Attachment XXIV. These Constitutional Standards are a tool for Nobel Peace Prize winners for continued development and brilliance


Nobel Laureates




Maria Ressa, Dmitry Andreyevich Muratov

"for their efforts to safeguard freedom of expression, which is a precondition for democracy and lasting peace."



World Food Program

"for its efforts to combat hunger, for its contribution to bettering conditions for peace in conflict-affected areas and for acting as a driving force in efforts to prevent the use of hunger as a weapon of war and conflict."



Abiy Ahmed

"for his efforts to achieve peace and international cooperation, and in particular for his decisive initiative to resolve the border conflict with neighboring Eritrea."



Denis Mukwege and Nadia Murad

"for their efforts to end the use of sexual violence as a weapon of war and armed conflict."



International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons

"for its work to draw attention to the catastrophic humanitarian consequences of any use of nuclear weapons and for its ground-breaking efforts to achieve a treaty-based prohibition of such weapons."



Juan Manuel Santos

"for his resolute efforts to bring the country's more than 50-year-long civil war to an end, a war that has cost the lives of at least 220,000 Colombians and displaced close to six million people."



National Dialogue Quartet

"for its decisive contribution to the building of a pluralistic democracy in Tunisia in the wake of the Jasmine Revolution of 2011."



Kailash Satyarthi and Malala Yousafzai

"for their struggle against the suppression of children and young people and for the right of all children to education."



Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons

"for its extensive efforts to eliminate chemical weapons."



European Union

"for over six decades contributed to the advancement of peace and reconciliation, democracy and human rights in Europe."



Leymah Gbowee, Ellen Johnson Sirleaf and Tawakkul Karmān

for their non-violent struggle for the safety of women and for women's rights to full participation in peace-building work.



Liu Xiaobo

for his long and non-violent struggle for fundamental human rights in China.



Barack Obama

for his extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation between peoples.



Martti Ahtisaari

for his efforts on several continents and over more than three decades, to resolve international conflicts.



Al Gore and Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

for their efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about man-made climate change, and to lay the foundations for the measures that are needed to counteract such change.



Grameen Bank and Muhammad Yunus

for advancing economic and social opportunities for the poor, especially women, through their pioneering microcredit work.



Mohamed ElBaradei and International Atomic Energy Agency

for their efforts to prevent nuclear energy from being used for military purposes and to ensure that nuclear energy for peaceful purposes is used in the safest possible way.



Wangari Maathai

for her contribution to sustainable development, democracy and peace.



Shirin Ebadi

for her efforts for democracy and human rights, focused especially on the rights of women and children.



Jimmy Carter

for his decades of untiring effort to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts, to advance democracy and human rights, and to promote economic and social development.



United Nations and Kofi Annan

for their work for a better organized and more peaceful world.



Kim Dae-Jung

for his work for democracy and human rights in South Korea and in East Asia in general, and for peace and reconciliation with North Korea in particular.



Doctors Without Borders

in recognition of the organization's pioneering humanitarian work on several continents.



John Hume and David Trimble

for their efforts to find a peaceful solution to the conflict in Northern Ireland.



International Campaign to Ban Landmines, and Jody Williams

for their work for the banning and clearing of anti-personnel mines.



Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo and José Ramos-Horta

for their work towards a just and peaceful solution to the conflict in East Timor.



Pugwash Conferences and Joseph Rotblat

for their efforts to diminish the part played by nuclear arms in international politics and, in the longer run, to eliminate such arms.



Yasser Arafat, Shimon Peres and Yitzhak Rabin

to honor a political act which called for great courage on both sides, and which has opened up opportunities for a new development towards fraternity in the Middle East.



F.W. de Klerk and Nelson Mandela

"for their work for the peaceful termination of the apartheid regime, and for laying the foundations for a new democratic South Africa."



Rigoberta Menchú

for her work for social justice and ethno-cultural reconciliation based on respect for the rights of indigenous peoples.



Aung San Suu Kyi

for her non-violent struggle for democracy and human rights.



Mikhail Gorbachev

for his leading role in the peace process which today characterizes important parts of the international community.



Dalai Lama

for his non-violent struggle for the liberation of Tibet and advocating peaceful solutions based upon tolerance and mutual respect in order to preserve the historical and cultural heritage of his people.



United Nations Peacekeeping Forces

for their efforts [that] have made important contributions towards the realization of one of the fundamental tenets of the United Nations.



