fully repairing the shortcomings of global administration, in order to achieve the minimum standard that leads mankind to permanent peace. For this reason, Taiwan and two thirds of the people in the world living under the threat of tyranny will lose only the iron curtain and chains, violence and lies that oppress them. Nothing else will be lost, and prosperity and happiness and permanent peace will be gained.
●"Permanent Peace Administrative Standards II": Administrative transition clauses will be repealed upon completion of the transition: (1) With the consent of the people, this Constitution shall be implemented by the incumbent President until the expiration of his original term; with the exception of automatic resignations, other local heads shall follow the President’s lead until expiration of the original term. (2) This transition clause shall be invalid after transition is completed.
●"Permanent Peace Administrative Standards III": "Government duty": (1) Administrative model: The country will be a model for great harmony in a community with a shared future for mankind, which is the principle of everlasting nation-building. Administrative agencies should be housed in architecture that symbolizes a community with a shared future for mankind. (2) International responsibility: Innovate global governance, implementing Permanent Peace, and lead the way to unity of humanity as the country's basic national policy for everlasting change. The state should set a budget to fulfill its international responsibilities. (3) International peace: The national military, regardless of branch, shall assign at least 5% of personnel and armaments to a global organization to perform international security and peace tasks. (4) Domestic peace: The country will implement the universal compulsory military service system of "all people are soldiers". The Reserve Forces of the military shall engage in training several weeks each year until they are 40 years old. The organization, equipment, and training of the national army should be for the purpose of protecting the home, defending the country and serving the people. (5) Defending the home and defending the country: the principle of all people as soldiers should be used as a model. Local governments have the right to set up civil defense organizations to defend freedom, democracy and human rights. The administrative heads of cities and counties may organize, direct, and supervise civil defense in areas under their jurisdiction. Civil defense organizations in cities and counties may be incorporated into the national army through a resolution of the National Assembly. (6) In order to ensure freedom, democracy, human rights, rule of law and sovereignty, strictly disciplined militias may carry weapons in accordance with the law. Those who carry weapons must actually serve the aforementioned purpose of defending universal values and sovereignty, and after renewal of the National Defense Forces reserve force, they must be over 40 years old and under 60 years old, have certain assets as a guarantee, and must have passed the basic constitutional examination and other subjective and objective conditions. (7) Anyone who advocates Nazism, fascism, communist dictatorships, consoling the enemy of the country, doing business in an enemy country, or other thoughts or behaviors that contradict the views of the majority of the people shall not participate in militia organizations and possess weapons. (8) Regarding organization and operation of national defense and civil defense, the control and enforcement of weapons shall be governed by law. (9) Let the people master the world’s best systems in one hand and the latest weapons in the world. From inner peace to domestic peace to foreign peace to eternal peace, for all humanity, is an eternal obligation that the government cannot change or waive.
●"Permanent Peace Administrative Standards IV": See (1) Every Swiss adult male is required to do military service: 42,500 standing soldiers in active service, and 351,000 mobilized in 48 hours during wartime. All male citizens aged 20 to 34 must perform military service, and female citizens can also volunteer for military service. (2) Every Israel person is required to do military service: Israel’s military system: both men and women are called up to join the army at the age of 18; men’s compulsory service is three years, and women’s two years. After serving their compulsory military service, Israeli males are transferred to the IDF reserve and serve for several weeks each year until 40 years old.
●"Permanent Peace Administrative Standards V": Per capita income in Israel is US$43,610.5 (2020), Singapore US$59,797.8 (2020), and Switzerland US$87,097 (2020). Among them, Switzerland is a "permanently neutral country" and does not support any party in wars. It has maintained peace for 200 years. However, the country has implemented an "all people as soldiers" compulsory militia system and has not given up its armed forces. It maintains a strong military spirit and awareness of danger in times of peace.to ensure long-term security and peace in Switzerland. In Norway, which emphasizes equality between men and women, women have been obliged to perform military service since 2016, for a minimum of 19 months.
●"Permanent Peace Administrative Standards VI": Any public decision should be considered in a game of chess in the world. Please refer to the rational decision model: (1) Define the problem; (2) Identify the decision criteria; (3) Allocate weights to the criteria; (4) Develop various solutions (including alternatives); (5) Evaluate various solutions (Evaluate the alternatives); (6) Select the best alternative. Source: Stephen P. Robbins, Timothy A. Judge's original work, compiled by Lin Caiding and Lin Ruifa, 2008, Organizational Behavior, Taipei: National Pearson Education Publishing. Relevant rules shall be prescribed by law.
●The Constitutional Standards serve as a blueprint for reform, opening up and peaceful development of various political systems, please refer to Part Five Attachment or PPP website-Attachment table list.
●For complete information on §20, please refer to the PPP website https://www.lawlove.org/en/book ↑
"Supranational Administrative Principles of Concurrent ": The Sixth Law of Innate Human Rights (Natural Law) positions Taiwan as a global administrative beacon, and the Constitutional Standards as a compass for government administration". "Supranational organizations": global concurrent legislative, and the central and local agencies of the country should administer according to the law. Current supranational organizations include the UN, World Bank, International Civil Aviation Organization, World Health Organization, etc. In order to seek permanent peace, global concurrent administrative powers should be developed to promote government standards (ISO), eventually leading to the birth of a global federal republic.
●"Supranational Administrative Principles of Concurrent I": (1) We recognize the administrative power of competition and cooperation of one global government, confirm that the national government is an executive agency entrusted by the international government, and will ensure implementation of a community with a shared future for mankind. (2) A country can only have administrative power if a global international organization (such as the UN, various professional international organizations) does not exercise its administrative power in accordance with international law and within the scope of this unexercised power. Its competition and cooperation actions shall be governed by law in accordance with (§5.1) the principles of global competition and cooperation legislation. (3) On the basis of the Great Harmony of the World/Global Governance, the country shall have the rights of independence, equality, self-jurisdiction, self-defense, environment, peace, development, and neutrality regarding other countries. (4) The state shall refrain from inciting civil chaos in other countries, respecting human rights, observing international law, resolving disputes peacefully, and refraining from relying on war as a tool to implement national policies. (5) The administrative power of the people of the country is entrusted to the democratically elected chief executives at all levels; the implementation of international administrative norms is exercised by the various types of administrative agencies at all levels and various types prescribed or entrusted by the constitution. (6) In order to maintain peace, a country may join a mutual protection collective security system or collective defense system; for this, the country may agree to limit its sovereignty in order to establish and ensure a lasting peace and order among countries in the region and the world. (7) Sub-national government departments may entrust their sovereignty to neighboring international organizations with the consent of the central government within the scope of their authority to exercise national powers and perform national tasks. (8) In order to resolve international disputes, countries and sub-national levels that meet the requirements listed in the preceding paragraph may join universal, general, and compulsory international arbitrage agreements. (9) In order to achieve permanent peace, consolidate a principality in the world (the purpose of the UN Charter), and implement the ideal of one family (human rights standard §1), all completely democratic countries that conform to the basic principles and general principles of this constitution may form a united group and share in the global village of Permanent Peace. [According to the second formal clause of Kant's "On Perpetual Peace", the Laws of Nations Shall be Founded on a Federation of Free States] (10) To implement Permanent Peace, withdraw from the international peace system or from research and development of defense technology (such as lasers, etc.) requires the consent of 3/4 of the citizens; merging with another country to form a union also requires the approval of 3/4 of the citizens and 3/4 of a fully democratic country. Anyone who advocates unity with an authoritarian state shall be deprived of their basic rights and all benefits.
●"Supranational Administrative Principles of Concurrent II": According to Kelsen's "General Theory of Law and the State", "national law is entrusted by international law", and the government is governed by law to establish a supranational (United Nations) with permanent peace.
●"Supranational Administrative Principles of Concurrent III": Refer to the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany §24.1 The Federation may, by law, transfer sovereign powers to international organizations §24.1a. Insofar as the Länder are competent to exercise state powers and to perform state functions, they may, with the consent of the Federal Government, transfer sovereign powers to trans-frontier institutions in neighboring regions. §24.2 With a view to maintaining peace, the Federation may enter into a system of mutual collective security; in doing so it shall consent to such limitations upon its sovereign powers as will bring about and secure a lasting peace in Europe and among the nations of the world. §24.3 For the settlement of disputes between states, the Federation shall accede to agreements providing for general, comprehensive and compulsory international arbitration. ↑
"Take Germany as an example": § 24.2~3 of the Basic Law: In order to maintain peace, the Federation may join the collective security system of mutual protection. For this purpose, the Federation may agree to limit its sovereignty in order to establish and ensure a lasting peace and order between Europe and the countries of the world; To settle international disputes, the Federation may enter into universal, general, and compulsory international arbitration agreements.
●For complete information on §21, please refer to the PPP website https://www.lawlove.org/en/book ↑
National Administration Form": National administration refers to the central government or the federal government. "Take Argentina as an example: The presidential system of Argentina helped make it the seventh richest country in the world in the early 20th century. In 1908 its per capita income surpassed Germany, Canada and the Netherlands to rank seventh in the world. The leader of the Radical Civic Union—Hipólito Yrigoyen— was elected president in 1916 to fulfill his political views and substantially increase wages, tariffs, welfare and xenophobia to the point of collapse. By 2016 Argentina’s per capita income ranking sank to 59th in the world.
●"National Administration Form I": Government must be neutral, impartial, fair, timely, and transparent: (1) Government and administrative neutrality. It is necessary to eliminate all incentives for corruption among soldiers, public officials and schoolteachers. Therefore, without a strong ideology, they can only focus on serving the people without distraction. Certain public officials, including military officers, judges, and prosecutors, must not be affiliated with a political party, participate in political party activities, or have substantive party membership. Public officials should be above partisanship and shall be restricted from violating laws. (2) National governance must be responsible to the people, and in order to ensure that the people are governed by a high standard, it is required that any public affairs should be done right the first time, and that someone must bear responsibility for mistakes. No government may waste resources, time, money and development opportunities; all government agencies should formulate standard operating procedures to allow the people to supervise the government simply and effectively. (3) The government has an obligation to solve all problems in the country and society. Any public official who handles official duties must do it right the first time, and someone must take responsibility for mistakes. (4) When the state recruit’s public officials, it should also formulate an exit mechanism. In the first half of tenure, they should be hired under a regular contract system. After fair assessments in each period, those with outstanding performance at the end of the statutory assessment period can be reclassified as full-time public officials, but they still must submit to performance appraisals of the regular appraisal system. (5) The government should submit a complete "Generations Report" every year, balance the budget, and regularly publish accurate "Government Balance Sheets" using "Generally Accepted Accounting Principles". (6) The government should ensure a sustainable living environment, population density, and rational use of land. Except for those born locally, no ownership of residential land is allowed except in accordance with the law. However, those who have been elected as township mayor or above in Taiwan are not subject to this limitation. (7) The government should be fair, honest, and transparent, and practice internet participation in politics. With the exception of national security confidential documents that have not yet reached the declassification deadline, all information should be online in real time, displayed publicly for at least 60 years, and subject to long-term legal and ethical inspections. (Norwegian Constitution § 100) (8) The government should immediately provide clear and complete regulatory information to ensure the safety, justice and hygiene of people's medical, food, housing and transportation needs, etc., and establish a safety traceability system that can be examined by all regulatory agencies. (9) The state should operate publicly the grassroots production industries that the disadvantaged rely on for their livelihoods; public services such as medical care and care should not deviate from the goals of public and community availability. (10) Any organization or unit should make good use of scientific management thinking, be committed to global localization, continue to evolve and improve, comprehensively improve administrative quality and efficiency, and fulfill the value of administrative unity as part of the global legal system. (11) Any preliminary open and transparent procedure is part of standard operating procedure, and with standard operating procedures, people can know whether the country is governed in accordance with SOPs and implement the function of national supervision of the country. The government should act transparently 24 hours a day, and delays in reporting, and inflated or reduced figures should bring legal sanctions. (12) All cabinet members of the government should rely on each other, depend on each other, and take care of each other in order to serve the people; when the central or local government is on the verge of bankruptcy, those with power and responsibility shall be held accountable. (13) Any government agency is a place to serve the people and solve problems; any public official is a person who serves the people and solves problems. All guarantees, constraints and instructions of the Constitution are the obligations of the relevant organs and their public officials. (14) Actual proof of great love in the constitution, and great good in the government. The government should ensure that it hears calls to relieve suffering, is responsive to justice, human dignity is ensured, and all are protected by the constitution for life, achieving the spirit of building a nation of equality and fraternity and creating a country where no one commits suicide. (15) When preparing government business, necessary information and advice should be obtained from the relevant public sector. Information and advice should be obtained from local governments when necessary. Organizations and individuals should also have the opportunity to express their opinions when necessary. (Chapter 7 §2- of the Swedish Constitution). (16) The relevant government is neutral, fair, timely, and transparent, and the implementation rules are prescribed by law. (17) The purpose of a nation is to serve the people and all humanity. In the age of the global village, we must take care of our own nation and the world, and we must also take care of the future. We must appraise the situation and determine our nation’s struggle process.
●"National Administration Form II": "Generations Report" means that the country should use "generally accepted accounting principles" to draw up accounts for different generations based on the total budget items of the central or local state, such as income and expenditure, welfare, health insurance, retirement pensions, etc., in order to fully understand which contemporary policies may affect different generations. Irish politician Edmund Burke once pointed out: "The real social contract should not only be the contractual relationship between the supreme ruler and the people (that is, the "will of the people") as Rousseau said, but greater priority should be given to ensuring "partnerships" between different generations... in order to avoid situations where the domestic owner does not notice what he received from the ancestors of this land, or what should belong to the descendants of future generations. They act as if they were the only master. They should not destroy the entire sustainable survival structure of their society at will, and then regard cutting off sustainable development of local residents as their right, leaving their descendants in ruins, Rather than having a place to live, these descendants will learn how to despise what they have created, just as they despise the establishments of their ancestors. Society is actually a contract. The state is not only a partnership among the living, but also a partnership between the living, those who have passed away, and those who have not yet been born." See Edmund Burke, 1996, Reflections on the French Revolution, Taiwan: Oxford University.
●"National Administration Form III": Ministries’ organization and minister’s responsibilities: (1) The minister is the ultimate constitutional guarantor of all businesses under each ministry. The Prime Minister is the first joint guarantor, and the president is the final joint guarantor. (2) The Minister has the right to personnel affairs and the right to order and command his subordinates. (3) The Minister has the right to investigate matters under his jurisdiction. (4) The Minister has the right to dispatch personnel from other ministries and committees to provide support in accordance with the law. (5) The Ministerial Organization Law and the Minister’s Power Exercise Law shall be prescribed by law.
●"National Administration Form IV": The government maintains cleanliness and cracks down on corruption. For example, tens and hundreds of billions of yuan have been embezzled and fled abroad. After more than ten years, the statute of limitations for legal prosecution has expired and the perps return home in a show of prestige. Take Taiwan's legislation as an example: the legislature passes a 25% share subscription. To buy stocks, you can borrow 75% from the bank. After raising funds of 100 billion yuan the bill is revised so that the subscribed stock warrants cannot be used for bank loans. Finally, a big boss of the telecommunications and banking industry, which is licensed by the state, fled to the United States—how many people have been ruined this way.
●National Administration Form V": A nation or a sub-nation (state, province and city) should implement the eight great laws of the Constitutional Standards: the so-called eight inherent rules will become the eight soft models leading to human development. Let the world see Taiwan and know that it must have Taiwan. ↑
"Modified semi-presidential system": take France as an example—the political system changes very frequently. It has changed 7 times in 81 years. It finally stabilized with the "semi-presidential and dual head system,” which historians have simplified to the "French Fifth Republic." Refer to the French Constitution § 21: The Prime Minister directs the government, is responsible for national defense, and ensures compliance with laws.
●"Modified semi-presidential system I": Countries that implement a semi-presidential system will show different modes of operation due to their constitutions, traditions, actual conditions, and political party ecology. For example, if the appointment method of national leaders is the standard, it can be divided into the following two categories: (1) The cabinet chief is elected by the political party occupying the majority of seats in the parliament; the president must consult the parliament for the appointment, exemption or replacement of the cabinet chief. Such as France, Austria, Iceland, Finland, Ireland, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Portugal, Slovenia, Moldova, Sri Lanka, Mongolia, etc. (2) The head of the cabinet is appointed, removed, or replaced by the president without consulting the parliament. His position is more similar to a super minister, such as the Republic of China, the Republic of Korea, Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Latvia, Estonia, Georgia, etc. Source: Ye Yaoyuan, "Presidential System, Semi-Presidential System, Cabinet System? What kind of constitutional framework does the country need?”
