18. Comparison of the Constitutional Standard with the crucial propositions of the Nobel Peace Prize

CS Year Nobel laureate Rationale
§11, §12 1901 Henry Dunant and Frédéric Passy for Dunant’s humanitarian efforts to help wounded soldiers and create international understanding

for Passy’s lifelong work for international peace conferences, diplomacy and arbitration

§20 1902 Élie Ducommun and Albert Gobat for Ducommun’s untiring and skillful directorship of the Bern Peace Bureau and for Gobat’s eminently practical administration of the Inter-Parliamentary Union
§12 1903 Randal Cremer for his longstanding and devoted effort in favor of the ideas of peace and arbitration
§20 1904 Institute of International Law for its striving in public law to develop peaceful ties between nations and to make the laws of war more humane
§9 1905 Bertha von Suttner for her audacity to oppose the horrors of war
§12 1906 Theodore Roosevelt for his role in bringing to an end the bloody war recently waged between two of the world’s great powers, Japan and Russia
§12, §9 1907 Ernesto Teodoro Moneta and Louis Renault for Moneta’s work in the press and in peace meetings, both public and private, for an understanding between France and Italy

for Renault’s decisive influence upon the conduct and outcome of the Hague and Geneva Conferences

§9 1908 Klas Pontus Arnoldson and Fredrik Bajer for their long time work for the cause of peace as politicians, peace society leaders, orators and authors
§20 1909 Auguste Beernaert and

Paul Henri d’Estournelles de Constant

for their prominent position in the international movement for peace and arbitration
§20 1910 Permanent International Peace Bureau for acting as a link between the peace societies of the various countries, and helping them to organize the world rallies of the international peace movement
§20, §9 1911 Tobias Asser and Alfred Fried for Asser’s role as co-founder of the Institute de droit international, initiator of the Conferences on International Private Law at the Hague, and pioneer in the field of international legal relations

for Fried’s effort to expose and fight what he considers to be the main cause of war, namely, the anarchy in international relations

§20, §27 1912 Elihu Root for bringing about better understanding between the countries of North and South America and initiating important arbitration agreements between the United States and other countries
§20 1913 Henri La Fontaine for his unparalleled contribution to the organization of peaceful internationalism
§11 1917 International Committee of the Red Cross for the efforts to take care of wounded soldiers and prisoners of war and their families
§20 1919 Woodrow Wilson for his role as founder of the League of Nations
§20 1920 Léon Bourgeois for his longstanding contribution to the cause of peace and justice and his prominent role in the establishment of the League of Nations
§20 1921 Hjalmar Branting and Christian Lange for their lifelong contributions to the cause of peace and organized internationalism
§12 1922 Fridtjof Nansen for his leading role in the repatriation of prisoners of war, in international relief work and as the League of Nations’ High Commissioner for refugees
§9 1925 Sir Austen Chamberlain and Charles G. Dawes for Sir Chamberlain’s crucial role in bringing about the Locarno Treaty

for Dawes’s crucial role in bringing about the Dawes Plan

§9 1926 Aristide Briand and Gustav Stresemann for their crucial role in bringing about the Locarno Treaty
§12 1927 Ferdinand Buisson and

Ludwig Quidde

for their contribution to the emergence in France and Germany of a public opinion which favors peaceful international cooperation
§12 1929 Frank B. Kellogg for his crucial role in bringing about the Briand-Kellogg Pact
§12 1930 Nathan Söderblom for promoting Christian unity and helping create that new attitude of mind which is necessary if peace between nations is to become reality
§9 1931 Jane Addams and Nicholas Murray Butler for their assiduous effort to revive the ideal of peace and to rekindle the spirit of peace in their own nation and in the whole of mankind
§9 1933 Sir Norman Angell for having exposed by his pen the illusion of war and presented a convincing plea for international cooperation and peace
§11 1934 Arthur Henderson for his untiring struggle and his courageous efforts as Chairman of the League of Nations Disarmament Conference 1931-34
§2, §4 1935 Carl von Ossietzky for his burning love for freedom of thought and expression and his valuable contribution to the cause of peace
§9 1936 Carlos Saavedra Lamas for his role as father of the Argentine Antiwar Pact of 1933, which he also used as a means to mediate peace between Paraguay and Bolivia in 1935
§9 1937 Robert Cecil, Viscount Cecil of Chelwood for his tireless effort in support of the League of Nations, disarmament and peace
§12 1938 Nansen International Office for Refugees for having carried on the work of Fridtjof Nansen to the benefit of refugees across Europe
§12 1944 International Committee of the Red Cross for the great work it has performed during the war on behalf of humanity
§1~§28 1945 Cordell Hull for his indefatigable work for international understanding and his pivotal role in establishing the United Nations
§9~§12 1946 Emily Greene Balch and John R. Mott for Balch’s lifelong work for the cause of peace

for Mott’s contribution to the creation of a peace-promoting religious brotherhood across national boundaries