Oscar Arias Sánchez

for his work for peace in Central America, efforts which led to the accord signed in Guatemala on August 7 this year.



Elie Wiesel

for his tireless efforts and speaking out against violence, repression and racism.



International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War

for their authoritative information and by creating an awareness of the catastrophic consequences of atomic warfare.



Desmond Tutu

for his role as a unifying leader-figure in the campaign to resolve the problem of apartheid in South Africa.



Lech Wałęsa

for his contribution and considerable personal sacrifice to ensure the worker's right to establish their own organizations.



Alfonso García Robles and Alva Myrdal

for their magnificent work in the disarmament negotiations of the United Nations, where they have both played crucial roles and won international recognition.



Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

for its effective and continuous work on refugees.



Adolfo Pérez Esquivel

for his efforts in the defense of human rights and for his opposition to Argentina's last civil-military dictatorship.



Mother Teresa

for her work undertaken in the struggle to overcome poverty and distress, which also constitutes a threat to peace.



Menachem Begin and Anwar el-Sadat

for the Camp David Agreement, which brought about a negotiated peace between Egypt and Israel Sadat was assassinated in 1981."



Amnesty International

for protecting the human rights of prisoners of conscience.



Mairéad Corrigan and

for their works as cofounders of Community of Peace People, an organization dedicated to promoting a peaceful resolution to the Troubles in Northern Ireland.



Betty Williams

for his struggle for human rights, for disarmament, and for cooperation between all nations.



Andrey Dmitriyevich Sakharov

for his renunciation of the nuclear option for Japan and his efforts to further regional reconciliation.



Seán MacBride

for his strong interest in human rights by piloting the European Convention on Human Rights through the Council of Europe, helping found and then lead Amnesty International and serving as secretary-general of the International Commission of Jurists.



Sato Eisaku

for the 1973 Paris agreement intended to bring about a cease-fire in the Vietnam war and a withdrawal of the American forces.



Henry Kissinger and Le Duc Tho (declined)

for the 1973 Paris agreement intended to bring about a cease-fire in the Vietnam war and a withdrawal of the American forces.



Willy Brandt

for his efforts to strengthen cooperation in Western Europe through the European Economic Community and to achieve reconciliation between West Germany and the other countries of Eastern Europe.



Norman Ernest Borlaug

for his contributions to the 'green revolution' that was having such an impact on food production particularly in Asia and Latin America.



International Labor Organization

for improving fraternity and peace among nations, pursuing decent work and justice for workers, and providing technical assistance to other developing nations.



René Cassin

for creating the first full draft of the Universal Declaration and his work in the European Court for Human Rights.



United Nations Children's Fund

for its effort to enhance solidarity between nations and reduce the difference between rich and poor states.



Martin Luther King, Jr.

for his non-violent struggle for civil rights for the Afro-American population



International Committee of the Red Cross

for promoting the principles of the Geneva Convention and cooperation with the UN



League of Red Cross Societies

"for their work in the protection of human rights in the ICRC's 100 years of existence."



Linus Pauling

for their work in the protection of human rights in the ICRC's 100 years of existence.



Dag Hammarskjöld

for his campaign against nuclear weapons testing.



Albert John Luthuli

for strengthening the foundations of the United Nations Organization.,



Philip John Noel-Baker, Baron Noel-Baker

for his role in the non-violent struggle against apartheid in South Africa.



Dominique Pire

for his lifelong work for international peace and cooperation.



Lester B. Pearson

for his work in helping refugees in the post-World War II Europe.



Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

for his role in helping end the Suez conflict and trying to solve the Middle East question through the United Nations.



George C. Marshall

for protecting refugees, forcibly displaced communities and stateless people, and assisting in their voluntary repatriation, local integration or resettlement to a third country.



Albert Schweitzer

for his work on the post-war European recovery.



Léon Jouhaux

for his propagation for the reverence of life, the very foundations of a lasting peace between individuals, nations, and races.



Ralph Bunche

for his work on social equality and Franco-German reconciliation.



John Boyd Orr, Baron Boyd-Orr of Brechin Mearns

for his works in resolving the Arab-Israeli conflict in Palestine.



American Friends Service Committee and Friends Service Council (FSC)

for his scientific research into nutrition and his works as the first Director-General of the Food and Agriculture Organization and for their work in assisting and rescuing victims of the Nazis.



