Attachment XIV. Comparison of ''Countries in Safeguarding Freedom, Compulsory Voting Regulations'' with the Constitutional Standards

1. Global Parliamentary Election Systems

70 countries adopt “List Proportional Representation”, 27 countries adopt “Parallel voting”, 7 countries adopt “Mixed-Member Proportional”, 46 countries adopt “First Past the Post”, 13 countries adopt “Two-round system”. The rest of the countries adopt other elections or are countries without parliamentary elections.

 

Country

Legislature

Electoral system for national legislature

1.    

Afghanistan

House of the People 

Other, SNTV: Single non-transferable vote

 

Afghanistan

House of Elders 

Elected by district and provincial councils, and appointed by the President

2.    

Albania

Parliament

PR/List PR

3.    

Algeria

People's National Assembly

PR/List PR

 

Algeria

Council of the Nation 

Elected by popular wilaya assemblies and communal people's assemblies, and appointed by the President

4.    

Andorra

General Council 

Mixed/Parallel

5.

Angola

National Assembly 

PR/List PR

6.

Antigua & Barbuda

House of Representatives

Plurality/Majority/FPTP

 

Antigua & Barbuda

Senate

Appointed

7.

Argentina

Chamber of Deputies of the Nation 

PR/List PR, midterm election

 

Argentina

Senate of the Nation 

AR, Partial block voting by province

8.

Armenia

National Assembly 

PR/List PR

9.    

Australia

House of Representatives

Plurality/Majority, Instant-runoff voting, PR/List PR

 

Australia

Senate

Single transferable vote by state/territory

10.           

Austria

National Council 

PR/List PR, List Proportional Representation

 

Austria

Federal Council 

Elected by state legislatures

11.           

Azerbaijan

National Assembly

Plurality/Majority FPTP

12.           

The Bahamas

House of Assembly

Plurality/Majority FPTP

 

The Bahamas

Senate

Appointed

13.           

Bahrain

Council of Representatives

Plurality/Majority/TRS, Two-round system,

 

Bahrain

Consultative Council 

Appointed by the king

14.           

Bangladesh

National Parliament

Plurality/Majority/FPTP

15.           

Barbados

House of Assembly

Plurality/Majority/FPTP

 

Barbados

Senate

Appointed

16.           

Belarus

House of Representatives 

Plurality/Majority/FPTP, Two-round system,

 

Belarus

Council of the Republic 

Elected by regional councils, and appointed by the President

17.           

Belgium

Chamber of Representatives

PR/List PR, Plurality/Majority/FPTP

 

Belgium

Senate 

Elected by community and regional parliaments

18.           

Belize

House of Representatives

Plurality/Majority/FPTP

 

Belize

Senate

Appointed by Governor General

19.           

Benin

National Assembly

PR/List PR, Proportional representation 

20.           

Bhutan

National Assembly 

Plurality/Majority/FPTP

 

Bhutan

National Council 

First-past-the-post, and appointed by the king

21.           

Bolivia

Chamber of Deputies

Mixed/MMP

 

Bolivia

Chamber of Senator

Mixed/MMP

22.           

Bosnia & Herzegovina

House of Representatives 

PR, List PR

 

Bosnia & Herzegovina

House of Peoples 

Indirectly elected by parliament

23.           

Botswana

National Assembly

Plurality/Majority/FPTP

24.           

Brazil

Chamber of Deputies

PR/List PR

 

Brazil

Federal Senate 

plurality vote in a first past the post system

25.           

Brunei

Legislative Council 

Not Applicable, No Direct Election, Appointed by the Sultan

26.           

Bulgaria

National Assembly

PR/List PR, Closed list proportional representation 

27.           

Burkina Faso

National Assembly 

PR/List PR, Proportional representation with the D'Hondt

28.           

Burundi

National Assembly 

PR/List PR, Closed list proportional representation with the D'Hondt method in constituencies with a 2% threshold

 

Burundi

Senate (Sénat)

Elected by the communal councils

29.           

Cabo Verde

National Assembly 

PR/List PR, A closed-list proportional representation system

30.           

Cambodia

National Assembly 

PR/List PR, Closed list proportional representation with the D'Hondt method by province

 

Cambodia

Senate 

Appointed by the monarch, elected by the National Assembly and commune councils

31.           

Cameroon

National Assembly 

Plurality/Majority List PR, First-past-the-post and Block vote: If no list obtains an absolute majority, the one with the highest number of votes is allocated half of the seats; the remainder is allocated to the other best-placed lists through proportional representation

 

Cameroon

Senate

Plurality/Majority, List PR, Elected by municipal councils, and appointed by the President

32.           

