Attachment XXIV. These Constitutional Standards are a tool for Nobel Peace Prize winners for continued development and brilliance

year

Nobel Laureates

Rationale

CSPP

2021

Maria Ressa, Dmitry Andreyevich Muratov

"for their efforts to safeguard freedom of expression, which is a precondition for democracy and lasting peace."

§2,§4

2020

World Food Program

"for its efforts to combat hunger, for its contribution to bettering conditions for peace in conflict-affected areas and for acting as a driving force in efforts to prevent the use of hunger as a weapon of war and conflict."

§9

2019

Abiy Ahmed

"for his efforts to achieve peace and international cooperation, and in particular for his decisive initiative to resolve the border conflict with neighboring Eritrea."

§19

2018

Denis Mukwege and Nadia Murad

"for their efforts to end the use of sexual violence as a weapon of war and armed conflict."

§22

2017

International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons

"for its work to draw attention to the catastrophic humanitarian consequences of any use of nuclear weapons and for its ground-breaking efforts to achieve a treaty-based prohibition of such weapons."

§10

2016

Juan Manuel Santos

"for his resolute efforts to bring the country's more than 50-year-long civil war to an end, a war that has cost the lives of at least 220,000 Colombians and displaced close to six million people."

§5

2015

National Dialogue Quartet

"for its decisive contribution to the building of a pluralistic democracy in Tunisia in the wake of the Jasmine Revolution of 2011."

§2

2014

Kailash Satyarthi and Malala Yousafzai

"for their struggle against the suppression of children and young people and for the right of all children to education."

§11

2013

Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons

"for its extensive efforts to eliminate chemical weapons."

§6

2012

European Union

"for over six decades contributed to the advancement of peace and reconciliation, democracy and human rights in Europe."

§9

2011

Leymah Gbowee, Ellen Johnson Sirleaf and Tawakkul Karmān

for their non-violent struggle for the safety of women and for women's rights to full participation in peace-building work.

§5

2010

Liu Xiaobo

for his long and non-violent struggle for fundamental human rights in China.

§1

2009

Barack Obama

for his extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation between peoples.

§10

2008

Martti Ahtisaari

for his efforts on several continents and over more than three decades, to resolve international conflicts.

§10

2007

Al Gore and Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

for their efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about man-made climate change, and to lay the foundations for the measures that are needed to counteract such change.

§10

2006

Grameen Bank and Muhammad Yunus

for advancing economic and social opportunities for the poor, especially women, through their pioneering microcredit work.

§5

2005

Mohamed ElBaradei and International Atomic Energy Agency

for their efforts to prevent nuclear energy from being used for military purposes and to ensure that nuclear energy for peaceful purposes is used in the safest possible way.

§9

2004

Wangari Maathai

for her contribution to sustainable development, democracy and peace.

§5

2003

Shirin Ebadi

for her efforts for democracy and human rights, focused especially on the rights of women and children.

§5

2002

Jimmy Carter

for his decades of untiring effort to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts, to advance democracy and human rights, and to promote economic and social development.

§10

2001

United Nations and Kofi Annan

for their work for a better organized and more peaceful world.

§9

2000

Kim Dae-Jung

for his work for democracy and human rights in South Korea and in East Asia in general, and for peace and reconciliation with North Korea in particular.

§10

1999

Doctors Without Borders

in recognition of the organization's pioneering humanitarian work on several continents.

§9

1998

John Hume and David Trimble

for their efforts to find a peaceful solution to the conflict in Northern Ireland.

§5

1997

International Campaign to Ban Landmines, and Jody Williams

for their work for the banning and clearing of anti-personnel mines.

§10

1996

Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo and José Ramos-Horta

for their work towards a just and peaceful solution to the conflict in East Timor.

§2

1995

Pugwash Conferences and Joseph Rotblat

for their efforts to diminish the part played by nuclear arms in international politics and, in the longer run, to eliminate such arms.

§10

1994

Yasser Arafat, Shimon Peres and Yitzhak Rabin

to honor a political act which called for great courage on both sides, and which has opened up opportunities for a new development towards fraternity in the Middle East.

§10

1993

F.W. de Klerk and Nelson Mandela

"for their work for the peaceful termination of the apartheid regime, and for laying the foundations for a new democratic South Africa."

§5

1992

Rigoberta Menchú

for her work for social justice and ethno-cultural reconciliation based on respect for the rights of indigenous peoples.

§11

1991

Aung San Suu Kyi

for her non-violent struggle for democracy and human rights.

§5

1990

Mikhail Gorbachev

for his leading role in the peace process which today characterizes important parts of the international community.

§20

1989

Dalai Lama

for his non-violent struggle for the liberation of Tibet and advocating peaceful solutions based upon tolerance and mutual respect in order to preserve the historical and cultural heritage of his people.

§5

1988

United Nations Peacekeeping Forces

for their efforts [that] have made important contributions towards the realization of one of the fundamental tenets of the United Nations.