●"Modified semi-presidential system II": The cabinet system and the directly elected president are completely compatible in the system. This kind of system is referred to as the "quasi-cabinet system" in China, but it is also classified as a semi-presidential system. In the European Union, there are ten countries, including Finland and Austria, which adopt a "cabinet system" with direct presidential elections. These countries have performed quite well on many international indicators such as deepening democracy, good governance and good governance, and people’s well-being. The powers and responsibilities of the president under the current system of our country do not match. Not only are there powers and no responsibilities, but there is no object of checks and balances. Therefore, this constitution advocates adopting an improved semi-presidential system, referring to the French and Finnish constitutional systems, so that the president’s powers and responsibilities are consistent. And let the cabinet and the parliament cooperate with each other through professional division of labor to protect all the people's needs in life.
●"Modified semi-presidential system III": The Constitutional Standards advocate that the president of a "reformed semi-presidential system" is governed by §5 to §19 of the French Constitution: "State and the President" as the practical operation reference principle; the prime minister uses the "French Constitution" §20 to §33: "Central State "With the Prime Minister" is the reference principle for practical operation; the Finnish semi-presidential system and the Swiss committee system are both reference principles and spirits that are simultaneously considered and adopted. To eliminate the common shortcomings of the global system and make good use of its common advantages, only the improved semi-presidential system is most suitable for countries that agree with differences.
●"Modified semi-presidential system IV": The Constitutional Standards advocate the adoption of a semi-presidential system. The so-called semi-presidential system, also known as the dual-heads system and the mixed system, is a republican government with the characteristics of both a "presidential system" and a "parliamentary republic." The semi-presidential president, as the head of state, has some special powers, the cabinet has a relatively stable position, and the power of the Parliament is relatively reduced. The semi-presidential government is most typical of France. When the Fifth Republic was established, it learned the lessons of the failure of parliamentary democracy during the previous republics, so it began to create and implement a semi-presidential and semi-parliamentary democracy (semi-presidential system), which has remained unchanged until now.
●"Modified semi-presidential system V": Take Finland, the creator of the semi-presidential system, for example. Finland is arguably one of the richest countries in the world and one of the societies with the smallest gap between rich and poor. Finnish civil servants are not guaranteed a lifetime career and will not threaten the country with financial bankruptcy. Is there any reason for other countries not to learn from them? The Finnish central government currently has 12 ministerial-level agencies, namely: (1) The Prime Minister's Office; (2) The Ministry for Foreign Affairs; (3) The Ministry of Law/Justice; (4) The Ministry of the Interior; (5) The Ministry of Defense; (6) The Ministry of Finance; (7) The Ministry of Education; (8) The Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry; (9) The Ministry of Transport and Communications; (10) The Ministry of Employment and the Economy; (11) The Ministry of Social Affairs and Health; (12) The Ministry of the Environment. See the 2014 edition of Comparing World Constitutions, edited by Chien-ming Huang. Referring to Finland’s experience, the differences between Finland and other “semi-presidential” countries are as follows: (1) The President of Finland exercises power beyond partisan politics, giving the President real national prestige. He can not only impartially and selflessly implement the powers of foreign affairs and national defense, but also plays a role in stabilizing the country's political power; (2) The Finnish president does not often intervene in internal affairs, or become involved in political party fights; (3) Since 1918, Finland’s semi-presidential system has no practical operational difficulties, and no problems forming a powerful presidency or super-presidency.
●"Modified semi-presidential system VI”: "Presidential Office Organization, Presidential Responsibilities": (1) The state system adopts an improved semi-presidential system to ensure that the free, democratic constitutional order is protected and does not decay. (2) The presidential general election: corresponding to the 12 professional committees of social solidarity in the national and global divisions of the Parliament, the cabinet has 12 and several ad hoc committees. The prime minister and ministers may be concurrently elected chairs of the professional committees of the Parliament; the central government is responsible to the Parliament. (3) The President represents the country and oversees human constitutional standards, ensuring observance of the constitution, maintaining the normal operation of public power, continuing and enhancing national strength, and upholding justice for future generations. (4) The President is commander-in-chief of the three-armed forces, declares war, makes peace, declares martial law, amnesty and special amnesty, issues emergency orders and promulgates laws in accordance with the law. The abovementioned amnesty does not include impeachment cases. (5) The President presides over the Supreme National Defense Conference, National Security Conference and State Council. (6) The President assigns ambassadors and special envoys abroad and accepts ambassadors and special envoys sent by foreign countries. (7) Unless otherwise provided in this constitution, the President shall make decisions based on the recommendations of the Cabinet; if a decision is not made in accordance with the recommendations of the Cabinet, the issue shall be returned to the Cabinet for further discussion. In this case, the Cabinet may submit reports to Parliament on matters other than the ratification of treaties, appointment of officials or positions. If the cabinet proposes after that, the matter will be handled in accordance with the approval of the Parliament on the cabinet report. (8) The President may submit a State of the Union address to Parliament and read it out; no discussion shall be allowed on the address; the president may speak at a joint meeting of 12 professional committees in Parliament for this purpose. After he leaves the Parliament, the Parliament may discuss the president's speech, but may not vote. (9) The president may choose a professional committee chairperson to directly appoint him as the prime minister, and he may be removed from office upon the prime minister’s resignation from the government. The President appoints and removes government ministers based on the Prime Minister’s proposal. If the President wants to appoint the chairman of the non-professional committee as the prime minister, he must obtain the approval of the Parliament. (10) The President represents the country and concludes treaties with foreign countries in international relations. All regular diplomatic relations or treaties/agreements/agreements involving national legislative matters shall be in legal form with the consent or participation of the then legislative authority. (11) The president should be out of party. In addition to nomination of the prime minister, the signed bills, issued orders, and exit must be signed by the prime minister and ministers of relevant ministries. (12) The president should lead the country to benefit mankind, ensure that the country's human rights protection will never lag behind for a day to other countries, and the people guarantee that the president's treatment is the world's best. (13) When the president's power or treatment changes, it shall take effect from the next president. (14) The President may refer important matters related to national security to a referendum. (15) The president is not subject to criminal prosecution unless he is removed or dismissed from office except for crimes other than civil strife. (16) The Organizational Law of the Presidential Palace is prescribed by law.
●"Modified semi-presidential system VII": The most urgent related bills and orders of the people should go through a rigorous review process to avoid arbitrary one-sided declaration of laws. Therefore, the president should sign and promulgate laws and regulations before signing and promulgating them by the prime minister and relevant ministers. The prime minister and ministers of the administration check, avoid the president's arbitrary actions, and protect the rights of the people. Please refer to §19 of the French Constitution: "Official documents signed by the President, except for those specified in §8.1 and §11, §12, §16, §18, §54, §56, §61, etc., which must be counter-signed by the Prime Minister or by the Prime Minister and related ministers."
●"Modified semi-presidential system VIII”: The prime minister is critical to the administration of the country and prevents the president from excessively interfering in the administration. Therefore, the candidate for the prime minister should be concurrently appointed by the professional chairmen of the Parliament. In administration. If a non-professional chairperson is appointed, it must be approved by the Parliament. Refer to §18 of the French Constitution. Through the interaction between the Parliament and the President, the consensus of the executive and legislative departments can be gathered to avoid unnecessary conflicts in the operation of the country and harm the rights of the people
●"Modified semi-presidential system IX”: Under the reformed semi-presidential system, to limit the power of the President and strengthen the functions of the Parliament, the President should listen to the opinions of the cabinet and make judgments, and the professional committee chairmen of the Parliament can also serve as cabinet ministers. Opinions The President should accept and implement responsible politics and the symbolic status of the President to ensure that the people’s opinions can be truly conveyed and implemented. Please refer to §58 of the Finnish Constitution. ↑
"The emergence and responsibilities of the president": The head of state is in charge of the country's centennial plan, which is updated every two years, leading the people of the whole country and striving to lead all mankind to practice great civilization. The president is the commanding height of the executive power. Under the checks and balances of the executive and the legislative, the president should have the opportunity to participate in the operation of the legislative power. Because the president takes an oath to secede from the party and abide by the constitution, the generational members of Parliament who represent his ideas should also detach from the party and be detached and neutral, so they can participate in the operation of the Parliament without color, put forward fair and objective ideas, and concentrate on serving the people and the generations. The President and Generations of the members of Parliament: (1) The president must be at least 50 years old, has no nationality limit in accordance with the law, and is directly elected by the people in accordance with the sacred principle of sovereignty among the people, so as to practice true democracy where the world is public, and mankind is united. (2) The presidential election adopts a two-round runoff system, and an absolute majority of votes must be obtained to be elected. If an absolute majority of votes is not obtained in the first round of voting, a second round of voting shall be held on the 14th day thereafter, and the two candidates with the most votes in the first round of voting shall participate in the election; if there is a first round If the candidate with the highest number of votes in the ballot withdraws, the candidate with the second highest number of votes will be substituted for the second round of voting. (3) In order to promote the concept of administrative opinion, the president must nominate and match 12 sustainable development generation parliament members with their own nationalities and over 45 years old, and they will be placed in 12 professional committees of the parliament for the same term as the president. When taking office, he and the president should publicly swear to renounce party membership and isolate party affairs. Generations of parliamentarians do not have the right to vote when impeaching the president from parliament. Except for being nominated to be re-appointed generational perpetrators, members of the localization of international law, and members of the internalization of France, regardless of whether they are in office or within 3 years after resignation, they should still cut off politics and business. relation. During this period, the benefits remain unchanged. Violators shall be punished by law. (4) The sustainable development generation of parliamentarians shall be the vice chairmen of the professional committees. The acting professional chairperson presides over the meeting, and when the members of the professional committee can vote in the same way, they have the right to decide. (5) When generations of the members of Parliament are vacant, they shall be nominated by the President, approved by 2/3 of the generations of the members of Parliament, and then appointed by the President after the approval of 2/3 of the vacant committee members. (6) The President serves a term of 5 years and cannot run again for the same position or hold any other public office for 6 years after stepping down. The president's life-long safety is guaranteed by the state, and the current president is the guarantor responsible for protection. (7) The outgoing president, prime minister, prime minister of a fully democratic country or foreigners of equal status do not need to pass the general constitutional examination to run for the president of our country; other foreigners should pass the re-examination within one year after taking office; those of their own nationality should Passed before registration. (8) When a foreign national is elected as president, he should facilitate the signing of an extradition treaty between his home country and his country within 6 months. Those who cannot be completed shall not have multiple nationalities or permanent residency rights. The method is prescribed by law. (9) 60 days before the polling day of the new presidential election, the president shall be responsible for guarding the government and shall not make any major decisions during the period. Within 60 days from the date of election, the new president shall take office immediately. The method for the transfer of the old and new presidents shall be prescribed by law. (10) When the president is vacant or unable to perform his duties for some reason, the prime minister shall act as an emergency agent, and the parliament shall elect an acting president within 72 hours. With the exception of the Prime Minister, members of the Council of Sustainable Development for Generations and the chairpersons of various professional committees can stand for the acting president, which is elected by all members of Parliament. The acting president shall conduct a new presidential election within 6 months, and the term of office shall be recalculated. Acting presidential election methods shall be prescribed by law. (11) The president shall take an oath when he takes office. The oath is as follows: " I solemnly swear to the people of the country and the world with sincerity, that I will abide by the Constitution, transcend party affiliation, be fair and unselfish, perform loyally to all duties and promote the welfare of the people; strive to improve the value of life and promote the Constitutional Standards, improve resource allocation, promote world peace, and have no obligation to the citizens. If I violate this oath, I am willing to be sanctioned by this country to the strictest degree.” (12) The Presidential Election and Recall Act and the Presidential Office Organization Act are prescribed by law.
●"The emergence and responsibilities of the president I": The executive and the legislature check and balance each other. The executive is based on respect for the legislation. It should implement national policies in accordance with laws and regulations. When the Parliament is re-elected every year, the Parliament represents the latest public opinion. The country should comply with the public opinion. Therefore, the country’s policy is responsible to the Parliament. Which means being responsible to the people. For details, please refer to Article 57 of the Constitution of the Republic of China. Please also refer to §20 of the French Constitution.
●"The emergence and responsibilities of the president II": South Korean Constitution § 67.3: "When there is only one presidential candidate, if the number of votes does not reach more than 1/3 of the total number of voters, then the president shall not be elected. For details: Complete World Constitution Chinese-English edition, edited by Chien-ming Huang.
●"The emergence and responsibilities of the president III": The Constitutional Standards are positioned as a strategic constitution and art of warfare according to heavenly principles, philosophical principles and legal principles. In order to eliminate the pretext of war, it is specified that when the current or former leaders of China, the United States, Russia, the European Union, India, and Japan can run for the presidency of the country, they are not subject to the restrictions of the Constitutional Standards §7 to be a fully democratic country, but they must still be approved by an absolute majority of votes. ↑
"The appointment and responsibilities of the prime minister": The legislature selects three committees each year. The chairs are elected by the people, and the president may directly appoint a chairperson to serve as Prime Minister who is over 50 years old. If the president nominates a non-elected chair as Prime Minister who is over 50 years old, it must be approved by the legislature. The President must appoint a new prime minister or re-nominate the current PM after new legislative elections. There will be no issues of overcoming cabinet favorites; no issues of dissolving the legislature; and no issues of inability to produce a Prime Minister. If one party boycotts, it will not lead to crisis. The Prime Minister is the head of the executive. In the spirit of the executive being responsible for legislation and ensuring the implementation of laws, executive officials should be appointed by and responsible to the Prime Minister. See § 21 of the French Constitution. US President James Monroe: "The best form of government is that which is most likely to prevent the greatest sum of evil." The modified semi-presidential system is the one most likely to prevent the greatest evils in politics.
●"The appointment and responsibilities of the prime minister I”: State Council Organization, Powers and Responsibilities of the Prime Minister": (1) The Prime Minister is the country's highest executive head, representing the government, directing the government, and responsible for national defense. (2) The Prime Minister formulates and implements national policies, controls the administrative organs and the army, and is accountable to the National Assembly. (3) The Prime Minister is in charge of making regulations and appointing civil and military officials to ensure compliance with the law. (4) The Prime Minister presides over the work of the cabinet and is responsible for coordinating the preparation and deliberation of the affairs of the cabinet.
●"The appointment and responsibilities of the prime minister II”: The prime minister may delegate some of his powers to other ministers to exercise them. The prime minister and the heads of various ministries and committees shall submit to the legislature laws, budgets, applications for martial law, pardons, war declarations, dispute settlements, treaties and other important matters, or matters involving the mutual relationship of ministries and committees, to the legislature for decisions by the state council conference. All such decrees must be countersigned by the prime minister and relevant ministers. (1) The ministers are accountable to the legislature for duties and conduct. Every minister who participates in the Cabinet’s deliberations shall be jointly and severally responsible for the decisions made by the Cabinet if there are no objections recorded in the case. Bills signed by the prime minister must be countersigned by the relevant minister. (2) The Cabinet must immediately notify the legislature of its governance program. This should also be the case when there are major changes in the composition of the cabinet. (3) The term of office of the prime minister is one year, and the professional chairperson shall not be the prime minister during the current chairperson's term. When the prime minister is vacant or unable to perform his duties for some reason, the deputy prime minister shall act as an emergency agent, and the president shall designate or nominate a new prime minister within 10 days. (4) The prime minister must be at least 50 years old, be born in the country and have lived in the country for at least 30 years. (5) The prime minister may appoint two elected chairpersons as deputy prime ministers; the appointment of a non-elected chairperson as deputy prime ministers must be approved by the National Assembly. The term of office of the deputy prime minister is the same as that of the prime minister. (6) Acts signed by the prime minister shall be countersigned by relevant ministers when necessary. (7) The president shall not dismiss the prime minister until one-third of the prime minister’s term has passed. (8) No prime minister can be elected within ten years of leaving the presidency. (9) The state council governs the general administration, coordinating various legal services such as the proposal, planning, interpretation, consultation, revision, legal assistance, and administrative execution of laws and systems. (10) Organization of the legislature, the election and removal of chief executives, and the procedures for the legislature to exercise its powers and make policy decisions shall be prescribed by law.