Canada

House of Commons

Plurality/Majority, FPTP; First-past-the-post voting

 

Canada

Senate 

Appointed

33.           

Cape Verde

National Assembly 

Closed list proportional representation

34.           

Central African Republic

National Assembly 

Plurality/Majority, TRS, Two-round system

35.           

 Chad

National Assembly 

Plurality/Majority, #FPTP, #PBV, #List PR, Block voting and proportional representation

36.           

Chile

Chamber of Deputies 

PR, List PR, Binomial voting system

 

Chile

Senate of the Republic 

PR, List PR, Binomial voting system

37.           

China

National People's Congress

Not applicable, No direct elections, Elected by municipal, regional and provincial congresses, and People's Liberation Army

38.           

Colombia

Chamber of Representatives 

PR, List PR, Open or closed list proportional representation (depending on the political party) with the D'Hondt method by state

 

Colombia

Senate 

PR, List PR, Open or closed list proportional representation (depending on the political party) with the D'Hondt method nationwide with a 3% threshold

39.           

 Comoros

Assembly of the Union 

Plurality/Majority, TRS, Two-round system, and elected by the local assemblies

40.           

DR Congo

National Assembly 

Plurality/Majority and PR/ "#FPTP, #List PR", Plural voting and Open list proportional representation 

 

DR Congo

Senate 

Open-list proportional representation system 

41.           

Congo

National Assembly 

Plurality/Majority, TRS, Mixed of First the Post Voting and Open List Proportional Representation

 

Congo

Senate

Elected by regional councils

42.           

Costa Rica

Legislative Assembly 

PR, List PR, Closed list proportional representation

43.           

Côte d'Ivoire

National Assembly

Plurality/Majority#FPTP#PBV, Plurality vote

44.           

Croatia

Croatian Assembly

PR, List PR, Open list proportional representation with the D'Hondt method

45.           

Cuba

National Assembly of People's Power 

Plurality/Majority, TRS, Second round system

46.           

Cyprus

House of Representatives 

PR, List PR, Open list proportional representation 

47.           

Czech

Chamber of Deputies 

PR, List PR, Open list proportional representation with the D'Hondt

 

Czech

Senate

PR, List PR,Two-round system (staggered elections)

48.           

 Denmark

People's Assembly

PR, List PR, Open list proportional representation with the D'Hondt method

49.           

Djibouti

National Assembly 

Mixed, Parallel, Block vote and closed list proportional representation by constituencies

50.           

Dominica

House of Assembly

Mixed, MMP, First-past-the-post voting, and appointed by the President

51.           

Dominican

Chamber of Deputies 

Plurality/Majority, FPTP, Open list proportional representation with the D'Hondt method by province and nationwide with a 1% threshold for the nationwide seats

 

Dominican

Senate 

PR, List PR, First-past-the-post voting

52.           

East Timor

National Parliament 

PR, List PR, Closed list proportional representation

53.           

Ecuador

National Assembly

PR, List PR, Parallel voting: Closed list proportional representation

54.           

Egypt

Senate

Plurality/Majority, #TRS#PBV, Directly elected and remaining 10 are appointed

 

Egypt

House of Representatives 

Parallel voting: First-past-the-post voting, block vote, and appointed by the President

55.           

El Salvador

Legislative Assembly 

PR, List PR, Open list proportional representation

56.           

Equatorial Guinea

Chamber of Deputies 

PR, list PR, Closed list proportional representation in constituencies with a 10% threshold

 

Equatorial Guinea

Senate 

PR, list PR, Closed list proportional representation with a 10% threshold, and appointed by the President

57.           

Eritrea

National Assembly 

Not applicable, No direct elections, Popular vote

58.           

Estonia

Riigikogu

PR, List PR, Party-list proportional representation, Modified D'Hondt method

59.           

Eswatini (Swaziland)

House of Assembly

Plurality/Majority, FPTP

 

Eswatini(Swaziland)

Senate

Appointed by the King

60.           

Ethiopia

House of Peoples' Representatives

Plurality/Majority, FPTP

 

Ethiopia

House of Federation 

Elected by State Councils

61.           

Federated States of Micronesia

Congress

First-past-the-post voting

62.           

Fiji

Parliament

PR, List PR, Open list proportional representation

63.           

Finland

Parliament 

PR, List PR, Open list proportional representation

64.           