§9, §12 1947 Friends Service Council and American Friends Service Committee for their pioneering work in the international peace movement and compassionate effort to relieve human suffering, thereby promoting the fraternity between nations
§9, §11 1949 Lord Boyd Orr for his lifelong effort to conquer hunger and want, thereby helping to remove a major cause of military conflict and war
§11 1950 Ralph Bunche for his work as mediator in Palestine in 1948-1949
§9 1951 Léon Jouhaux for having devoted his life to the fight against war through the promotion of social justice and brotherhood among men and nations
§9 1952 Albert Schweitzer for his altruism, reverence for life, and tireless humanitarian work which has helped making the idea of brotherhood between men and nations a living one
§21 1953 George C. Marshall for proposing and supervising the plan for the economic recovery of Europe
§12 1954 Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees for its efforts to heal the wounds of war by providing help and protection to refugees all over the world
§12 1957 Lester Bowles Pearson for his crucial contribution to the deployment of a United Nations Emergency Force in the wake of the Suez Crisis
§11 1958 Georges Pire for his efforts to help refugees to leave their camps and return to a life of freedom and dignity
§9 1959 Philip Noel-Baker for his longstanding contribution to the cause of disarmament and peace
§28 1960 Albert Lutuli for his non-violent struggle against apartheid
§9 1961 Dag Hammarskjöld for developing the UN into an effective and constructive international organization, capable of giving life to the principles and aims expressed in the UN Charter
§12 1962 Linus Pauling for his fight against the nuclear arms race between East and West
§12 1963 International Committee of the Red Cross and League of Red Cross Societies for promoting the principles of the Geneva Convention and cooperation with the UN
§28 1964 Martin Luther King Jr. for his non-violent struggle for civil rights for the Afro-American population
§10 1965 United Nations Children’s Fund for its effort to enhance solidarity between nations and reduce the difference between rich and poor states
§9 1968 René Cassin for his struggle to ensure the rights of man as stipulated in the UN Declaration
§16 1969 International Labor Organization for creating international legislation insuring certain norms for working conditions in every country
§11 1970 Norman Borlaug for having given a well-founded hope—the green revolution
§5, §6 1971 Willy Brandt for paving the way for a meaningful dialogue between East and West
§10 1973 Henry Kissinger and Le Duc Tho for jointly having negotiated a cease fire in Vietnam in 1973
§12, §13 1974 Seán MacBride and Eisaku Sato for MacBride’s efforts to secure and develop human rights throughout the world

for Eisaku Sato’s contribution to stabilize conditions in the Pacific rim area and for signing the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty

§9, §10 1975 Andrei Sakharov for his struggle for human rights in the Soviet Union, for disarmament and cooperation between all nations
§11 1976 Betty Williams and Mairead Corrigan for the courageous efforts in founding a movement to put an end to the violent conflict in Northern Ireland
§9~§12 1977 Amnesty International for worldwide respect for human rights
§10 1978 Anwar al-Sadat and Menachem Begin for jointly having negotiated peace between Egypt and Israel in 1978
§10 1979 Mother Teresa for her work for bringing help to suffering humanity
§28 1980 Adolfo Pérez Esquivel for being a source of inspiration to repressed people, especially in Latin America
§12 1981 Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees for promoting the fundamental rights of refugees
§10 1982 Alva Myrdal and Alfonso García Robles for their work for disarmament and nuclear and weapon-free zones
§28 1983 Lech Walesa for non-violent struggle for free trade unions and human rights in Poland
§11, §28 1984 Desmond Tutu for his role as a unifying leader figure in the non-violent campaign to resolve the problem of apartheid in South Africa
§12 1985 International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War for spreading authoritative information and by creating awareness of the catastrophic consequences of nuclear war
§11 1986 Elie Wiesel for being a messenger to mankind: his message is one of peace, atonement and dignity
§10 1987 Oscar Arias Sánchez for his work for lasting peace in Central America
§12 1988 United Nations Peacekeeping Forces for preventing armed clashes and creating conditions for negotiations
§11 1989 The 14th Dalai Lama for advocating peaceful solutions based upon tolerance and mutual respect in order to preserve the historical and cultural heritage of his people
§10 1990 Mikhail Gorbachev for his leading role in the peace process which today characterizes important parts of the international community
§28 1991 Aung San Suu Kyi for her non-violent struggle for democracy and human rights
§11 1992 Rigoberta Menchú Tum for her work for social justice and ethno-cultural reconciliation based on respect for the rights of indigenous peoples
§12 1993 Nelson Mandela and