●"The appointment and responsibilities of the prime minister III”: The prime minister handles the operation of the executive power and is responsible for all administrative matters. The powers and responsibilities of the president and the prime minister are clearly divided. The prime minister must put forward policies to protect the people from the perspective of the people regarding major laws and regulations and bills, and carefully check before the president's announcement, not just as a rubber stamp for the president, and playing the function of the countersignature system. Please refer to "Finnish Constitution" §66: "1. The prime minister presides over the work of the cabinet and is responsible for coordinating the preparation and deliberation of the affairs of the cabinet. The prime minister presides over the discussions of the plenary meeting of the cabinet. 2. The prime minister represents Finland in the Council of Europe. Unless the cabinet specifically stipulates that the prime minister also represents Finland in other EU activities that require the highest leaders of the country to participate. 3. When the prime minister is unable to perform his duties for some reason, the minister who has been designated as the acting prime minister shall perform his duties; the senior minister shall act as prime minister."
●"The appointment and responsibilities of the prime minister IV”: The term of the prime minister should not be too long. Under the annual re-election of the parliament, the prime minister respects the legislation, and the term of office should not be too long. Therefore, it is believed that the term of the prime minister is limited to one year, but he does not step down, but remains in the parliamentary cabinet. In addition, if the prime minister comes from a legislative background, he will not be allowed to serve again during the current term. To cultivate national and international leaders, so that new public opinion can be constantly replaced and replaced, so as to ensure that the voice of the people is heard.
●"The appointment and responsibilities of the prime minister V”: The cabinet belongs to a professional division of labor, and each should perform its own duties. It should be based on administrative ethics to make the most professional suggestions. The matters discussed should be based on conscience and conscience, exclude all interests, and tell the truth. Do the right thing. Therefore, the opinions discussed by the cabinet must be recorded in detail. It can also let the people know the professional opinions of the cabinet members and be responsible for their own words and deeds. Please refer to §60 of the Finnish Constitution. The appointment of every minister in the cabinet is subject to a high degree of public opinion testing. The selection of executive branch chiefs must be subject to the supervision and approval of the Congress, to prevent controversial persons from taking office, and to prevent the appointment of executive officials from becoming the remuneration of the ruling party.
●"The appointment and responsibilities of the prime minister VI”: All bills must be countersigned by the relevant minister. The executive department follows the spirit of the cabinet system and must accept the questions of members of the legislature and directly respond to the problems of the members. The people’s problems are determined by the state. Refer to §58 of the German Basic Law, §22 of the French Constitution, §37 of the Constitution of the Republic of China (Taiwan). ↑
"Ministers should announce global performance rankings": "Peaceful Development/Global Comparison." In reality, most parliaments are rubber stamps of the ruling party, or even colluding accomplices and accomplices in corruption. Thus, local elections should be held every year, and at least 60 days before the election, the performance of relevant ministries and committees should be announced globally. Subjects for dialogue between candidates and voters including: Global Peace Index, Human Development Index, Freedom Index (Freedom in the World), Democracy Index, Rule of Law Index, Globalization Index (KOF), Index of Social Progress, Corruption Perceptions Index, Global Talent Competitiveness Index, Environmental Sustainability Index, Global Competitiveness Report, GDP per capita, and the “Everything Sustainability Index” related to power reports, per capita income rankings, etc., makes Parliament a center of society, state and human development.
●"National Performance Evaluation I”: All national agencies, organizations, governments at all levels, and various industrial organizations should clearly define the performance indicators (SOP) for human safety and sustainable development, as an annual performance appraisal, report to the people, and guide the people to learn. Every year, the President shall publicize the performance of government agencies across the country in implementing human security, permanent peace, and sustainable development to the entire people and all humanity.
"Sub-national Administration": "Global localized grassroots-ism" implements substantive co-management through "rights sharing and responsibility sharing" French politicism Odillon Barrot: "It's the same hammer, but they shortened the travel.” The functions of local governments are no longer limited to management of local affairs or commissioning of central policies. Instead, they must reposition their roles and functions under the thinking of globalization and good governance, and gradually transform towards city governance, or new modes of operation such as local governance. "All government affairs should be managed at the government level and full-time institutions closest to the people." Refer to "The 21st Principle of the founding of the US: strong local self-government is the keystone for preserving human freedom." Elihu Root (awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1912): Claims of right and insistence upon obligations may depend upon treaty stipulations, or upon the rules of international law, or upon the sense of natural justice applied to the circumstances of a particular case, or upon disputed facts.
●"Sub-national Administration I”: The local government is closest to the people. Therefore, public administration should start from the local area and take the lead in implementing public policies to respond to the needs of local people. A good government should be on the sidelines, hear the voice and help the suffering, and pay attention to the needs and welfare of the people at any time. Refer to "European Charter of Local Autonomy" §4.3: "Public affairs related to the people should be exercised by the local government. The nature of the task, administrative efficiency and economic principles should be considered when authorizing the local government. Local governments provide forums and empowerment for local communities and play a role in promoting the interests of such communities through their initiatives, with reference to §28A of the Irish Constitution.
●"Sub-national Administration II”: The powers and responsibilities of local organizations and local heads: (1) Local governments at all levels should give priority to the implementation of public tasks and develop local citizen governance experience. The local can do it but the central government can't do it; the state can do it but the international can't do it is the foundation of global governance. (2) Improve a clean government. In the election of the mayor of a municipality directly under the Central Government or a county or mayor, the three key bureau chiefs (such as chief accountant, finance, education, etc.) must be merged and elected by the people. The combined one-vote single election system is adopted, and the third force enters the system in an institutional way. The election of local chiefs shall be prescribed by law. (3) Implement national localization. All central agencies and organizations, including legislative, administrative, procuratorial and judicial organizations, should set up endless single-window joint service offices in local cities and counties, and local governments and sub-local autonomous organizations should fully cooperate. (4) Implement global localization. In addition to the relevant provisions of the constitution, local governments should promote local construction and develop international exchanges in accordance with the "Universal Declaration of Local Self-Government ", "Compendium of the Constitution of the World - Local Self-Government of Countries", "European Charter of Local Autonomy", and "European Charter for the Protection of Human Rights in Urban Areas". cooperate. (5) Sub-national level organizations (localities) may sign political agreements with any sub-national level organizations (such as states, cities, special zones, etc.) in a fair and completely free democratic country without violating the norms of the supranational and national levels. economic, social, cultural and other treaties or agreements. (6) The relationship between the central and local governments, local governments, and public organizations shall be prescribed by law. (7) Local administration independently manages affairs according to law. The sources of revenue of local governments at all levels, and the rights of local governments at all levels to decide whether and how to use their sources of revenue, are regulated by law. Icelandic Constitution §78.
●"Sub-national Administration III": Rights and responsibilities of community organizations in towns and villages: (1) Implementing the "Grassroots-ism" of global localization. All government affairs should be managed by the government level and full-time institutions closest to the people. (2) The government with the best implementation is on hand. The village community sets up a "community development association" with several directors and several supervisors. Except for service expenses, all are honorary posts. Elected by the villagers, the term of office is two years; the chairman of the board is elected by the directors, and the term is 1 year, and shall not be re-elected or re-elected during the term; the chairman is the country's most basic administrative head and serves the villagers on behalf of the country. The formation of the heads of township areas and their equivalent areas shall be determined by law. (3) The village officials are civil servants who have passed the constitutional examination and are responsible for assisting the operation of the community development association and disseminating common knowledge of the constitution. (4) Donations are tax deductible, and the income cannot be used for political or religious donations. (5) The general organization rules of township areas and village communities are prescribed by law.
●"Sub-national Administration IV”: Local elections such as village chiefs and peasant associations are almost always a source of evil in democracy, and they are also creators of systematic persecution of neighbors living in harmony. Except for a very small number of regions, almost all of them are elected by bribed voters. Key votes of 10,000 yuan to 20,000 yuan are not only heard from time to time, but rather common. After being elected, these vote bribers become the mobilizing footholds for county and city councilors, county mayors, congressmen, and presidents, the protagonists of vote bribery and even more likely, the protagonists who surround all the elected candidates waiting to share the spoils. These are the sources of corruption. To put an end to the politics of dividing spoils, implement true democracy, cut corruption, incorporate rule of law and enforce justice. We must start with local self-governance to eliminate the source of corruption.
●"Sub-national Administration V”: Defending the home and the country: the principle of all people as soldiers should be transferred as a model. In Switzerland, all soldiers train for self-defense (Swiss Constitution § 58.1), not as a means of foreign aggression for expansion. Under the system of universal conscription, all citizens who have received military training are the most important factors that prevent dictatorships from arising. It was also the main reason why Hitler did not dare to attack Switzerland. Local governments have the right to set up civil defense organizations to defend freedom, democracy and human rights. The administrative heads of cities and counties may organize, direct, and supervise civil defense in areas under their jurisdiction. Civil defense organizations in cities and counties may be incorporated into the national army through a resolution of the Parliament. The militia is used to defend the family and the country. In order to prevent the militia from rebelling against its own accord, the militia is still under the command and supervision of the county and city administrative chiefs, and it does contribute to the locality.
●"Sub-national Administration VI”: Local governments rely solely on the police to maintain order, and sometimes cannot cope with situations such as terrorist attacks. Therefore, if the county and city governments can have their own civil defense organizations, they can deal with emergencies, respond in the first time, and protect the security of people life and property. Please refer to Xu Shikai's "Draft Constitution of the Republic of Taiwan" §97: "The chief executive, command, and supervision of the militia organizations in the capital, prefecture, and county. The militia organizations in the capital, prefecture, and county may be incorporated into the national army through a resolution of the lower house of the National Assembly. "United States Constitution" §1.8: "Regulates the organization, equipment, and training of the militia, as well as the management of the militia when serving the United States, but each state reserves the right to appoint officers and train its militia in accordance with the regulations set by Parliament."
●"Sub-national Administration VII”: Local administration affects local people's livelihood, and the operations of local governments need to be supervised by public opinion. Therefore, important local administrative officials should be directly elected by the people, and the source and flow of money and education projects should be decided by the people to avoid improper interference by political power or financial groups. In addition, in the electoral system, the method of combining one-vote single-selection and three-party electoral system is adopted to avoid the control of local administration by the same political group or political party, and to ensure that local politics are subject to appropriate checks and balances. ↑
"The sub-national level of the Constitutional Standards is compared with state, provincial and district self-government bodies": (1) The constitution guarantees the self-government of the self-governing body. They shall have full legal personality. Spanish Constitution § 140. (2) Indigenous peoples and ethnic minorities have linguistic and cultural autonomy. Finnish Constitution § 121. (3) Everyone is entitled to compensation for damages resulting from unlawful action in the performance of any function or other activity by a person or agency carrying out functions or activities within a state or local government authority or as a public authority. Constitution of Slovenia § 26. ↑
For "local autonomy," take "Germany as an example:" Basic Law §24: All states may entrust their sovereignty to neighboring international organizations with the consent of the federal government within the scope of their authority to exercise national powers and perform national tasks; "Hessen, Germany", Constitution §67: The rules of international law are a binding part of state law and do not need to be specifically converted into state law. Laws that violate these rules or international treaties are invalid. Every province in Canada and every state in the US has its own Supreme Court, and their autonomy need not be elaborated on here. "Take Belgium as an example": Constitution §35, §41: Federal authorities have powers only in matters officially allocated by the Constitution and laws passed under the Constitution itself. Under the conditions and terms stipulated by the law, communities and regions all have the authority to handle other matters in their respective areas of concern. Therefore, Belgium has separate institutions: the central, regional, and community levels have separate administrative and legislative bodies, with equal legal status: the level of effectiveness of laws passed by the district and community councils is equal to that of centrally enacted laws. Exclusive powers (exclusive competencies): The powers held by the central government, regions, and communities are divided and exclusive to avoid unnecessary disputes or conflicts due to overlapping powers. The authority of the regional community government, including employment policy, industrial planning, environmental protection, nature conservation, rural development, housing, land use, urban renewal, water resources, sewage treatment, energy policy (except national infrastructure and nuclear energy), road construction, waterways, regional airports, local public transportation, local government, agriculture, foreign trade, urban diplomacy (for example, friendly or sister cities: Taipei has 51 International Sister Cities), culture, language policy, education, health policy, social welfare and many more aspects of life. The federal government has residual competencies, including national defense, justice, public security, social security, and fiscal and financial policies.
●For complete information on §23, please refer to the PPP website https://www.lawlove.org/en/book ↑
"Constitutional Guarantors": constitutionalism means "do good, pursue good, and avoid evil." This includes exercise of the permanent "constitution of all constitutions, morality of all moralities, a faith for all faiths, and fraternity of all fraternities." "Constitutional Guarantors" enhance the constitutional height, attitude and profile of soldiers, public officials and schoolteachers. Law alone is not enough for self-determination. Those who are responsible for public services, whether they are paid or not, are constitutional guarantors within the scope of their duties, and those who violate statutory duties must bear civil and criminal responsibility. "Take France as an example": §5 of Article 5 of the French Constitution stipulates that the President is responsible for implementation of the Constitution. "Take Luxembourg as an example": "Luxembourg Constitution" §33, "Take Burundi as an example": "Burundi Constitution" §95, §209~221, "Take Benin as an example": "Benin Constitution" §41, §127, "Take Ivory Coast as an example": "Ivory Coast Constitution" §54, "Take Cameroon as an example": "Cameroon Constitution" §5. And so on and so forth. These all have the same or similar provisions; that is, the constitutional guarantee is a guarantee to the people that the constitution will be implemented. Only China acts contrary to the world, requiring the people to bear constitutional guarantee responsibility for the four major adherences of the CCP and the one-party dictatorship (see the Preamble of the Constitution of the People's Republic of China). "Consider the US": security and freedom depend on upholding the US Constitution, because their predecessors made it an infringement to do otherwise. The American people are the lawful masters of Parliament and the courts, not overthrowing the constitution, but overthrowing people who distort the constitution (Abraham Lincoln). The chairman of the US Joint Chiefs of Staff Mark Milley’s message at Fort Belvoir in Virginia on Veterans Day, November 12, 2020: the top general reiterated that "We are unique among militaries. We do not take an oath to a king or queen, or tyrant or dictator, we do not take an oath to an individual. No, we do not take an oath to a country, a tribe or a religion. We take an oath to the Constitution, and every soldier that is represented in this museum—every sailor, airman, marine, coastguard—each of us protects and defends that document, regardless of personal price." As for Milley’s point of view, the best comment is, the armed forces have the responsibility to protect and defend the constitution. The armed forces exist to defend democracy, not to be treated as political pawns.” As for "religious leadership", the right of freedom of religion is guaranteed by the Constitution. In the world of the rule of law: "There are no rights without duties, and no duties without rights." The freedom of preaching or lectures cannot be exempted from loyalty to the Constitution. The reasoning and logic here refer to §5.3 of the "German Basic Law". American Secretary of State Henry Clay: “Government is a trust, and the officers of the government are trustees, and both the trust and the trustees are created for the benefit of the people.”
●" Constitutional Guarantors I": "UN Convention against Corruption" §18 "Influence": Each state party shall consider adopting necessary legislative and other measures to criminalize the following deliberate acts (1) Promising, offering, or actually giving any undue advantage, directly or indirectly, to a public official or any other person in order to abuse his actual or perceived influence, to be the culprit of the act or any other The person obtains an undue advantage from the executive branch or public authority of the State party; (2) Public official or any other person directly or indirectly solicits or accepts any improper advantage for himself or others, as the public official or the other person abuses his actual influence or is considered to have influence. Regarding conditions for obtaining any illegitimate advantage from the administrative department or public agency of the Contracting State, the "UN Convention against Corruption" stipulates the crime of "influence". To put it simply, it means that non-state personnel use the power, status or other influence of state personnel to collect or solicit property through the functions and powers of other state personnel to seek illegitimate benefits for others.
●" Constitutional Guarantors II": According to the 2015 Anti-Corruption Act of South Korea, the "Law on Prohibition of Improper Requests and Property Relations": politicians, public officials, media workers, school faculty, etc., give gifts and receive gifts of more than KRW 50,000 (approximately NT$1,000), and entertain more than 3 Those who exceed KRW 10,000 (approximately NT$200) will be fined 2 to 5 times the original amount; if the amount exceeds 1 million won, the maximum penalty is 3 years in prison, and the bribery will also be punished with the same penalty.
●" Constitutional Guarantors III": Refer to "Vietnam Constitution" § 8: All state agencies and state employees must rely on the support of the people, accept supervision by the people, work hard to serve the people, and embody the legal system and dignity of the people's will.
●" Constitutional Guarantors IV": The rights of the people are guaranteed indefinitely. If the constitutional guarantor violates the constitution, in addition to the time limit for investigation and sanctions, its direct supervisory authority and its agency must also be held responsible indefinitely. "Any guarantor of the Constitution shall be responsible for his duties and shall not be relieved of his responsibility due to dismissal, resignation or retirement", thereby ensuring that public officials who serve the people must be held accountable to the end for their responsibilities. In order to prevent a guarantor of the constitution from taking advantage of the situation to break the law, and to use guarantors of the constitution to represent national morality, human justice, and the truth, goodness and beauty of mankind, the guarantors of the constitution should strictly abide by the principles of separation of state and religion and separation of government and business, and should be completely separated from underworld gangs and criminal organizations, and those who are in contact with him are regarded as potential criminals for the crime of civil strife, and should be declared deprived of public power.