Emily Greene Balch and John R. Mott

for establishing and strengthening international Protestant Christian student organizations that worked to promote peace and for her work with the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom.



Cordell Hull

for his fight against isolationism at home, his efforts to create a peace bloc of states on the American continents, and his work for the United Nations Organization.



International Committee of the Red Cross

for the great work it has performed during the war in behalf of humanity.



Nansen International Office for Refugees

for its work in aiding refugees.



Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 1st Viscount Cecil

for his work with the League of Nations.



Carlos Saavedra Lamas

for his mediation of an end to the Chaco War between Paraguay and Bolivia.



Carl von Ossietzky

for his struggle against Germany's rearmament.



Arthur Henderson

for his work for the League, particularly its efforts in disarmament.



Sir Norman Angell

for authoring The Great Illusion and for being a supporter of the League of Nations as well as an influential publicist and educator for peace in general.



Jane Addams and Nicholas Murray Butler

for her social reform work and leading the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom and for his promotion of the Briand-Kellogg pact and for his work as the leader of the more establishment-oriented part of the American peace movement.



Nathan Söderblom

for his efforts to involve the churches not only in work for ecumenical unity, but also for world peace.



Frank B. Kellogg

for the Kellogg-Briand pact, whose signatories agreed to settle all conflicts by peaceful means and renounced war as an instrument of national policy.



Ferdinand-Édouard Buisson and Ludwig Quidde

for their contributions to Franco-German popular reconciliation and for their contributions to Franco-German popular reconciliation.



Aristide Briand and Gustav Stresemann

for their work on the Locarno Treaties.



Sir Austen Chamberlain and Charles G. Dawes

for his work on the Dawes Plan for German reparations which was seen as having provided the economic underpinning of the Locarno Pact of 1925 and for his work on the Locarno Treaties.



Fridtjof Nansen and Karl Hjalmar Branting

for his work in aiding the millions in Russia struggling against famine and for the refugees in Asia Minor and Thrace and for his work as the first secretary of the Norwegian Nobel Committee and the secretary-general of the Inter-Parliamentary Union.



Christian Lous Lange

for his work in the League of Nations.



Léon Bourgeois

for his participation in both the Hague Conferences of 1899 and 1907 and for his work towards what became the League to such an extent that he was frequently called its 'spiritual father'.



Woodrow Wilson

for his crucial role in establishing the League of Nations



International Committee of the Red Cross

for undertaking the tremendous task of trying to protect the rights of the many prisoners of war on all sides of World War I, including their right to establish contacts with their families.



Henri-Marie Lafontaine

for his work as head of the International Peace Bureau.



Elihu Root

for his strong interest in international arbitration and for his plan for a world court.



Tobias Michael Carel Asser and Alfred Hermann Fried

for being a member of the Court of Arbitration as well as the initiator of the Conferences on International Private Law and for his work as founder of the German Peace Society.



International Peace Bureau

for acting as a link between the peace societies of the various countries.



Auguste-Marie-François Beernaert and Paul-H.-B. d'Estournelles de Constant

for being a representative to the two Hague conferences, and a leading figure in the Inter-Parliamentary Union and for combined diplomatic work for Franco-German and Franco-British understanding with a distinguished career in international arbitration.



Klas Pontus Arnoldson and Fredrik Bajer

for being the foremost peace advocate in Scandinavia, combining work in the Inter-Parliamentary Union with being the first president of the International Peace Bureau and for his work as founder of the Swedish Peace and Arbitration League.



Ernesto Teodoro Moneta and Louis Renault

for his work as a key leader of the Italian peace movement and for his work as a leading French international jurist and a member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration at The Hague.



Theodore Roosevelt

for his successful mediation to end the Russo-Japanese war and for his interest in arbitration, having provided the Hague arbitration court with its very first case.



Bertha, baroness von Suttner

for writing Lay Down Your Arms and contributing to the creation of the Prize.



Institute of International Law

for its efforts as an unofficial body to formulate the general principles of the science of international law.



Sir Randal Cremer

for his role as the first father" of the Inter-Parliamentary Union."



Élie Ducommun and Charles-Albert Gobat

for his role as the first honorary secretary of the International Peace Bureau and for his role as the first Secretary General of the Inter-Parliamentary Union.



Frédéric Passy

for being one of the main founders of the Inter-Parliamentary Union and also the main organizer of the first Universal Peace Congress and for his role in founding the International Committee of the Red Cross.