§10

1987

Oscar Arias Sánchez

for his work for peace in Central America, efforts which led to the accord signed in Guatemala on August 7 this year.

§10

1986

Elie Wiesel

for his tireless efforts and speaking out against violence, repression and racism.

§9

1985

International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War

for their authoritative information and by creating an awareness of the catastrophic consequences of atomic warfare.

§9

1984

Desmond Tutu

for his role as a unifying leader-figure in the campaign to resolve the problem of apartheid in South Africa.

§5

1983

Lech Wałęsa

for his contribution and considerable personal sacrifice to ensure the worker's right to establish their own organizations.

§9

1982

Alfonso García Robles and Alva Myrdal

for their magnificent work in the disarmament negotiations of the United Nations, where they have both played crucial roles and won international recognition.

§5

1981

Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

for its effective and continuous work on refugees.

§9

1980

Adolfo Pérez Esquivel

for his efforts in the defense of human rights and for his opposition to Argentina's last civil-military dictatorship.

§10

1979

Mother Teresa

for her work undertaken in the struggle to overcome poverty and distress, which also constitutes a threat to peace.

§9

1978

Menachem Begin and Anwar el-Sadat

for the Camp David Agreement, which brought about a negotiated peace between Egypt and Israel Sadat was assassinated in 1981."

§9

1977

Amnesty International

for protecting the human rights of prisoners of conscience.

§9

1976

Mairéad Corrigan and

for their works as cofounders of Community of Peace People, an organization dedicated to promoting a peaceful resolution to the Troubles in Northern Ireland.

§5

1976

Betty Williams

for his struggle for human rights, for disarmament, and for cooperation between all nations.

§5

1975

Andrey Dmitriyevich Sakharov

for his renunciation of the nuclear option for Japan and his efforts to further regional reconciliation.

§9

1974

Seán MacBride

for his strong interest in human rights by piloting the European Convention on Human Rights through the Council of Europe, helping found and then lead Amnesty International and serving as secretary-general of the International Commission of Jurists.

§9

1974

Sato Eisaku

for the 1973 Paris agreement intended to bring about a cease-fire in the Vietnam war and a withdrawal of the American forces.

§10

1973

Henry Kissinger and Le Duc Tho (declined)

for the 1973 Paris agreement intended to bring about a cease-fire in the Vietnam war and a withdrawal of the American forces.

§9

1971

Willy Brandt

for his efforts to strengthen cooperation in Western Europe through the European Economic Community and to achieve reconciliation between West Germany and the other countries of Eastern Europe.

§10

1970

Norman Ernest Borlaug

for his contributions to the 'green revolution' that was having such an impact on food production particularly in Asia and Latin America.

§5

1969

International Labor Organization

for improving fraternity and peace among nations, pursuing decent work and justice for workers, and providing technical assistance to other developing nations.

§10

1968

René Cassin

for creating the first full draft of the Universal Declaration and his work in the European Court for Human Rights.

§10

1965

United Nations Children's Fund

for its effort to enhance solidarity between nations and reduce the difference between rich and poor states.

§5

1964

Martin Luther King, Jr.

for his non-violent struggle for civil rights for the Afro-American population

§10

1963

International Committee of the Red Cross

for promoting the principles of the Geneva Convention and cooperation with the UN

§9

1963

League of Red Cross Societies

"for their work in the protection of human rights in the ICRC's 100 years of existence."

§9

1962

Linus Pauling

for their work in the protection of human rights in the ICRC's 100 years of existence.

§5

1961

Dag Hammarskjöld

for his campaign against nuclear weapons testing.

§10

1960

Albert John Luthuli

for strengthening the foundations of the United Nations Organization.,

§9

1959

Philip John Noel-Baker, Baron Noel-Baker

for his role in the non-violent struggle against apartheid in South Africa.

§10

1958

Dominique Pire

for his lifelong work for international peace and cooperation.

§10

1957

Lester B. Pearson

for his work in helping refugees in the post-World War II Europe.

§10

1954

Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

for his role in helping end the Suez conflict and trying to solve the Middle East question through the United Nations.

§10

1953

George C. Marshall

for protecting refugees, forcibly displaced communities and stateless people, and assisting in their voluntary repatriation, local integration or resettlement to a third country.

§9

1952

Albert Schweitzer

for his work on the post-war European recovery.

§9

1951

Léon Jouhaux

for his propagation for the reverence of life, the very foundations of a lasting peace between individuals, nations, and races.

§9

1950

Ralph Bunche

for his work on social equality and Franco-German reconciliation.

§9

1949

John Boyd Orr, Baron Boyd-Orr of Brechin Mearns

for his works in resolving the Arab-Israeli conflict in Palestine.

§10

1947

American Friends Service Committee and Friends Service Council (FSC)

for his scientific research into nutrition and his works as the first Director-General of the Food and Agriculture Organization and for their work in assisting and rescuing victims of the Nazis.