●" Constitutional Guarantors V": As long as citizens serving in public office, regardless of whether they are paid or not, regardless of the length of time, they are guarantors of constitution. (1) The Constitution aims to protect human rights, freedom, and democracy. Every public official is required to take an oath to defend constitutional human rights and democratic rule of law. (2) The president is the ultimate guarantor of the constitution who guarantees the observance of the constitution, the normal operation of public power, and the promotion and continuation of national power; the prime minister, ministers and other public officials are joint guarantors for their powers and responsibilities. The greater the power, the greater the scope of joint guaranteed responsibility, where the power goes, the joint guaranteed responsibility goes, and the powers and responsibilities are corresponding. (3) The chief procurator is the guarantor of the constitution through prosecution. Prosecutors at all levels shall be responsible for constitutional guarantees for handling cases. (4) The chief justice is the guarantor of the judicial aspects of the constitution, and judges at all levels shall be responsible for the constitutional guarantee of their judgments. (5) The central legislature and local councils shall be responsible for the constitutional guarantee of the laws they have enacted. (6) All public agencies are places to serve mankind and solve people's problems; the head of the decision-making agency is a constitutional guarantor in accordance with his legal powers and substantive influence. Regardless of a legal person or a natural person, the ultimate decision maker is the ultimate guarantor. (7) Regardless of the length of time, regardless of whether there is remuneration, the level of irrelevant position, and the independent group, any public office performs public functions or provides public services within the scope of its participation in official duties or performance of duties, including government agencies, public enterprises, and public fund-raising enterprises. The personnel in its affiliated organizations, as long as they are not based on national obligations, are constitutional guarantors. (8) The constitutional guarantor shall not be exempt from his constitutional guaranteed responsibility due to dismissal, resignation at the end of the term, or retirement at the end of the term. Any constitutional guarantor’s acts that violate the constitution shall be subject to legal sanctions, and the guarantor’s direct supervisor shall be jointly and severally liable in law and shall be held accountable for violations of the constitution. There is no limitation on the statute of limitations. (9) The constitutional guarantor has the right to disobey criminal laws. If the direct supervisor asks public officials to conceal their identity and then infiltrates the people's demonstrations and protests to take advantage of the situation, they may refuse; but if they agree and actually participate in the action, the public official and his immediate supervisor shall be prosecuted and punished for the crime of internal disturbance; if a mass riot is caused, they shall be prosecuted and punished for the crime of civil disturbance; and commanders at all levels shall be punished by the principle of the first conspiracy of the crime of civil disturbance. (10) When taking office, any public official shall take an oath of allegiance to all taxpayers, whether during or after resignation, any person who betrays his position, political opinion, or oath of office shall be subject to legal sanctions; even the current president shall not be exempted. Criminal immunity is automatically suspended, and wages may be garnished. (11) The state should formulate a constitutional appraisal system and exit mechanism for the guarantor. Except as otherwise provided in the Constitution, general public officials shall be fully evaded for at least three years after their resignation; special provisions for special public officials shall be prescribed by law. (12) All articles of the Constitution are the tasks of public officials. The owners of the country have the right to immediately supervise the government's constitutional administration, so as to verify the effectiveness of the constitution and guarantee the implementation of the constitution. (13) Constitutional guarantors have substantive investigative powers based on their duties, but their scope is limited to cases in their jurisdiction, and unlimited power extension or improper involvement is prohibited. Public opinion organs shall adopt a collegial system in accordance with the law to exercise the power of official investigation, and the number of members from the same political party shall not exceed one-third. (14) If a constitutional guarantor directly or indirectly invests in public or private enterprises abroad, the appointment of the constitutional guarantor shall be canceled, and he/she shall no longer hold any paid or unpaid public office. (15) The constitutional guarantor guarantees the implementation of the basic the Constitutional Standards guarantee that universal values such as freedom, democracy, human rights, and the rule of law will never lag behind for a day to other countries; guarantees that the legislative, administrative, procuratorial and judicial powers of the state come from popular elections. If any one of these is destroyed, it is regarded as complete destruction. If there is no other way to provide relief, everyone in the world has the right to resistance and non-cooperation. (16) The national government has no remaining rights except for equal rights internationally, but only obligations. The constitutional guarantor has no right to protest or sabotage. (17) All public powers of the guarantor of the constitution must come from the people’s authorization of fair, open, and secret voting, as well as the public powers obtained in accordance with the law by taking examinations and serving public office. (18) Implement the globalization of constitutional law, the localization of constitutional implementation, the modernization of constitutional interpretation, and the accountability for constitutional violations. In the case of an unconstitutional complaint signed by more than 12 people, the whistleblower has the right to appoint a representative to participate in the prosecution. The detailed rules for the enforcement of constitutional guarantees for prosecution shall be prescribed by law.
●" Constitutional Guarantors VI": State organs are places to serve mankind and solve people’s problems; and public officials are figures who serve mankind and solve people’s problems. The state must be the largest charity institution. Financial expenditure must be cautious— if financial bankruptcy occurs, relevant dereliction of duty must be pursued and punished on behalf of the people.
●" Constitutional Guarantors VII": The strength of a country depends on the attitude of public officials to their duties. Any constitutional guarantor must be responsible for his duties and shall not be exempted from his responsibilities due to dismissal, resignation or retirement, so as to ensure that public officials serving the people must be responsible for their business obligations. Details shall be regulated by law.
●" Constitutional Guarantors VIII": Public agencies and public officials provide services to the people, including public legal persons (states, autonomous organizations, farmland water conservancy associations, various administrative legal persons) and public officials (natural persons serving public positions) will be regulated as constitutional guarantors. According to Taiwan’s "National Compensation Law" §2.1 and "Judicial Interpretation No. 469", the constitutional rank refers to a public official in a broad sense as "any public servant who serves a public agency, school organization, public enterprise, or any legally ordered public official personnel; as for whether to receive a salary, that is not a question." This norm has already clarified the status of public officials. Prosecutors, judges, military officers, representatives of public opinion, administrative officials, clerks, public works reviewers, environmental impact assessors, etc. are all constitutional guarantors who provide services to the people.
●" Constitutional Guarantors IX": "Public official" means 1. Any person who performs public functions, whether appointed or elected, regardless of whether the job is long-term or temporary, whether he is remunerated, or his seniority is irrelevant; 2. In accordance with the applicable conditions in the relevant domestic and international legal fields, the so-called "performance of public functions" includes any other personnel performing public functions or providing public services for public institutions or public enterprises; 3. Public-private joint ventures or non-public-private joint ventures for public fund-raising. Any other quasi-public officials who perform corporate functions or provide corporate services with positions above corporate managers are deemed to be public officials.
●" Constitutional Guarantors X": The legislature guarantees its responsibility for enforcing the constitution, and at the same time, it must bear full responsibility for the people for the follow-up impact of its legislative proposals, and no excuses are allowed.
●" Constitutional Guarantors XI": The elected head of the Judicial Branch, under the administrative operation of the judicial system, ensures that judicial proceedings are constitutional and lawful; for the final judgment of courts at all levels, the trial judge must be responsible for the final constitutional guarantee for the judicial judgment.
●Comparison of countries’ norms for constitutional guarantors with those of the Constitutional Standards, please refer to Part Five Attachment or PPP website-Attachment table list. ↑
"Religious clergy": The definition of the position of a religious clergyman: serving as religious worship or presiding over religious activities and providing spiritual and moral counseling to believers. The work content of religious clergy: (1) People who work for the religion and gods, and often serve in temples, shrines or churches as their profession; (2) Promotional activities, preaching and contact with people, caring and counseling the souls of the needy; (3) To help believers get care and comfort, help believers solve their difficulties, respond to changes, and to serve people in need. Good qualities and talents are required. This includes priests, monks, bishops, missionaries, Taoists, contractors, temple attendants, caretakers, temple priests, abbots, nuns, monks... all should pass the constitutional elementary examination for Permanent Peace. The constitution is: "a constitution of all constitutions, a morality of all moralities, a faith of all faiths, and fraternity of all fraternities," and it is the continuation and development of the classics of countless religions in heaven and on earth. The right to religious belief is protected by the Constitution. In a society ruled by law and justice, "there are no rights without obligations, and no obligations without rights." ↑
"Administrative neutrality and judicial justice" are the cornerstones of permanent peace. Given the national ideological opposition can seriously affect administrative neutrality and fairness of justice, and military interventions and military officer rebellions are common. Another example is conviction of a former president with different ideologies; as the lawsuit progresses, prosecutors are sent abroad to oppress others to give perjury, and judges with the same ideology are sent to convict. The commanders-in-chief of the military services, the presidents of courts at all levels, and the chief prosecutors at all levels should be neutral, and those who should be neutral should completely leave the party. The elected chief judge and chief procurator are not allowed to vote in elections. Exception: when voting is tied in the legislature, the president has the right to vote. This ensures that the constitution is fair and reliable. Refer to §14 of the previous "Brazilian Constitution": "Anyone who is active military personnel shall not vote." §14.8 of the Brazilian Constitution: "A member of the armed forces can register to vote under the following conditions: (1) If he/she has served for less than ten years, he/she shall take a leave. (2) If he has served for more than ten years, his/her superior will be relieved of military duties; if elected, he/she will retire automatically on taking office." Judicial independence comes from the independence of judges, and judges are not threatened before they can judge independently for the people. ↑
CHAPTER VII. PERMANENT PEACE JUDICIAL PROSECUTION STANDARDS
"Permanent Peace Judicial Prosecution Standards": The judicial prosecution standards of the Constitutional Standards are concerned with the greatest core interests of mankind and the greatest civilized consensus: the Constitutional Standards for Permanent Peace = World Citizens Constitution = International Constitutional Standards (ISO) = Human Rights Guarantees = People's Talisman = World Law = Eternal Law. The main purpose of Article 7 of Charter 228 is to ensure the practice of the Constitutional Standards for Permanent Peace. In ensuring the practice of permanent peace and the constitution, the country is a model for prosecutors, and all people are angels of justice, creating the most far-reaching and broadest basic constitutional provisions. Realize a set of legal systems on the planet, global competition prosecutorial powers, in addition to cases under the exclusive jurisdiction and investigation of the global International Court of Justice, countries that practice the Constitutional Standards for Permanent Peace has independent investigative powers. The establishment of an international inspection and supervision system should be actively promoted. This constitution integrates all nations and all laws, all laws are one, and everyone has the same law. The people have the right to choose and directly invoke any charter or regulation that promotes prosecution or guarantees procedural justice, and prosecutors are also obliged to provide the people with aid to ensure that everyone's rights will never lag behind for a day to other countries. The rule of law must first administer officials and then the people. Prosecution must be independent of legislative-administration-judiciary, no longer attached to the control of administrative organs, and truly become the incarnation of justice. The chief prosecutor is elected by popular vote, and the eligibility for election is the same as that of the president; local prosecutors can also be elected by the people, and the qualifications for the election are the same as those of the county and mayor. The chief procurator is directly accountable to the people, and procuratorial policies are subject to the inspection of the sovereign, so as to thoroughly reform the entangled feudal procuratorial system that protects injustice. In order to implement a global legal system and realize the political views and reform concepts of the elected prosecutors, the elected prosecutors simultaneously formed a group of twelve members of the French internalized parliamentary group to practice the unity of all nations and all laws. This procuratorial system with the best quality, efficiency, and effectiveness of judicial prosecution has the advantages that we have in other countries, and we have the advantages that other countries do not have. It is sufficient to fully repair the shortcomings of global prosecution and demonstrate the outstanding advantages. For this reason, two-thirds of the people in our country and the world living under the threat of tyranny lose only the iron curtain and chains, violence and lies, and the super-national eastern capital that has no other losses but gloriously won permanent peace and become the savior who liberates more than 50 human beings from the last tyranny of the yoke.
●"Permanent Peace Judicial Prosecution Standards I": Principles of global competition and cooperation inspection: (1) In order to establish an equivalent life relationship in the global village, or to maintain the unity of legal order and resource allocation and utilization under the consideration of the overall human interest, international institutions are deemed necessary by the norms of international institutions. Have exclusive procuratorial powers. (2) For global competing procuratorial matters, in addition to cases under the exclusive jurisdiction and investigation of the global International Court of Justice, the state has independent investigative powers. (3) In order to establish an equivalent life relationship in the country, or in consideration of the overall national interest, to maintain the unity of law and economy, the state has the power of procuratorial power if the national procuratorial norms are deemed necessary. (4) Preventive actions against internationally recognized crimes, or prosecutions by the International Criminal Court, especially criminal prosecutions for genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, crimes of aggression, crimes of enforced disappearance and other conspirators and helpers, prosecutors have international obligations under the "international jus cogens". Whether it is a conspiracy or preparation criminal, a principal or accessory, an attempted or an accomplished criminal, all are within the scope of the international powers and obligations of the procuratorial power. (5) Our people pursue a global legal system and procuratorial justice is responsive. It is the most sacred right of the world's citizens and the most urgent duty of prosecutors. (6) Our people’s procuratorial organs are independent of the three powers of legislation, administration, and justice. The power comes directly from the people and is directly responsible to the people without any interference by the government. (7) Prosecutors are entrusted by our people to exercise judicial procuratorial powers and perform international procuratorial norms including the "Guidelines on the Role of Prosecutors"; the constitution establishes prosecutors’ offices and local level procuratorial agencies, as well as various procuratorial departments, departments, and bureaus of state agencies, Punishment, etc., shall be exercised in accordance with the law.
●"Permanent Peace Judicial Prosecution Standards II": The procuratorate transition clauses will be abolished after the transition is completed: (1) The main business of the Supervisory Office is moved to the Procuratorate and the National Assembly. On the day when the Procuratorate becomes effective and operational, the Supervisory Office will be abolished simultaneously. (2) In the Ministry of Justice, the existing buildings and facilities of the prosecutors' offices of the courts at all levels were transferred to the procuratorates at all levels, and related personnel and operations were transferred to the prosecutors' offices of the Ministry of the Interior. On the effective date of operation, the Legal Department shall simultaneously be abolished. (3) The National Laws and Regulations Database under the Ministry of Law shall be transferred to the Parliament Global Laws and Regulations Database. (4) The Judicial Training Institute under the Ministry of Justice was transferred to the Procuratorate and renamed the Judicial Academy. Forensic Research Institute of the Ministry of Justice was also transferred to the Procuratorate. (5) The investigation, political conduct, clean government, corrections and other institutions under the Ministry of Justice and their respective prisons were renamed and transferred to the Prosecutors Office of the Ministry of the Interior. (6) After the adoption of this constitution, each handover group should be established to actively arrange the handover work. (7) The State Council may set up an inter-ministerial legal department to coordinate the needs of state affairs when it deems it necessary. (8) All ministries and committees have to manage the affairs department to handle the administrative prosecution business. (9) This item will be abolished after the transition is completed.
●"Permanent Peace Judicial Prosecution Standards III": Keep you safe from negligence in the public sector. Please refer to the legislative spirit of §46 and §84 of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court on the dismissal of judges, prosecutors and civil servants for malfeasance.
●"Permanent Peace Judicial Prosecution Standards IV”: UN: Basic Principles on the Role of Lawyers §5.
●"Permanent Peace Judicial Prosecution Standards V": Reasons for Prosecutorial Independence: (1) Prosecutorial independence is a timely preservative for all administration, legislation, and judiciary of the country; ⑵ For example: "Maryland Constitution" §5, procuratorial power is independent of administrative power (§2), legislative power (§3) In addition to judicial power (§4); §5.7 stipulates that all prosecutors in the whole prefecture are elected by the people; §5.10 stipulates that the state prosecutors are elected by the people; ⑶The Constitution of the People's Republic of China stipulates that the people’s courts and people’s procuratorates are independent §123: “The People’s Court is the national judicial organ”; §124: “The People’s Republic of China has established the Supreme People’s Court, local people’s courts at all levels and military courts and other special people’s courts”; §128: “The Supreme People’s Court shall The National People's Parliament and the Standing Committee of the National People's Parliament are responsible; local people's courts at all levels are responsible for the organs of state power that created them." §129: "The People's Procuratorate of the People's Republic of China is the country's legal supervision agency"; §130: "The People's Republic of China has established the Supreme People's Procuratorate, local people's procuratorates at all levels, and military procuratorates and other specialized people's procuratorates." §133: "1. The Supreme People’s Procuratorate is responsible to the National People’s Parliament and the Standing Committee of the National People’s Parliament. 2. The local people’s procuratorates at all levels are responsible to the state power organs and higher-level people’s procuratorates that created it.” Please see Chien-ming Huang, editor in chief, Encyclopedia of the World’s Constitutions, published by Law Love.