France

National Assembly 

Plurality/Majority, TRS, Two-round system

 

France

Senate 

Elected indirectly by officials including regional councilors, department councilors, mayors, city councilors, and members of the National Assembly

65.           

Gabon

National Assembly

Plurality/Majority, TRS, First-past-the-post voting, and appointed by the President

 

Gabon

Senate

Indirectly elected by local and departmental councilors

66.           

Gambia

National Assembly

Plurality/Majority, FPTP, First-past-the-post, with 5 appointed by the President

67.           

Georgia

Parliament of Georgia 

Mixed, Parallel: Closed list proportional representation , and first-past-the-post

68.           

Germany

Bundestag

Mixed, MMP-member proportional representation

 

Germany

German Bundesrat

Bundesrat members are delegated by the respective state government

69.           

Ghana

Parliament

Plurality/Majority, FPTP

70.           

Greece

Hellenic Parliament

PR, List PR, Open list reinforced proportional representation with the D'Hondt method 

71.           

Grenada

House of Representatives

Plurality/Majority, FPTP First-past-the-post voting

 

Grenada

Senate

appointed by the government and by the leader of opposition

72.           

Guatemala

Congress of the Republic 

PR, List PR, Proportional closed list

73.           

Guinea

National Assembly

Mixed, Parallel, PR, List PR, Proportional closed list

74.           

Guinea-Bissau

National People's Assembly 

PR, List PR, Proportional closed list

75.           

Guyana

National Assembly

PR, List PR, Popular vote and appointed by the President

76.           

Haiti

Senate

Plurality/Majority, FPTP, Direct elections by absolute majority, Two-round system. Midterm election

 

Haiti

Chamber of Deputies

Proportional, Two-round system

77.           

Honduras

National Congress 

PR, List PR, Proportional open list

78.           

Hungary

National Assembly 

Mixed, MMP, Proportional open list

79.           

Iceland

Parliament 

PR, List PR, Open-list proportional representation system

80.           

India

House of the People

First-past-the-post

 

India

Council of States

Plurality/Majority, FPTP, Single transferable vote (233 members are elected by the legislative assemblies of the States/Union territories, 12 members are nominated by the President)

81.           

Indonesia

People's Representative Council

PR, List PR, Proportional open list

 

Indonesia

Regional's Representative Council

Single non-transferable vote

82.           

Iran

Islamic Consultative Assembly

Popular vote

83.           

Iraq

Council of Representatives of Iraq

PR, List PR, Proportional open list

84.           

Ireland

House of Representatives of Ireland

PR, List PR, Proportional Representation Single Transferable Vote

 

Ireland

Senate of Ireland

Appointed

85.           

Israel

Assembly

PR, List PR, Proportional closed list

86.           

Italy

Chamber of Deputies 

Mixed/Parallel voting: proportional representation (398 seats) and first past the post (232 seats)

 

Italy

Senate of the Republic

Parallel voting (199 seats by proportional representation and 116 seats by first past the post) and 5 members appointed by the President

87.           

Ivory Coast

National Assembly 

Majority

 

Ivory Coast

Senate

Elected by district and provincial councils, and appointed by the President

88.           

Jamaica

House of Representatives

Plurality/Majority, #FPTP, #BV

 

 

 

First-past-the-post voting

 

Jamaica

Senate

Appointed

89.           

Japan

House of Representatives

Mixed, Parallel, Proportional and First-past-the-post voting

 

Japan

House of Councilors 

Proportional and Single non-transferable vote

90.           

Jordan

Assembly of Deputies 

PR, List PR, Single non-transferable vote

 

Jordan

Senate 

Appointed

91.           

Kazakhstan

Assembly

PR, List PR, Indirectly elected by regional legislatures, Appointment by the President

 

Kazakhstan

Senate

34 seats indirectly elected by the local mäslihats, 15 are appointed by the President

92.           

Kenya

National Assembly 

Plurality/Majority, FPTP

 

Kenya

Senate

Popular vote and appointed by the President

93.           

Kiribati

House of Assembly 

Plurality/Majority, TRS, Popular vote and appointed by Rabi Council of Leaders

94.           

DPRK

Supreme People's Assembly 

Plurality/Majority, TRS, Popular vote

95.           

 Republic of Korea

National Assembly 

Mixed, MMP, Majority and proportional

96.           

Kuwait

National Assembly 

Other, SNTV

97.           

Kyrgyzstan

Supreme Council 

PR, List PR, Popular vote

98.           