F.W. de Klerk

for their work for the peaceful termination of the apartheid regime, and for laying the foundations for a new democratic South Africa
§12 1994 Yasser Arafat, Shimon Peres and Yitzhak Rabin for a new development towards fraternity in the Middle East
§14 1995 Joseph Rotblat and Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs for their efforts to diminish the part played by nuclear arms in international politics and, in the longer run, to eliminate such arms
§11 1996 Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo and José Ramos-Horta for their work towards a just and peaceful solution to the conflict in East Timor
§12 1997 International Campaign to Ban Landmines and Jody Williams for their work for the banning and clearing of anti-personnel mines
§11 1998 John Hume and David Trimble for their efforts to find a peaceful solution to the conflict in Northern Ireland
§12 1999 Doctors Without Borders in recognition of the organization’s pioneering humanitarian work on several continents
§6, §16 2000 Kim Dae-jung for his work for democracy and human rights in South Korea and in East Asia in general, and for peace and reconciliation with North Korea in particular
§1~§28 2001 United Nations and Kofi Annan for their work for a better organized and more peaceful world
§6, §9 2002 Jimmy Carter for his decades of untiring effort to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts, to advance democracy and human rights, and to promote economic and social development
§6, §11 2003 Shirin Ebadi for her efforts for democracy and human rights. She has focused especially on the struggle for the rights of women and children.
§6, §9 2004 Wangari Maathai for her contribution to sustainable development, democracy and peace
§11, §2 2005 International Atomic Energy Agency and Mohamed ElBaradei for their efforts to prevent nuclear energy from being used for military purposes and to ensure that nuclear energy for peaceful purposes is used in the safest possible way
§10 2006 Muhammad Yunus and Grameen Bank for their efforts to create economic and social development from below
§6, §9 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and Al Gore for their efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about man-made climate change, and to lay the foundations for the measures that are needed to counteract such change
§9 2008 Martti Ahtisaari for his important efforts, on several continents and over more than three decades, to resolve international conflicts
§12 2009 Barack H. Obama for his extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation between peoples
§11 2010 Liu Xiaobo for his long and non-violent struggle for fundamental human rights in China
§10 2011 Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, Leymah Gbowee and Tawakkol Karman for their non-violent struggle for the safety of women and for women’s rights to full participation in peace-building work
§8, §9 2012 European Union for over six decades contributed to the advancement of peace and reconciliation, democracy and human rights in Europe
§12 2013 Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons for its extensive efforts to eliminate chemical weapons
§10, §11 2014 Kailash Satyarthi and Malala Yousafzai for their struggle against the suppression of children and young people and for the right of all children to education
§7 2015 National Dialogue Quartet for its decisive contribution to the building of a pluralistic democracy in Tunisia in the wake of the Jasmine Revolution of 2011
§10 2016 Juan Manuel Santos for his resolute efforts to bring the country’s more than 50-year-long civil war to an end
§12 2017 International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons for its ground-breaking efforts to achieve a treaty-based prohibition of such weapons
§13 2018 Denis Mukwege and Nadia Murad for their efforts to end the use of sexual violence as a weapon of war and armed conflict
§13 2019 Abiy Ahmed Ali for his decisive initiative to resolve the border conflict with neighboring Eritrea
§14, §16 2020 World Food Program for acting as a driving force in efforts to prevent the use of hunger as a weapon of war and conflict
§2, §4 2021 Maria Ressa and Dmitry Muratov for their efforts to safeguard freedom of expression, which is a precondition for democracy and lasting peace
§3, §9 2022 Ales Bialiatski, Memorial and Center for Civil Liberties They have for many years promoted the right to criticize power and protect the fundamental rights of citizens. They have made an outstanding effort to document war crimes, human right abuses and the abuse of power. Together they demonstrate the significance of civil society for peace and democracy.

Made by PPP. Source: PPP database, Nobel Prizes and Laureates