●"Permanent Peace Judicial Prosecution Standards VI":" Prosecutors' Powers and Responsibilities": (1) Prosecutors are justice representatives independent of legislation, administration, and justice. They supervise and implement criminal investigations, initiate public prosecutions, implement public prosecutions, assist in private prosecutions, take charge of private prosecutions, supervision, and direct the execution of criminal judgments and the execution of duties prescribed by other laws and regulations. (2) Prosecutors guard all laws and justice in the world. Do not recognize draconian laws as well. Ensure that no one is above the law and that no one will be deprived of the protection of the law. (3) All matters involving the rights and obligations of the people must be authorized by the prosecutor before investigating. In any case under investigation, the prosecutor may supervise the investigation or directly intervene in the investigation. (4) Prosecutorial integration, except that the elected chief prosecutor has jurisdictional restrictions, the investigation of prosecutors is not restricted by exclusive jurisdiction. (5) The division of prosecutors shall be based on the principle of public drawing of lots. (6) Before or after the promulgation of the decree, the procuratorate may request the Constitutional Court to review the constitutionality of the decree; the local procuratorate may request the local high administrative court for constitutional review by the local procuratorate. (7) All administrative agencies (including State Council General Administration of Justice/ Ministry of Internal Affairs Legal Affairs Department/ Ministry of Finance Legal Affairs Department, etc.) may appoint administrative prosecutors to carry out administrative inspections in accordance with the law, cooperate with prosecutors to perform investigations, and assist prosecutors in initiating public prosecutions and implementation. Litigation, execution of criminal judgments and execution of duties prescribed by other laws and regulations. (8) When the prosecutor discovers a lack of law, he should promptly report to the chief prosecutor and assign his numerous members to promote legislative repairs. (9) When prosecutors discover draconian laws or lack of laws, they may also investigate lawmakers who violate the constitution or laws. (10) No matter where, any individual or legal person (a political party, stock listing or public fundraising director or supervisor) shall not obtain improper benefits for himself or others for illegal activities. (11) Victims have the right to request the prosecutor to prosecute and make compensation for those who use the substantial influence on government agencies or public institutions to obtain illegal benefits. (12) Those who forcibly occupy civil land should be returned; those who have peacefully occupied public land for more than 20 years should be excused; the principle of justice in residence should be implemented, and all injustices should be corrected. (13) Protect civilians from self-incrimination; defendants of public officials shall certify their innocence, including but not limited to proving that they are not tortured, violent, coerced, degrading, deceiving, or by other means to force the plaintiff to confess guilt; The source of finance is unknown; it has the substantial influence of influencing the crime of others; the United Nations Anti-Corruption Convention and its enforcement laws and other matters. (14) Except for carrying out arrests, searches or court judgments in accordance with the law, without the consent of the residents, it is not allowed to enter houses on any pretext. Except for current crimes, no search may be conducted at night. (15) From the time when the people are controlled by the public power to the time when they are not under control, they should all double-machine audio and video recordings, separate the records, and there shall be no interruptions, no dead spots that cannot be recorded, and no malfunctions. The excuse. For any interruption, omission, distortion, or theft, the supervisor shall be liable for no-fault compensation and criminal responsibility. Any related person shall be jointly and severally liable. (16) The same prosecutor has the right to prosecute the same case to the final trial; those who do not want to prosecute to the final trial have the obligation to assist the superior prosecutor to understand the case; at the request of the superior prosecutor, he has the obligation to accompany the court to pursue justice. (17) Prosecutors should continue to pursue justice and implement transformational justice. (18) If the safety of prosecutors and their families is threatened due to the performance of their procuratorial functions, the relevant state authorities shall provide them with complete security protection. (19) Prosecutors are the benchmark of a civilized rule of law. The election of the procuratorial chief by the people means that procuratorial power is granted by the people, not by the state. (20) The state should establish multiple investigative bodies. The system of prosecutors, administrative prosecutors, judicial police and the relationship of power and responsibility shall be prescribed by law.
●"Permanent Peace Judicial Prosecution Standards VII": Based on the integration of prosecution, any prosecutor who finds injustice in any place has the right of direct prosecution, so as to prevent local prosecutors from being deceived individually or collectively and sacrificing fairness and justice. But the elected prosecutors are limited to electoral districts.
●"Permanent Peace Judicial Prosecution Standards VIII": Prosecutors belong to administrative agencies; some are positioned as agents of administrative agencies—as in France; some are positioned as defenders of administrative agencies—-as in the US; and some as public welfare representatives or defenders—as in Japan.
●"Permanent Peace Judicial Prosecution Standards IX": Power corrupts people, absolute power corrupts absolutely! Since the prosecution is one unit and the engine of justice and public prosecution, unless the establishment is greatly broken, it will not be possible to move towards a great country with great era, great integrity, and great development.
●"Permanent Peace Judicial Prosecution Standards X": Constructing a global court prediction and judgment system: (1) The prosecutor's office should supervise the Parliament to establish a comprehensive database of the latest global laws and regulations, so that everyone can make real-time online inquiries at any time and anywhere to grasp their own future. Sublimation of the kingdom of truth, goodness and beauty. (2) The procuratorate should establish a "global court prediction and judgment system" with an accuracy of more than 2/3 based on each continent. Everyone can go online anytime and anywhere to predict how the court will make a judgment, ensuring that everyone is equal and equal opportunities before the law. The global courts predict that the judgment system is prescribed by law. (3) International responsibility. The state should prepare a budget to give birth to all nations and people to prosecute great unity, establish great cause for the country, great love for the earth, great law for the heaven and earth, and great unity for all nations.
●"Permanent Peace Judicial Prosecution Standards XI": Prosecutions and trial predictions must rely on a complete database of world laws and regulations. Technological advancement is progressing at a rapid pace. With the help of AI artificial intelligence, the integration of the "world (multiple common) law" is just around the corner. . Prediction is not equivalent to a court decision. Take the United States as an example: Examples of AI prejudgment in courts. In Cleveland, Arizona, Kentucky, and Alaska, more and more other district and state courts, judges are now guided by computer algorithms. The output of these algorithms can determine bail, sentencing, and parole. Instead of relying on the subjective decision of a single judge. The artificial intelligence "judge" developed by UCL computer scientists, and computer scientists at University College London have developed software that can weigh legal evidence and ethical issues. The software can accurately predict the results of hundreds of real cases. Among the five cases involving torture, degrading treatment and privacy, 3/4 of the verdicts made by AI "judges" were the same as those of the judges of the European Court of Human Rights.
●"Permanent Peace Judicial Prosecution Standards XII": "Any insult of a constitutional guarantor carries criminal charges": The use of the nebulous term ‘charges’ together with ‘insult’ is due to the large scope of possible indictments. For example, former President Lee of Taiwan was splashed with red paint, former President Chen Shui-bian was kicked on his backside, and the mayor of a direct-controlled city had two ribs broken in front of a police officer. Other public officials, no matter how long and hard they work, always cooperating with specific media and the internet, still encounter actions verging on the illegal that are meant to humiliate and slander them. Because the crime of ‘insult’ involves no trial if a complaint is not lodged, junior bureaucrats endure the humiliation to survive, while senior bureaucrats fear that criminals may have strong backing outside the country. Such a country can never be expected to transformational justice. To build a country that is great, all public officials (constitutional guarantors) must be afforded greatness, glory and respect. Only then can its people be great.
"Judicial and Prosecutorial Reform": The Seventh Law of Innate Human Rights (Natural Law Article) positions Taiwan as the beacon of judicial prosecution, and the constitution is the compass of procedural justice. Focusing on Permanent Peace requires global (multiple/common) laws to maintain the common order of the world. Based on the fact that the Constitution is the general will of the people, the power of prosecution—whether it is unconstitutional or illegal—falls on all people and the procuratorial agencies in accordance with the law. For this reason, a certain number of procuratorial officials or people’s joint signatures can file a petition for an unconstitutional review with the Constitutional Court. For example, if the constitution has express provisions but no law can be enforced, it will cause the constitution to be hollowed out and make the law higher than the constitution, a step toward the destruction of the constitution. As for the independence of prosecutors, take the US as an example: There are 51 procuratorial systems in the 50 US states. Among them, the attorney general of Washington, D.C., was appointed by the president for two hundred years, and only recently has election by the people been followed. Take China as an example again: The People's Procuratorate and the People's Court are independent of each other. John Locke: “The end of law is not to abolish or restrain, but to preserve and enlarge freedom. For in all the states of created beings capable of law, where there is no law, there is no freedom.” Safety and justice of food, medicine, housing and transportation are also basic obligations guaranteed by the national government, and information must be correct and complete as part of procedural justice or injustice, regardless of substance.
●"Judicial and Prosecutorial Reform I": "The legal system includes a set of legal rules such as civil law and criminal law, as well as systems such as how to specify, implement and abide by these rules; the rule of law and the rule of man are two opposing concepts and principles of governance, that is, the long-term stability of the country should not be hoped for in one or two. The sages and worthy kings, and the key is whether there is a good law and system, and these good laws should be effectively abided by. Again, any country at any time has its own legal system, but not necessarily the rule of law. Whether the current legal status of the People's Republic of China should nominally be classified as the rule of law, the rule of law, or whether the regime is above the law is still controversial. Legal System: In Chinese legal works, there are three different views on the legal system. One refers to the sum of a number of legal rules that have a common object of adjustment, thus interrelated and cooperate with each other, which is equivalent to legal institutions in English; the other refers to the entire legal system of a country or region, which is equivalent to the legal system in English. The third refers to the principle of doing things in accordance with the law, that is, "there are laws to be followed, laws must be followed, law enforcement must be strictly enforced, and violations must be punished".
●"Judicial and Prosecutorial Reform II": The democratization of justice is an important value of the democratic system. All judicial reforms, including various forms of judicial systems, are proposed by candidates for the president of the Judicial Court and selected by referendum to allow the judicial system to advance with the times.
●"Judicial and Prosecutorial Reform III": Take Taiwan as an example: Under the current system, the President and Members of the Control Yuan are not elected by the people, and the exercise of their powers cannot closely follow the public opinion. Through the democratically elected chief prosecutors command the procuratorate, to ensure that supervision, impeachment, auditing, criminal, military, administrative, civil protection of the people, and constitutional protection of the procuratorial power business can be linked to public opinion to protect the rights of the people. Take Japan as an example, the "Japanese Executive Interview Committee" is a member of the people who are highly respected and have knowledge and enthusiasm for the improvement of administrative measures. They are selected to supervise the administrative agency. They are appointed and appointed by the Minister of General Affairs. The term of office is 2 years, accepting public complaints, answering questions and discussing, as a consultation window and processing unit between the state and citizens, and play the function of Ombudsman. Japan’s administrative consultation committee must be staffed by at least one person in each town, town, and city. The administrative consultation office accepts complaints from residents on a regular basis or through patrolling services. There are annual administrative consultation weeks and one-day contracts for administrative consultation offices. The public can choose Talk in the required way. Please refer to Zhao Rongrong, "Going International-International Participation, Exchange and Rooting of the Supervisory Yuan", 2005, pages 481-483, Research and Development Evaluation Committee of the Executive Yuan.
●"Judicial and Prosecutorial Reform IV": Take Sweden as an example, the main task of the Parliamentary Ombudsmen (JO) is stated at the outset: "Ensure that the government and civil servants abide by the laws and regulations regarding their behavior."
●"Judicial and Prosecutorial Reform V: List the powers of the Procuratorate Department of the Procuratorate: (1) One head of the Procuratorate, in charge of the Procuratorate. Prosecutors are subordinate to the Procuratorial Department of the Procuratorate and exercise prosecutorial powers. (2) Where there are courts of justice, there are procuratorates of equal rank at all levels. The existing procuratorate department was changed to the procuratorate, such as: the Supreme Court’s Prosecutor’s Office, changed to the Supreme Procuratorate, and so on. (3) The chief procurator of the Supreme Procuratorate (the chief prosecutor) shall concurrently serve as the chief prosecutor. After the term of office expires, the benefits will remain unchanged for six years, but they will not be allowed to participate in politics or business. (4) For any acts involving constitutional protection of human rights norms, or wiretapping, monitoring, searching, and seizure of the people, once approved or revoked by the court, the prosecutor should be notified to check whether all procedures are proper and legal at any time. Those who violate the constitution shall be subject to judicial sanctions.
●"Judicial and Prosecutorial Reform VI": The prosecutor’s office has a full-time constitutional custodian, which is different from the current criminal prosecutors, and is a full-time guarantor of constitutional supervision to protect all rights and interests of the people under the constitution and laws. Unlike the prosecutors in general criminal cases, there is no application of the principle of prosecutorial integration, to avoid the involvement of political power and judicial power and prevent the recurrence of similar cases to former Prosecutor General Huang Shiming’s leak of information on an ongoing investigation.
●"Judicial and Prosecutorial Reform VII": List the powers of the People's Protection Department of the Procuratorate: (1) The Ministry of the Protection of the People has established a civic officer who will always stand on the opposite side of public power, as a people’s lawyer and a supervisor who assists sovereigns (civilians) in exercising constitutional protection rights, and acts as an agent for the sovereign to prosecute public agencies and public officials. Prosecutor. (2) The guardian performs the duty of protecting the people and their constituent power at all levels. The global network provides protection for the people day and night; and any constitutional guarantor who violates his duties shall be summarily sanctioned. (3) When the civic officer exercises the investigative power, he shall not be restricted by the exclusive jurisdiction of the procedural law; the civic officer has the right to supervise and direct the investigation by the public security organs or the prosecutor, and the civic officer can intervene no matter when, where, and what happened. Oversee the conduct of justice. (4) The guardian may represent or assist the people in prosecuting any agency’s unconstitutional and illegal acts, including but not limited to unjust cases, false cases, wrong cases, legal cases, resolutions, and planned cases.
●"Judicial and Prosecutorial Reform VIII": With reference to §181 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, the establishment of a Tribune is based on relevant democratic constitutional reasons.
●"Judicial and Prosecutorial Reform IX": Prosecutors are the last hope for those desperate for social justice; prosecutors are subordinate to the procuratorate, independent of the three powers of administration, legislation, and justice, and are not controlled by the administrative department and face no other Political pressure, regime interference, and insistence on fighting lawlessness for the people. The prosecutor may order all public officials to perform investigations.
●"Judicial and Prosecutorial Reform X": The Procuratorate: (1) The Procuratorate is the country's legal supervision agency, supervising all due legal procedures; exercising supervision, impeachment, and auditing powers; criminal, military, and civil prosecution and prosecution; and civil trial supervision; and the implementation of the procuratorial work of protecting the people. (2) The Procuratorial Department: The Procuratorate shall set up judicial prosecutors (referred to as prosecutors) to carry out investigations, initiate and carry out public prosecutions, and direct the execution of criminal judgments. The exercise of procuratorial power adopts an inclusive collegiate system and a hierarchical system. (3) Ministry of People's Protection: The Ministry of People's Protection shall set up a People's Protection Prosecutor (abbreviated as: People's Protection Officer). (a) The guardian is the people's lawyer, assisting the common people to exercise the legal interests guaranteed by the Constitution and the law. (b) The guardian is the public prosecution agent for the people to prosecute public agencies and public officials. The civil servants shall not sue or prosecute the people. (c) When the guardian exercises the investigative power, he is not restricted by the exclusive jurisdiction of the procedural law. The guardian has the right to supervise and direct investigations by public security organs or general prosecutors and has the power to assess the positive performance of all constitutional guarantors. (d) The guardian can intervene and supervise the conduct of justice affairs at any time and regardless of the jurisdiction. (4) Audit Department: The Audit Department has an audit prosecutor (abbreviated as: auditor). (a) The Audit Department, on behalf of the people's interests, reviews the financial revenues and expenditures of government agencies at all levels in accordance with the constitution and laws, assesses financial efficiency, reviews final accounts, inspects financial operations, and approves financial responsibilities. (b) The auditor may exercise the right of prosecution after certain procedures are found to be breached in his duties. (5) The Department of Impeachment: The Department of Impeachment has an impeachment prosecutor (abbreviated as: impeachment officer). (a) Responsible for the impeachment of public officials at all levels, including administration, legislation, justice, and prosecution. If there is no legitimate reason, all those who violate the political views of the election and/or the oath of inauguration shall be impeached. (b) For any organization or political party that betrays the public interest in the territory of governance, the impeachment officer may directly prosecute the relevant court to terminate its public power or reorganize and dissolve its organization. (6) The organization of the Procuratorate and its subordinate Prosecution Department, Civil Protection Department, Audit Department, and Impeachment Department shall be prescribed by law.