§10

1946

Emily Greene Balch and John R. Mott

for establishing and strengthening international Protestant Christian student organizations that worked to promote peace and for her work with the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom.

§10

1945

Cordell Hull

for his fight against isolationism at home, his efforts to create a peace bloc of states on the American continents, and his work for the United Nations Organization.

§10

1944

International Committee of the Red Cross

for the great work it has performed during the war in behalf of humanity.

§10

1938

Nansen International Office for Refugees

for its work in aiding refugees.

§9

1937

Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 1st Viscount Cecil

for his work with the League of Nations.

§1

1936

Carlos Saavedra Lamas

for his mediation of an end to the Chaco War between Paraguay and Bolivia.

§10

1935

Carl von Ossietzky

for his struggle against Germany's rearmament.

§10

1934

Arthur Henderson

for his work for the League, particularly its efforts in disarmament.

§9

1933

Sir Norman Angell

for authoring The Great Illusion and for being a supporter of the League of Nations as well as an influential publicist and educator for peace in general.

§9

1931

Jane Addams and Nicholas Murray Butler

for her social reform work and leading the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom and for his promotion of the Briand-Kellogg pact and for his work as the leader of the more establishment-oriented part of the American peace movement.

§10

1930

Nathan Söderblom

for his efforts to involve the churches not only in work for ecumenical unity, but also for world peace.

§10

1929

Frank B. Kellogg

for the Kellogg-Briand pact, whose signatories agreed to settle all conflicts by peaceful means and renounced war as an instrument of national policy.

§9

1927

Ferdinand-Édouard Buisson and Ludwig Quidde

for their contributions to Franco-German popular reconciliation and for their contributions to Franco-German popular reconciliation.

§9

1926

Aristide Briand and Gustav Stresemann

for their work on the Locarno Treaties.

§9

1925

Sir Austen Chamberlain and Charles G. Dawes

for his work on the Dawes Plan for German reparations which was seen as having provided the economic underpinning of the Locarno Pact of 1925 and for his work on the Locarno Treaties.

§10

1922

Fridtjof Nansen and Karl Hjalmar Branting

for his work in aiding the millions in Russia struggling against famine and for the refugees in Asia Minor and Thrace and for his work as the first secretary of the Norwegian Nobel Committee and the secretary-general of the Inter-Parliamentary Union.

§10

1921

Christian Lous Lange

for his work in the League of Nations.

§10

1920

Léon Bourgeois

for his participation in both the Hague Conferences of 1899 and 1907 and for his work towards what became the League to such an extent that he was frequently called its 'spiritual father'.

§10

1919

Woodrow Wilson

for his crucial role in establishing the League of Nations

§10

1917

International Committee of the Red Cross

for undertaking the tremendous task of trying to protect the rights of the many prisoners of war on all sides of World War I, including their right to establish contacts with their families.

§10

1913

Henri-Marie Lafontaine

for his work as head of the International Peace Bureau.

§9

1912

Elihu Root

for his strong interest in international arbitration and for his plan for a world court.

§10

1911

Tobias Michael Carel Asser and Alfred Hermann Fried

for being a member of the Court of Arbitration as well as the initiator of the Conferences on International Private Law and for his work as founder of the German Peace Society.

§9

1910

International Peace Bureau

for acting as a link between the peace societies of the various countries.

§10

1909

Auguste-Marie-François Beernaert and Paul-H.-B. d'Estournelles de Constant

for being a representative to the two Hague conferences, and a leading figure in the Inter-Parliamentary Union and for combined diplomatic work for Franco-German and Franco-British understanding with a distinguished career in international arbitration.

§9

1908

Klas Pontus Arnoldson and Fredrik Bajer

for being the foremost peace advocate in Scandinavia, combining work in the Inter-Parliamentary Union with being the first president of the International Peace Bureau and for his work as founder of the Swedish Peace and Arbitration League.

§9

1907

Ernesto Teodoro Moneta and Louis Renault

for his work as a key leader of the Italian peace movement and for his work as a leading French international jurist and a member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration at The Hague.

§10

1906

Theodore Roosevelt

for his successful mediation to end the Russo-Japanese war and for his interest in arbitration, having provided the Hague arbitration court with its very first case.

§9

1905

Bertha, baroness von Suttner

for writing Lay Down Your Arms and contributing to the creation of the Prize.

§10

1904

Institute of International Law

for its efforts as an unofficial body to formulate the general principles of the science of international law.

§9

1903

Sir Randal Cremer

for his role as the first father" of the Inter-Parliamentary Union."

§10

1902

Élie Ducommun and Charles-Albert Gobat

for his role as the first honorary secretary of the International Peace Bureau and for his role as the first Secretary General of the Inter-Parliamentary Union.

§10

1901

Frédéric Passy

for being one of the main founders of the Inter-Parliamentary Union and also the main organizer of the first Universal Peace Congress and for his role in founding the International Committee of the Red Cross.

§9