●"Judicial and Prosecutorial Reform XI": The procuratorial system can be tested through voting selection; the chief prosecutor shall not participate in politics and business after he resigns, to avoid collusion between internal officials and businessmen, paving the way for their future. ↑
"The constitution must be a decision, and all constitutional actions must be ordered by the people": Carl Schmitt, a famous constitutional scholar, Constitutional Doctrine, Taipei Linking Books, 2004, p. 105. "The constitution is the soul of the people and the soul of the country." The people as the sovereign are the incarnation of God on earth, and the appearance of the constitutional power is like a miracle. The political wisdom of a written constitution is really a technique of returning the soul from the dead; that is, returning the soul of the people through the body of the constitution. It can also be said that the Constitution is a "classic" left on the earth by the God of Democracy. This classic clearly establishes the authorization and commandments or incantations of the people to the government. Therefore, faith in the constitution is faith in the sovereign people as a whole. (Chen Duanhong, Constitutional Power and Fundamental Law, p. 35). Einstein said: "Great souls always suffer opposition from mediocre minds.
● Take "Taiwan as an example": Justice Interpretation No. 443, the principle of hierarchical legal reservations, matters that have a significant impact on people's basic rights and public interests should be clearly defined by law, including constitutional reservations, absolute legal reservations (reserved by Congress) and the relative legal reservations (authorized by Congress) are shown below.
Figure: Rankings in “One Solar System, One Legal System” ↑
"The People have the Right to Directly Sue for Unconstitutional Acts ": The power of the state rests with the people, and the authority of the state rests with the constitution. In order to prevent evil parties, evil laws, and political affairs such as Hitler from harming humanity, it is legally recognized that "the Constitution is the general will of the people." At the constitutional level, the constitution maker has the right to directly prosecute unconstitutional agencies or public officials and prosecutors should assist them. Otherwise, if you have to wait until the constitution is drawn up or there is a law before prosecution and trial, it is tantamount to allowing the law to constrain the constitution. Global review of unconstitutional acts: Any court in the world has the general right to review national constitutions and laws. Unconstitutional/constitutional review adopts a two-level second-instance system, and the Constitutional Court is the final court of all unconstitutional/constitutional review. The general unconstitutional review procedures are prescribed by law.
●"The People have the Right to Directly Sue for Unconstitutional Acts I": Please refer to the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany §93.1.4a: "on constitutional complaints, which may be filed by any person alleging that one of his basic rights or one of their rights under paragraph (4) of Article 20 or under Article 33, 38, 101, 103 or 104 has been infringed by the public authority. It is envisaged that when the rights of the people are violated, they can file a suit for unconstitutionality.
●"The People have the Right to Directly Sue for Unconstitutional Acts II": Unconstitutional/constitutional review: (1) Judges should exercise judicial power in accordance with the rank of the law. (2) Global review of unconstitutional violations: any court in the world has the general right to review the constitution and laws of our country. (3) Unconstitutional/constitutional review adopts the second-level second-instance system, and the Constitutional Court of the country that practices the Constitutional Standards for Permanent Peace is the final court of all unconstitutional/constitutional review. The general unconstitutional review procedures are prescribed by law.
●"The People have the Right to Directly Sue for Unconstitutional Acts III": If the court considers that a certain law is unconstitutional and the validity of the law is related to the trial of the case, it shall immediately stop the trial procedure and initiate unconstitutional review procedures. If it is found to be in violation of this constitution, the Constitutional Court shall be requested to rule. If the people use the constitutions or laws of various countries to violate this constitution or violate national laws, each court may exercise the right to review the violation according to law. According to the announcement, if there is no reply within 10 working days, it shall be deemed as passed and effective.
●"The People have the Right to Directly Sue for Unconstitutional Acts IV": "Global constitutional review" refers to any citizen in the world who has the right to file a constitutional review of our country’s laws in his courts. Realize the promise that the advantages of the past global constitution can flow into our country, and the advantages of the future world constitution can flow from our country and ensure that our country's constitution is number one in the world.
●"The People have the Right to Directly Sue for Unconstitutional Acts V": Constitutional rights have never been a gift from the national government but come from our own natural human rights and human rights. Human rights are human rights rooted in common sense, habits, and traditions. If the "Constitution" does not conform to common sense and cultural traditions, it will be doubtful; if you have not read the "Constitution", you can also judge what is unconstitutional based on common sense (Burke-French Revolution). Rousseau and Burke are the most representative figures in "innate human rights theory" and "human rights theory" respectively. ↑
"The system of the prosecutor department accept to take oath and countersign to military or police personnel who are promoted ": the Attorney-General or the Chief Prosecutor is elected by popular vote, and hundreds of officials are sworn in according to the law to maintain procedural justice. The Constitution specifically stipulates that the promotion of military and police will be counter-signed by the procuratorate, so as to avoid the abuse of power and corruption by those in power: (1) Except for the President, the Speaker of Congress, In addition to the oath of office by the chief justice and the chief procurator, the oaths of other central civil and military officials are sworn in by the chief procurator; local prosecutors are sworn in by the chief prosecutor, which enables effective command of the military and police, national security, intelligence and governance. Systematic investigation, discovery and prosecution. (2) Prosecutors or tribunes prevent those in power from launching or amending the constitution and have the right to file a lawsuit directly with the Constitutional Court and request the activation of emergency disciplinary powers to ensure that the power of constitution-making will always be with the people. (3) The military and police and other intelligence management agencies often decide to block, delay, or refuse the procuratorial organs to exercise procuratorial powers in accordance with the law, distorting the process of procedural justice, and ad hoc procuratorial organs countersignature system. (4) Unless otherwise provided by the Constitution, it shall be prescribed by law. ↑
"Committee on All Laws of All Nations": When the Prosecutor General of the procuratorate runs for the election, he must nominate 12 professional committee members who are locally familiar with good laws of all nations, distributed in 12 standing committees, to develop justice in all nations and the integration of all laws. The Procuratorate is a universal representative of justice that governs officials first, then the people. Whether or not the people and the government abide by the law, public officials carry out crime prevention, legislative, administrative and judicial duties. Reference: "UN Standards and Norms on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice", and internationally recognized normative principles and standards for crime prevention and criminal justice formulated by the international community over the past few decades. The people are the ultimate prosecutors: "When the government and/or political parties monopolize politics, the economy and the media, then corruption and abuse of power overpower the constitution, and civilians cannot be protected by international law or human rights standards. It is then the duty of the people to make a constitution." It is the duty of the state to ensure that no one is above the law and that no one is denied protection under the law. The state should establish a universal scientific AI court ruling prediction system with an accuracy of at least two-thirds to consolidate the human justice project. Abraham Lincoln: “We the people are the rightful masters of both Parliament and the Courts, not to overthrow the Constitution but to overthrow the men who would pervert the Constitution.” ↑
"The Prosecutor-General is elected by the people": "Take the United States as an example": There are currently 43 state attorneys general and/or publicly elected prosecutors (PPP: The Global Law and Regulations Comparisons Database). The elected chief of the procuratorate ensures that the procuratorate does not become a political thug, and the chief prosecutor is responsible for constitutional guarantees to ensure the rights and interests of the people.
●"The Prosecutor-General is elected by the people I": Under the current system, the president, the chief prosecutor, and the chiefs of judicial courts are all appointed by the president. Will these heads, who do not need the authorization of the people, put the people's rights and interests first when handling official affairs? Even constitutional arbitrators (Constitutional Court judges) are also appointed by the president—such a mechanism of checks and balances is a mere formality. We must break the above-mentioned phenomenon. The review of unconstitutional cases and impeachment cases is handled by the courts at different levels. Therefore, important matters and statutory matters are checked by the Constitutional Court.
●"The Prosecutor-General is elected by the people II": The Prosecutor General is elected by the people to form a group of members of laws of all nations: (1) The Procuratorial power, legislative power, administrative power and judicial power, and the powers of prosecution and supervision are exercised independently. (2) The Prosecutor General is elected by the people. Candidates should propose procuratorial policies, systems, personnel, budgets, reviews, performance, prosecutors’ appointment and removal, and training. All political opinions should advance with the times, continue to reform, and be directly accountable to the people. (3) The Prosecutor General has the same qualifications as the president, as long as the constitutional general examination is passed; the term of office is 5 years, and after the term expires may not run for the same office for 6 years, but the remuneration package will remain unchanged., Should be subject to legal sanctions. (4) The Prosecutor General must nominate and match 12 members of the Legal Internalization Committee who are over 45 years old, and they shall be placed among 12 committees in the legislature, and the term of office shall be the same as that of the Prosecutor General. When taking office, he/she shall publicly swear to renounce party membership, isolate party relations, and withdraw from political and commercial activities at the same time as the president-elect. Members of the Legal Internalization Committee do not have the right to vote when they impeach the Prosecutor General in the legislature; except after being nominated for re-appointment as a member of the internalization committee, a member of the generational committee for sustainable development, or a member of the Committee for Localization of International Law, regardless of whether they are in office or within 3 years after resignation, will be treated the same, but they are still not allowed to participate in politics or business or have any profit-making ventures. Violators should be punished by law. (5) The Prosecutor General concurrently serves as the chief procurator of the Supreme Procuratorate. The Prosecutor General has the right to select appropriate national prosecutors, lawyers, and authoritative scholars and experts to be appointed as constitutional prosecutors and may also send domestic and foreign professionals to assist in case handling or planning; prosecutors at all levels who are investigating corruption, economics, and financial affairs. All cases must also be handled in accordance with the law. (6) Those who have been subjected to judicial persecution, including unjust cases, false cases, wrong cases, or indiscriminate prosecutions, abusively prosecuted, and ultimately found innocent, or other evidence that they have been persecuted by justice due to political factors, may run for election as the Prosecutor General or at the local level. The Prosecutor General does not need party nomination or joint recommendation, as long as 5% of the general electorate supports a run for election; as long as he/she obtains the highest number of votes, he/she is elected. (7) The election of the Prosecutor General, the replacement of members of the internalization committee and the election of the prosecutors general at the local level shall be determined by law. ↑
"Local prosecutors and deputy procurators elected by the people": (1) The lead prosecutor and deputy prosecutors of local procuratorates are elected, and prosecutors, judges, lawyers, law professors, associate professors or equivalent qualifications who are over 40 years old, regardless of nationality or citizenship in a fully democratic country, can all participate. They serve a two-year term and can be re-elected. (2) For the election of the chief and deputy chief prosecutors of local procuratorates, the candidates are listed on the same ballot, and the voter can only choose one person. The person with the highest number of votes is elected as the Chief Prosecutor General, the person with the second highest vote is elected as the First Deputy Attorney General, and the person with the third highest vote is elected as the Second Deputy Attorney General. (3) The prosecutor general issues decrees, and the deputy prosecutor generals must counter-sign. (4) Prosecutors issue laws and regulations, which must be approved by the chief prosecutor or a deputy chief prosecutor. (5) If the number of prosecutors in the local procuratorate is less than 3, the people will not be involved in elections, and prosecuting officials will be appointed by the neighboring local prosecutors.
●"Local prosecutors and deputy procurators elected by the people I": "Judicial duty": "Guaranteed equality before the law" not only protects constitutional guarantors’ personal dignity against all crimes such as insults, slander, minor injuries, etc., which were previously not prosecuted without complaint, thereby changing the process to public prosecution in cases for example, the chairman of the local council in Pingtung, Taiwan, openly slapped the police chief in the parliament but dared not file a lawsuit; but no matter what the complaint is, the personal dignity of the parties must also be protected. Prosecutors and judges shout at parties in court—such as the newly-elected president of the Chinese Unification faction in Taiwan in 2008, who called for prosecution of the outgoing Taiwanese president. He did not hesitate to send special prosecutors to Japan to threaten witnesses to prove the crimes of the former president and sought to replace judges in place who were willing to convict the former president in court. This "power must be exercised" stance is still common today. To protect the personal dignity of the parties, the law can limit replacements to two times without reason. From the third time on, permission from the procuratorate or the magistrate's court is required to avoid abuse.
●"Local prosecutors and deputy procurators elected by the people II": Prosecutors and judges are the last line of defense to protect people's justice. § 13 of the Law on Judges of the Republic of China (Taiwan): "Judges shall, in accordance with international law, the Constitution and the law, act in accordance with their conscience, be detached, independent and impartial, and be free from any interference."
●"Local prosecutors and deputy procurators elected by the people III": The military does not set up courts, and administrative agencies do not make final rulings. The purpose is to improve the judicial power, so that the judicial function is concentrated in the national courts and human rights are finally guaranteed, and cases like that of Corporal Chiang Kuo-ching will never happen again.
●"Local prosecutors and deputy procurators elected by the people IV": The people have the right to choose the system of prosecution and trial: (1) The people are the sovereign of the country, and criminal suspects have the right to demand that the right of prosecution and trial be returned to the people, and the jury will decide whether to prosecute or not to convict. (2) All criminal suspects who have not been examined by a jury or who have new evidence, whether in the first instance or in the second instance, have the right to demand that the right to sue and the right to judge be returned to the people, and the jury will try them according to law. (3) Citizens have the duty of judicial jury. Jurors decide questions of fact, and judges decide questions of law. (4) The paradigm shift of the jury system shall be prescribed by law.
●For complete information on §25, please refer to the PPP website https://www.lawlove.org/en/book ↑
"The right to change the prosecuting judge before the conclusion of the investigation or conclusion of the defense" leads to such problems as: "If you encounter the same judge again, how can it be legal and constitutional?" (2022/04/02) Former Taiwan legislator Gao Zhipeng was sentenced to four years and six years for the crime of profiteering It was confirmed in May, and after applying for constitutional interpretation, it was ruled inadmissible by the Constitutional Court a few days ago. Among the linked clauses was one that pointed out the main points of the Supreme Court's division of cases; that is, no matter how many times the major case has been re-examined and appealed, it will be tried in the same court and the party that infringed the people's right to sue. However, in the case of retrial after retrial, when the same judge cannot be avoided, how can it be legal and constitutional? ↑
"Permanent Peace Judicial Trial Standards": The ruling standards of the Constitutional Standards are the greatest core interest of mankind and the greatest civilized consensus: the Constitutional Standards for Permanent Peace = the constitution of world citizens = the international constitutional standard (ISO) = the guarantee of human rights = the talisman of the people = the law of the world =Eternal Law=228 The main purpose of Article 8 of the Charter is to create the most far-reaching and extensive basic constitutional provisions for judicial competition and innovation across national borders and centuries. Practicing a set of legal systems for one planet, and global competition for judicial power. International law directly creates rights and duties for the people, and the laws of all ages and nations are directly applicable to domestic courts, directly used by the people, and let [Nation] lead mankind to practice the Constitutional Standards for Permanent Peace. Judicial reform, self-discipline is useless, only other discipline will be successful and will be in line with the expectations of the people. The head of the Judicial Branch is elected by the people and has the same qualifications as the President. The head of the Judicial Branch, who is elected by the People, constructs a judicial system that responds to changes in the times and reflects the needs of the people, and thoroughly reforms the intricately rooted feudal judicial system. In order to implement a global legal system and realize the political views and judicial reform ideas of the elected chiefs of justice, the chiefs of the elected justices also formed a group of 12 members of the Committee for Localization of International Law to effect localization of international law. Innovate the rule of law system for global governance. In addition to the International Court of Justice, the country has established a constitutional court with a transcendent position. The judges are nominated by multiple judges, half of which come from five continents around the world. The review of violation of the constitution adopts the second level of second instance to ensure that the value and dignity of all people can be protected by the constitution. The courts all over the world have the right to review constitutional violations, and the Constitutional Court is the final court of constitutional review. This judicial system of the best trial, review quality, efficiency and effectiveness has advantages that exist in other countries, and we have advantages that other countries do not have. It is sufficient to fully repair the shortcomings of global justice, demonstrate the outstanding advantages of justice, and realize the guarantee of the constitution. [Constitutional Guaranteed Practice the Constitutional Standards for Permanent Peace Nation] is a sacred place for justice, and everyone is an angel of justice. For this reason, the two-thirds of the people in our country and the world living under the threat of tyranny will lose only the iron curtains and chains, violence and lies, and nothing else, but they will win universal justice and responsiveness.
●" Permanent Peace Judicial Trial Standards I": This judicial transition clause will be annulled after the transition is completed: (1) Judges who are still in office when this constitution takes effect, unless they resign themselves, will serve until their term expires. (2) In addition to transitional justice, judges who still receive life-long salaries are still subject to the system, and their salaries are not subject to unprofitable changes, but they should still retire in accordance with the retirement age of judges as stipulated in the Constitutional Standards. (3) This item will be deleted after the transition is completed.
●" Permanent Peace Judicial Trial Standards II": The organization and powers and responsibilities of the Constitutional Court in Constitutional Standards: (1) The constitutional court and the human rights standard court shall have 18 judges and one quasi-judge (by the elected chief of justice). Nine of them are of local nationality, and the term of office is 9 years, regardless of the number of terms, they are calculated individually; except for the election of the president and vice president of the Judicial Court, they shall not be re-elected within 4 years after the term of office expires; the remaining nine are from the five continents in the world, and they are different Master of law of nationality and ethnicity. The judges of foreign nationality are appointed for life. All judges enjoy immunity. The recruitment procedures should be handled fairly and objectively with reference to the judges of the International Court of Justice. (2) The Judges of the supranational constitutional standard court are appointed with the consent of Parliament: 5 of them are nominated by the prime minister annually, of whom 3 are foreign nationals; 5 are nominated annually by the prime minister, of whom 2 are foreign nationals; 4 nominated by the head of the Judicial Branch annually. (3) The supranational constitutional standard court presides over the following matters (a) The Court of Final Appeals for the unconstitutional review of the court. (b) Interpretation of international law. (c) Interpretation of the constitution. (d) Dissolution of a political party in violation of the constitution. (e) Trials in impeachment cases of the president, the prime minister, the chief procurator, and the chief judicial officer. (f) Other statutory matters. (4) Super-national constitutional standard courts try the following cases: (a) In cases where there is a dispute between the rights and obligations of an international organization, a case that requests an interpretation of the constitution. (b)Regarding whether there is any conflict or disagreement or doubt between the international law or the laws of various countries and this constitution in form or substance, the case shall be accepted at the request of the Parliament, local government or more than 1/4 of all members of Parliament. (c) Regarding the rights and obligations and the allocation of resources between the central and local governments, especially regarding the implementation of central laws by various localities and the exercise of supervision by the central government over various localities, there have been cases of disagreement. (d) Cases concerning public law disputes between central agencies or between central and local governments. (e) Regarding any person’s claim that his basic rights, or his rights in accordance with the people’s right to resistance, civil rights and obligations, constitutional guarantees of the rights of persons, the allegiance of civil servants to public law, election and recall and initiative and referendum, the right to have court hearings, and the protection of freedom. It no other legal remedy for damage to rights is available, an unconstitutional lawsuit can be instituted. (f) In the event of a disagreement between the government and the speaker of the relevant House of Representatives or other constitutional cases that are immediately and obviously critical, the Constitutional Court may, upon request of either party, make a ruling within 8 days. (5) Once the judges of the Constitutional Standard Court are elected, they will not represent the government of that country or any other political authority. Its first task is to swear in a public court that I shall exercise my authority impartially. (6) The organization, powers, responsibilities, and procedures of the supranational constitutional standard court shall be prescribed by law.
●" Permanent Peace Judicial Trial Standards III": The constitutional interpretation system is an important part of maintaining the operation of the country and the effectiveness of the constitution. Therefore, the law must advance with the times. Please refer to Hanfeizi, Chapter LIV. “If laws are adjusted to fit the times, there will be good government. If government fits the age, it will be truly great.
●" Permanent Peace Judicial Trial Standards IV": Independent and professional judges are the foundation of a fair, impartial, and constitutionally guaranteed system of courts of law known as the judiciary. This independence does not imply judges can make decisions based on personal preferences but rather that they are free to make lawful decisions -- even if those decisions contradict the government or powerful parties involved in a case. (1) In democracies, independence from political pressures of elected officials and legislatures guarantees the impartiality of judges. Judicial rulings should be impartial, based on the facts of a case, individual merits and legal arguments, and relevant laws, without any restrictions or improper influence by interested parties. These principles ensure equal legal protection for all. (2) The power of judges to review public laws and declare them in violation of the nation's constitution serves as a fundamental check on potential government abuse of power -- even if the government is elected by a popular majority. This power, however, requires that the courts be seen as independent and able to rest their decisions upon the law, not political considerations. (3) Whether elected or appointed, judges must have job security or tenure, guaranteed by law, in order that they can make decisions without concern for pressure or attack by those in positions of authority. A civil society recognizes the importance of professional judges by providing them with adequate training and remuneration. (4) Trust in the court system's impartiality -- in its being seen as the "non-political" branch of government -- is a principal source of its strength and legitimacy. (5) A nation's courts, however, are no more immune from public commentary, scrutiny, and criticism than other institutions. Freedom of speech belongs to all: judges and their critics alike. (6) To ensure their impartiality, judicial ethics require judges to step aside (or "recuse" themselves) from deciding cases in which they have a conflict of interest. (7) Judges in a democracy cannot be removed for minor complaints, or in response to political criticism. Instead, they can be removed only for serious crimes or infractions through the lengthy and difficult procedure of impeachment (bringing charges) and trial -- either in the legislature or before a separate court panel. (8) An independent judiciary assures people that court decisions will be based on the nation's laws and constitution, not on shifting political power or the pressures of a temporary majority. Endowed with this independence, the judicial system in a democracy serves as a safeguard of the people's rights and freedoms. U.S. Department of State, Principles of Democracy-An Independent Judiciary.
●For complete information on §26, please refer to the PPP website https://www.lawlove.org/en/book ↑
"Judicial Trial": The Eighth Law of Innate Human Rights (Natural Law) positions Taiwan as the beacon of universal justice, and the Constitution is the compass of universal justice in legalization of political issues and professionalization of legal issues. Legalization of political issues and professionalization of legal issues. The judiciary is independent, with a chief elected by the people, and judicial reforms and political views shall directly reflect responsibility to the people. The Constitutional Court should be compared with the International Court of Justice, where judges come from the five continents of the world and have different nationalities. The biggest drawback of justice in general is the ruling party. If it puts forward a candidate for president, it will be able to downplay it as re-election is not allowed. This is in line with the true essence of democracy and can be used for countless generations. As for election of the Chief Justice, it is necessary to nominate 12 professional members for the Committee for Localization of International Law and distribute them among 12 committees. This is a necessary and sufficient condition for the development of a world and a set of laws for permanent peace. "Take the US as an example": Judges are elected in 43 of the 50 US states (Law Love Database) US founding father Alexander Hamilton: “The complete independence of the courts of justice is peculiarly essential in a limited constitution.” "On the King" by Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli: "The greatest sin of a country is laziness." Justice is responsive to demand, which is the basic meaning of the existence of a country.
●"Judicial Trial I": Judicial trial-priority application of international law: (1) Lead the way to one set of legal systems on one earth; international law is first applied to domestic courts, ensuring that everyone is the subject of international law, and everyone has a complete personality and dignity under international law. (2) If there are provisions in international law, they may be directly judged in accordance with the statutes of the International Court of Justice, and national law is not applicable. If the laws and regulations applied by the domestic courts in a case are transferred from international law to national law, the parties to the case cannot become the subject of international law and remain the subject of national law. Judges who violate these regulations and derogate the international personality and dignity of the parties shall be punished. (3) The country may set up a special court for serious crimes against international law, which consists of 3 judges, including 1 national judge and 2 foreign judges; in cases of special circumstances, the trial court consists of 5 judges, consisting of 2 local judges and 3 foreign judges.
●"Judicial Trial II": Judicial Trial—All laws of all nations can be directly invoked: (1) Lead the way to one set of legal systems on one earth. Changing the world’s acceptance of international law or other countries’ good laws is an “+addition” system that is arbitrarily chosen by the governors of various countries. It is changed to a “-subtraction” system that allows the people to have the right to choose and the ruling authority has the right to accept or reject it in accordance with the law. (2) The Constitutional Standards insist that "draconian laws are illegal" and do not recognize "draconian laws are also laws." Comparing all laws of all nations, through the review of unconstitutionality by the Constitutional Court, this item can specifically protect the people's freedom, democracy, human rights, rule of law and other universal values that will never lag behind for a day to other countries, and everyone in every generation will succeed. (3) This constitution models the world's pluralistic common law (integration of countless laws). Any foreign people who come to our country for the first time committing a civil criminal case have the right to preferentially apply their own country's laws in accordance with the local law. (4) The country should promote the Constitutional Standards for Permanent Peace /human constitutional standards to the world. After all countries and people leave the country, they can only be protected by their own laws when they go to the sacred land of human rights. You can also ignore the advantages and disadvantages of their own laws. Countries that practice the Constitutional Standards for Permanent Peace will become the second hometown of mankind.
●"Judicial Trial III": National court three-level system: (1) For the trial of general legal, administrative, financial, labor, and social legal matters, the state should establish the Supreme Court, the Supreme Administrative Court, the Supreme Court of Finance and Labor and the Supreme Court of Society. The selection of judges of these courts shall be determined by law according to the nature of the affairs. (2) The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court shall be nominated by the President of the Judicial Court and appointed by the President with the approval of more than 1/2 of all members of the National Assembly. If the President disagrees, it shall be returned to the Parliament; if more than 2/3 of all members of the Parliament pass the approval, the President must accept it; if it does not reach 2/3, the President of the Judicial Court shall re-nominate. (3) Military agencies shall not set up judicial court. Administrative agencies may not make final judgments or rulings; however, due to special needs, the state may set up special military courts with jurisdiction over the armed forces as national courts. These courts only exercise criminal jurisdiction over members of the armed forces stationed abroad or serving on warships., But there is no right of final adjudication, and its implementation procedures are prescribed by national laws. (4) The Judicial Yuan may set up professional courts to handle public officials' disciplinary procedures and appeal procedures. (5) The state may not set up extraordinary courts, nor may it set up courts to handle special events. No one shall be deprived of the right to be tried by law. (6) The establishment of the court is based on the principle of three levels and three trials. Special circumstances require special provisions by law. In cases where the second instance is concluded, when the opinions of the first and second instances are different and the judgments are different, the parties have the right to appeal to the third instance. (7) Before the court has a debate session, the parties may apply to change the judge, but only twice. Each court also has the right to open a list of judges for the parties to choose, and the implementation rules are determined by each court. (8) Where the constitutional policy clauses, binding clauses, guarantee clauses or entrust clauses have been extensively covered but there is no law clearly stipulated in the case, the court should adopt a jury system and create precedents. If the jury system law has not yet been clearly established, the competent court has the right to invoke the jury system of other countries to choose the best. (9) The organization of the court shall be prescribed by law.
●"Judicial Trial IV": Judge’s responsibility: (1) The judicial power of the people of the country is entrusted to the judges, to perform constitutional guarantees and international judicial norms, including the "Basic Principles on the Independence of Judicial Organs." (2) Judges must go beyond political party affiliation, should follow international law, the constitution and laws, be based on conscience, be detached, independent, and give a fair trial without any interference. A judge shall not be a lawyer for five years after retirement in accordance with the law, but salary and benefits shall remain unchanged. Retirement not due to legal reasons shall be stipulated by another law. (3) In addition to the oath of appointment, promotion, and transfer of judges, each new judge swears the following oath in the first public court of his appointment: "I solemnly swear that I will act impartially, truthfully, and faithfully. Exercising my duties and powers as a judge". (4) Judges serve lifetime tenure. Formally appointed judges shall not be dismissed, permanently or temporarily suspended or transferred, or retired against their will, except by a court judgment and in accordance with statutory procedures, unless the judge is judged by the court. In the event of a change in the organization of the court or its jurisdiction, the judge may be transferred to another court or suspended, but the full salary must be retained. (5) Judges should be truly neutral and sever all ties with political parties. Violators shall be removed from office and pursue punitive damages for violation of the constitution. The compensation shall be awarded in full to informants who have the courage to uphold justice. (6) To improve the quality of judges' judgments, the deliberations of the judges of the collegiate panel should be transparent, so that the court's judgments can be close to justice and justice. (7) Judges may order their transfer, retirement or dismissal in accordance with the law when they use their substantial influence, or their position or non-function power, to violate the constitutional constitution, legal rules, principles of transitional justice, or the constitutional order of freedom and democracy. (8) The trial shall openly accept audio recording and live broadcast, but the written consent of the parties must be obtained. For cases involving the parties’ “dignity” in the future survival in society that are clearly detrimental to their lives, as well as cases involving privacy rights and business secrets, the parties’ consent shall not be required. (9) If the safety of judges and their family members is threatened due to the performance of their functions as judges, relevant national authorities should provide them with complete personal safety protection and be responsible to the end. (10) The systems for the diverse sources of judges, whether they are elected by the people, how to evaluate them, the mechanism of appointment and removal, training, retirement pensions, etc., are prescribed by law. ↑
"Submit to the Judgment of the International Court of Justice": In a global village society, justice is the last line of defense for justice. To implement universal justice, it is necessary to respond: "A country, a sub-national self-government, any organization or individual should give priority to obeying the judgment of the International Court of Justice."- Refer to the book "Theory of World Law" written by Dr. Kotaro Tanaka from Japan. The book is based on the perspective of world human society and analyzes and synthesizes the existing legal order system. According to Dr. Tanaka's theory: "The so-called "law" should not be limited to the country, but should be interpreted as the most general concept, that is, from a small society to a large society, and then to the country to the world, for the common life of mankind common product of thought". Because the foundation of social life lies in the pursuit of justice, and the state takes the realization of justice as its obligation, it is no different from other societies. Furthermore, human beings cannot exist in isolation, and neither can nations, which must be interdependent. Moreover, the realization of social justice for human beings is not within the capabilities of one country but must also be the cooperation of all countries; world law (including natural law) can integrate the cultures of various countries and nationalities, so it can also reconcile localism, nationalism, internationalism. sectarianism, racism, nationalism, and nationalism, so that all countries work together to achieve justice in human society. ↑
"Constitutional conditions and treatment of judges"—"For example, the International Court of Justice": International Court of Justice Treaty §3: The Court is composed of 15 members from all continents, and no two of them are nationals of the same country. "Olympics": The five-ring logo symbolizes only the five continents "inhabited by humans." Regarding the "Lifelong Tenure System for Foreign Judges": The global constitution guarantees justice and legal justice, and generally guarantees that judges serve for life. (§81 of the Constitution of the Republic of China: judges have lifelong tenure and are not subject to criminal or disciplinary sanctions or imprisonment of property management, no dismissal, no suspension, transfer or salary reduction except in accordance with the law). In addition to the elected president, judges should still be comparable to general judicial officers for life, especially judges of foreign nationality. It is a big challenge to be familiar with the language of a nation. More importantly, they should be familiar with the laws and constitutions of the nation and the laws of all nations, as well as international law. The relationship is very laborious, and the learning experience curve is very lengthy. It should be comparable to lifetime tenure for US federal judges. Mahatma Gandhi: “Truth never damages a cause that is just.”
●"Constitutional conditions and treatment of judges I" In order to bring judicial judgments in line with international standards, half of the judges of the Constitutional Court are foreign nationals, and judicial justice is responsive. The ultimate national judicial decision disputes, the world's most authoritative, and the promulgated country has become a judicial model.
●"Constitutional conditions and treatment of judges II" Half of all judges shall be experts from advanced countries. Let them bring the latest thinking and doctrine to the country, which can ensure that the human rights standards of the people are synchronized with other advanced countries and ensure that human rights will never lag behind for a day to other countries.
●"Constitutional conditions and treatment of judges III": See §56 of the Constitution of France: The Constitutional Council shall comprise nine members, each of whom shall hold office for a non-renewable term of nine years. One third of the membership of the Constitutional Council shall be renewed every three years. Three of its members shall be appointed by the President of the Republic, three by the President of the National Assembly and three by the President of the Senate.
●The Source of "Judge of Constitutional Court" who Are Responsive to the Needs of Universal Justice in All Countries" in Comparison with the "Constitutional Standards", please refer to Part Five Attachment or PPP website-Attachment table list.
"Constitutional Law and Opening Up": Create a world legal community─(1). National issues are issues of domestic legal order. The legal person is the legal subject. (2). Of course, international law overrides national law and directly obliges individuals to assume obligations and grants their rights. "Individuals" are the "direct subjects of international obligations." (3). A law is anything created in accordance with the procedures prescribed by the Constitution as the basis of this order (entrusted legislation). (4). International law and national law are a unified system of legal regulations, and the international legal order governs the domestic legal order of various countries, and the effectiveness of international law determines the effectiveness of the domestic legal order. (5). The basic norms of international law are the ultimate reason for domestic legal rules. —Hans Kelsen, "The General Theory of Law and the State."
●"Constitutional Law and Opening Up I": President Thomas Wilson: “the question upon which the whole future peace and policy of the world depends is this… but a community of power; not organizes rivalries, but an organized common peace.” This organization charter is the United Nations Charter.
●"Constitutional Law and Opening Up II": Global Constitutional Agreement, Global Unconstitutional Review. Excluding violations of international law or the Constitution, if no remedy is at hand, there is a right of non-cooperation/non-violence/resistance worldwide" (§28). Only with great people can there be a solemn and noble constitution that guarantees that everyone will hold their heads high and parade around the world, and all nations and peoples will eagerly welcome them. The constitution clearly states that the unity of heaven, earth, the many nations and countless laws, equal to 99%, has been completed with the global agreement. A law without penalties is not a law, and a constitution without the right to resist is not a constitution. Of course, violations of the constitution are subject to global scrutiny or resistance. "A country that nurtures such a lofty idea and unswervingly pursues it will live forever in the world" (US –Abraham Lincoln). US President Woodrow Wilson: The peace of the entire future world relies on the existence of a community of power and an organized common peace.
●"Constitutional Law and Opening Up III": Innovate the legal system of global governance. In addition to the International Court of Justice, the nation will establish a Constitutional Court with a transcendent status. The judges are nominated by multiple judges, and half of them come from the five continents in the world.
●"Constitutional Law and Opening Up IV": Review of unconstitutionality adopts the second-level of second instance to ensure that the universal value and dignity of all people can be protected by the constitution. Courts all over the world have the right to review constitutional violations, and the Constitutional Court is the final court of constitutional review.
●"Constitutional Law and Opening Up V": Open constitution, constitutional global agreement, global review of unconstitutional violations: (1) Lead to integration of all laws. To construct a world (multiple common) legal system on the earth, we confirm and guarantee that this constitution is equivalent to more than 99% global agreement. (2) Lead the world to construct the Constitutional Standards and protect the world's human rights standards: global and national courts have universal jurisdiction and the right to review constitutional violations. (3) To fulfill the value of the Constitutional Standards for Permanent Peace, provide solutions to the country, provide hope to the world, transfer models of practice, and let the world see our country, our country is indispensable. We are witnesses to our country becoming a democratic model for repairing the common law of the world. (4) The open constitution and laws, judges, and elected political leaders are all saints to save the country from difficulties and development. The country should grant them honors and citizenship. More refinement and more specialization leads us to the principle of permanent and peaceful co-opetition of human beings. For details, see co-opetition legislative power, co-operative executive power, and co-opetition in judicial power. ↑
"Global Constitutional Agreement ": Defend the "Eternal Weapon of Peace": international laws and customary international law be promulgated throughout the country for faithful and perpetual observance by all and regards it as the world constitution. It is the mother law of the country's constitution and a peaceful coercive law that directly creates rights and obligations for the people and the government (§13). Defending the "eternal weapon of development": It is the Constitutional Standards for Permanent Peace and a fundamental law to eliminate internal strife and external troubles The ten thousand nations and ten thousand laws form part of the national law, and the people can choose the best according to law (§14). Since the unity of all laws has become the national constitution and law, more than 99% of the agreements have been completed with 249 political entities around the world. This constitution is classified as a global agreement constitution. ↑
"Global Unconstitutional review": It is difficult to build a liberal democracy, it is easier to destroy one. Ensuring "human dignity, universal values, truthfulness of information, and freedom of the press" is the nation's basic obligation to maintain peace, security, stability, development, truth, justice, ideas, and beliefs. The state must not offer the enemy freedom of speech to persecute freedom. Violation of peace crimes, war crimes, crimes against humanity, or other international law crimes and punishments shall be prevented and prohibited from occurring and spreading. Now that unlimited warfare is raging around the world, can we not defend against it? According to international law, "Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties" §52: A treaty that violates the principles of international law contained in the Charter of the United Nations is invalid if it is concluded under threat or use of force, §53: A treaty that violates the mandatory rules of general international law at the time of its conclusion is invalid. According to jus cogens, crimes against peace or humanity are not protected by national law or international law. According to Article 5 of the "Tokyo Trials", the three crimes committed by the leader of the Japanese Empire, Hideki Tojo, etc. during World War II were: Class A (crimes against peace), Class B (war crimes) and Class C (endangering humanity.) (Refer to footnote on "jus cogens"). These are in accordance with §5 to §8 of the Rome Statutes of the International Criminal Court. Albert Camus: “The only way out [of international dictatorship] is to place international law above governments, which means [...] that there must be a parliament for making it, and that parliament must be constituted by means of worldwide elections in which all nations will take part.” ↑
"People's Self-Relief":: See John Locke, Two Treatises of Government/Book II: The Second Treatise of Government, An Essay Concerning the True Origin, Extent, and End of Civil Government, Chap. XIX. On Dissolution of the Government §222. Further, the ultimate goal of international law or all laws of the world is to protect everyone and this Constitution is no exception. It ensures that no one is above the law, and no one is denied protection under the law (Constitutional Standards§26): To ensure that justice is responsive, half of all judges come from different countries on five continents (Constitutional Standards §27). In the historical torrent, this constitution reveals the secrets of heaven as the "ultimate system for mankind and the final destination in life" worthy of universal trust and pursuit (Constitutional Standards Contributions 7). "Eliminate unconstitutional Acts": see the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany, §20.4: All Germans shall have the right to resist any person seeking to abolish this constitutional order if no other remedy is available. Refer to "German Basic Law" §126.96.36.199: "Regarding anyone claiming his or her basic rights or in accordance with Article 20, paragraph 4, Article 33, Article 38, Article 101, A constitutional petition filed by the rights of Article 103 and Article 104 being violated by public power.” It is an assumption of the rights of the people. When the rights are violated, the people may file an unconstitutional petition. See § 79 of the German Basic Law, which stipulates that § 20 of the right of resistance cannot be amended, which is recognized as the imperial clause. When a resolution or order that is obviously illegal occurs, everyone should have the courage to refuse, and any official should have the courage to refuse to carry out business, so as not to harm the people. Please refer to §60 of the Constitution of Ukraine: "1. No one is obliged to implement resolutions and orders that are obviously criminal. 2. Provide or implement the resolutions or orders that are clearly illegal should be legally responsible.
●"People's Self-Relief I": Legislative transitional justice: (1) Legislative transformational justice and sustainable transformation are boundless. (2) The creators of unjust laws or orders that violate the principles of nature, justice, morality, human rights or international law must be retroactive. (3) All justice begins and ends with procedures. For major criminals who have left the country, the prosecution shall be suspended, and then restarted after returning. (4) All organizations or individuals that are persecuted by public power have the right to prosecute, vindicate, and claim compensation. (5) Anyone who violates international anti-corruption conventions, or participates in domestic corruption and malfeasance, or political donations, etc., is liable to criminal responsibility, whether it is offering or accepting a bribe, and whoever surrenders first shall surrender the bribe but can file to claim back half of the amount; those who surrender bribes must pay all the proceeds into the state treasury; those who surrender and testify may obtain up to half of the bribe. The incentives for transformational justice shall be prescribed by law. (6) Anyone who has substantial influence on government agencies or public undertakings and uses public funds and control opportunities to profit from them may be prosecuted, and victims have the right to claim compensation. (7) soldiers, public officials and schoolteachers who have contributed to eliminating immediate and obvious harm to transitional justice and/or elimination of injustice shall be promoted by up to three grades. (8) To achieve transitional justice, all unjust cases must be reviewed. Accountability for transformational justice is not subject to statute of limitations. (9) Regardless of the past, present or future, transformational justice will never end. The practice of transforming justice and restoring history has no end and will always be an ongoing one. (10) Transitional justice takes other countries as a reference model and supplements it with laws.
●"People's Self-Relief II": It is clear that the transitional justice will continue to be carried out to ensure the continuous review of the transitional justice issues. In the past, if the people were treated unfairly and unjustly, there was no time limit on accountability, and the country would always face up to any grievances. Liang Chen, "German Transitional Justice Always on the Road", Commonwealth Magazine, May 17, 2013; Transitional justice and the practice of restoring history will not have an end, it is a progressive, always on the road.
●"People's Self-Relief III": Maintain the people's right to resist unconstitutional, a law without penalties (legal effects) is not a law, and a constitution without the right to resist is not a constitution, because the people can violate the law and discipline; a constitution without the right to resist is not a constitution, because the state can violate the constitution and abuse power: (1) We recognize that a law without penalties is not a law, and a constitution without the right to resist is not a constitution. When public power is unconstitutional, against the principle of perpetual peace, or a system of constitutional benchmarks for one earth or a free and democratic constitutional order, as long as there is no other remedy, everyone in the world has the right to resist it. (2) According to the trial regulations of the Nuremberg International Tribunal and the Tokyo International Tribunal, when the international laws upholding basic humanitarian values conflict with national laws, individuals must violate national laws and exercise the right of non-cooperation or resistance. (3) To maintain international jus cogens, including: UN Charter §2.4 prohibiting the use of threats or force; conventions on the prevention and punishment of genocide; conventions on crimes against humanity; conventions on human trafficking; conventions on prohibition of racial discrimination; preamble to the UN Charter; The Convention against Torture; the International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance; and the Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness, individuals must violate national laws and exercise their right to non-cooperation or resistance. (4) In order to defend the constitutional order of freedom and democracy, soldiers shall exercise the right of resistance against betrayers or commanders of surrender, whether they are on the front line or in the rear, engaging in or preparing for war. Therefore, those who defend freedom, democracy and sovereignty should promote them by at least three levels, and the National Martyrs' Shrine should be honored behind them. (5) The Constitutional Standards for Permanent Peace are a jus cogens inherent to the people, and any law that contradicts it is invalid. (6) The government has no right to prosecute the people with laws lower than the constitution for the consequences of the people's exercise of the right to resistance, disobedience, and non-cooperation in accordance with the constitution.
●"People's Self-Relief IV": Relief of Rights: (1) For those engaged in the exclusion of public international law or the liberal democratic constitutional order, if there is no other remedy, everyone in the world has the right to resistance, disobedience, and non-cooperation. (2) Prosecute the government for violations of peace, crimes against humanity, massacres, and war crimes, without statute of limitations and no jurisdictional restrictions. (3) No one is obliged to execute laws or orders that are obviously criminal. Those who provide or execute the law or order that is clearly illegal shall be legally responsible. (4) Everyone has the right to disobedience and the right to emergency self-defense when any law or order poses an irreversible threat to life, health, or property, except as determined by the court's judgment. However, in the diplomatic war to defend the home and the country, it can be stipulated separately by law. (5) The people exercise peaceful marches and demonstrations guaranteed by the constitution. If the government insists on violently dispersing the people, the people may raise a placard to warn the government that it is "unconstitutional." (6) In our country, all nations and all laws can be compared and used, and "bad laws are also laws" are not recognized. Dangerous laws and policies are the biggest obstacle to the permanent and peaceful development of mankind. (7) Invoking any international law, constitution, law, regulation or international standard, no one shall be harmed or damaged. If the public interest needs to be damaged, preferential compensation should be provided.
●"People's Self-Relief V": To protect the people, except in special periods of war, when a country affects or infringes on people during peacetime, it can only be judged by the court and must be tried in accordance with the law, if the country imposes an irreversible threat on the people. The constitution guarantees that the people have the right to disobey or emergency self-defense outside of legal judgments, and to ensure that the people resist illegal tyranny.
●"People's Self-Relief VI": Taiwan's Taipei District Court ruled that all participants of the Sunflower Student Movement were not guilty, that is, on the grounds of "civil disobedience." The reasons stated included: (1) the object of protest was a major illegal or unjust act related to the government or public affairs; (2) it was based on concern for public interest or public affairs; (3) The protest was relevant to the object of the protest; (4) It was public and non-violent behavior; (5) It complied with the principle of appropriateness, that is, the means of protest helped achieve the purpose of the appeal; (6) It complied with the principle of necessity, that is, no other legal and effective alternative means were at hand; (7) It complied with the narrow principle of proportionality, that is, the harm caused by the protest action was less than the benefit brought by the purpose and limited to the smallest possible limit.
●"People's Self-Relief VII": "Civil disobedience" is usually regarded as the people's motivation based on moral conscience, in order to promote changes in laws, policies, or social maladies, in an open and non-violent way to violate the law. Because it is in a country under the rule of law, it can gain the power to change the country’s unjust laws under the stability of the legal system far more than rebellions, coups, and revolutions, so contemporary jurists such as John Rawls, Ronald Dworkin and Joseph Raz generally recognize that "civil disobedience" is a moral right based on people's appeal to their conscience.
●"People's Self-Relief VIII": The most important principle of participating in democratic politics is that the people can resist and oppose undemocratic systems and laws. If not open, there is no justice. A law without penalties is not a law; a constitution without the right to resist is not a constitution. First-rate countries are governed by the constitution, second-tier countries are governed by law, and third-rate countries are governed by one political party. The prosecution is diverse, the people protect the constitution, the people's mobile phone monitors the guarantor of the constitution, and monitors justice and justice at any time. The country is the totality of moral justice, and public officials are the doppelgangers of moral justice. The constitutional guarantor will not be exempted from his guaranty responsibility due to dismissal, resignation at the end of the term, or retirement at the end of the term.
●"People's Self-Relief IX": Citizens of modern democracies have the right to "resist" the country's unconstitutional and abuse of power, as shown in the part of the coordinated opinion of Justice Xu Yuxiu, "The operation of state power deviates from the power is based, that is, when the source of power is counteracted, the source of power can take back power. This is the people's right to resist", that is, the people's "resistance" is a constitutional right.
●"People's Self-Relief X": please refer to 1974 The Portuguese Carnation Revolutionary Slogan: "When dictatorship becomes a reality, revolution is an obligation"; please refer to the "Declaration of Independence of the United States": "All human beings are created equal, and the creators give mankind certain inalienable rights, including the right to life and freedom and the right to pursue happiness. In order to protect these rights, people form a country. Therefore, the legitimate power of the country must be generated with the consent of the governed. When any form of state interferes with this goal, the people have the right Change it or overthrow it in order to build a whole new country; the principles and ways of organizing power in this country should be based on the people's belief that only this way is the most likely to obtain their safety and happiness."
●"People's Self-Relief XI": The Constitution clearly stipulates that the people have the right to actively resist. Everyone can take to the streets and assemble to express their opinions and exercise the "freedom of speech" and "freedom of assembly" guaranteed by the Constitution. Please see Huang Diying, "Miaoli County Uses Another Constitution?”, Liberty Times, August 16, 2013. It clearly regulates the behavior of state agencies, and the people are not subject to "bad laws as well as laws". Under the guidance of the provisions of natural law, we do not recognize that "bad laws are also laws." Where there are bad laws, there are bad governance. We must prevent evil governance according to the evil laws. We advocate that the law lacking "dharmic love", "great love" or "fraternity" is not law, and we do not agree with authoritarian thinking, feudal thinking, or the theory of "bad law is also law" of those with vested interests. Otherwise, since November 20, 1945, more than 5,000 people have been charged in Nuremberg, Germany, and more than 800 civil and military officials who have been sentenced to death can be exonerated by administrative law (bad law is also law) as an excuse. Source: Lin Jiahe, "Chengshe Review-Acting on Evil Politics According to Evil Laws", "Liberty Times website, August 30, 2013.
●"People's Self-Relief XII": The right of non-cooperation is used in many non-violent protest movements, including the movement for women's voting rights in the United Kingdom and other places, the non-cooperation movement of Mahatma Gandhi in India, the independence movement of the British Empire, the United States’ African-American civil rights movement, the Montgomery bus boycott, the South African protest against apartheid, the Monday demonstrations in Leipzig, West Germany, the occupation of Wall Street in the United States, and the Umbrella Revolution in Hong Kong are often listed as historical "citizen disobedience" "A famous case of sports. Among the various peace movements in the world, the earliest major success was the Egyptian Revolution of 1919, which was opposed by the Egyptians against the British occupation.
●"People's Self-Relief XIII": To ensure a free and democratic constitutional order, the people can resist actions or affairs that "exclude the free and democratic constitutional order". Such as: tax resistance, that is, no late payment or fines shall be added afterwards; school strikes, labor strikes, driver strikes, etc. shall not be required to recover losses.
●For complete information on §28, please refer to the PPP website https://www.lawlove.org/en/book ↑