Laos

Sapha Heng Xat (National Assembly)

Plurality/Majority, BV, One-party state closed list, Bloc voting

99.           

Latvia

Parliament

PR, List PR, Proportional closed list

100.        

Lebanon

Parliament

PR, List PR, Chamber of Deputies 

101.        

Lesotho

National Assembly

Mixed, MMP, Popular vote and proportional

 

Lesotho

Senate

Mixed. MMP, Appointed

102.        

Liberia

House of Representatives

Majority

 

Liberia

Senate

Plurality/Majority, FPTP

103.        

Libya

House of Representatives 

Mixed, Parallel: First-past-the-post, single non-transferable vote, and proportional representation

104.        

Liechtenstein

Diet

PR, List PR, Proportional closed list

105.        

Lithuania

Parliament

Mixed, Parallel, Proportional

106.        

Luxembourg

Chamber of Deputies 

PR, List PR, Open list proportional representation, allocated by the D'Hondt method in four constituencies

107.        

Madagascar

National Assembly 

Plurality/Majority and PR/ "#FPTP, #List PR", Parallel voting system

 

Madagascar

Senate

Indirectly elected and appointed

108.        

Malawi

National Assembly

Plurality/Majority, FPTP, First-past-the-post voting

109.        

Malaysia

House of Representatives

Plurality/Majority, FPTP, First-past-the-post voting

 

Malaysia

Senate

Appointed

110.        

Maldives

People's Assembly

First-past-the-post voting

111

Mali

National Assembly 

Plurality/Majority, FPTP, Runoff system

112.        

Malta

House of Representatives

PR, List PR, Single transferable vote

113.        

Marshall Islands

Legislature 

Plurality/Majority "#FPTP, #BV", Single and multi-member constituencies

114.        

Mauritania

Parliament

Mixed, Parallel, National Assembly 

115

 Mauritius

National Assembly 

Plurality/Majority, BV 62 seats elected by multi-member proportional representation, 8 seats designated by the electoral commission among the "best losers"

116.        

Mexico

Chamber of Deputies (Cámara de Diputados)

Mixed, MMP.Parallel voting: Largest remainder method (Hare quota) (200 seats) / FPTP (300 seats)

 

Mexico

Chamber of Senators 

Parallel voting: Largest remainder method (Hare quota)

117.        

 Moldova

Parliament

PR, List PR, A closed-list proportional representation system

118.        

 Monaco

National Council 

Mixed Parallel, Party-list proportional representation

119.        

 Mongolia

State Great Assembly

Plurality/Majority, BV, Plurality-at-large voting

120.        

Montenegro

Assembly

PR, List PR, A closed-list proportional representation system

121.        

Morocco

In the Chamber of Representatives

PR, List PR, Direct universal suffrage, by proportional representation system.

 

Morocco

the Chamber of Counselors

Indirectly elected

122.        

Mozambique

Assembly of the Republic

PR, List PR, A closed-list proportional representation system

123.        

Myanmar (Burma)

House of Representatives 

Plurality/Majority, FPTP Popular vote and appointed by the military

 

Myanmar (Burma)

House of Nationalities

Popular vote and appointed by the military

124.        

Namibia

National Assembly

PR, List PR, Closed list proportional representation and appointments by the President

 

Namibia

National Council

Indirect election by Regional Councils

125.        

 Nauru

Parliament

Other, Modified BC, Dowdall system

126.        

Nepal

House of Representatives 

Mixed: First-past-the-post voting and proportional representation voting method

 

Nepal

National Assembly 

Mixed, Parallel, Indirect single transferable vote

127.        

Netherlands

House of Representatives 

PR, List PR, Party-list proportional representation

 

Netherlands

Senate 

Indirect party-list proportional

128.        

 New Zealand

Parliament 

Mixed, MMP, Single-district two-votes system- Mixed-Member Proportional representation

129.        

 Nicaragua

National Assembly 

PR, List PR, closed-list proportional representation system

130.        

 Niger

National Assembly 

PR, List PR, closed-list proportional representation

131.        

Nigeria

House of Representatives

Plurality/Majority, FPTP Simple majority vote in single-member constituencies

 

Nigeria

Senate

Simple majority vote in single-member constituencies

132.        

 North Macedonia

Assembly 

 PR, List PR, A closed-list proportional representation system

133.        

 Norway

Great Assembly

PR, List PR, proportional mixed

134.        

Oman

Consultative Assembly 

Plurality/Majority "#FPTP#BV", Serve 4-year terms. 

 

Oman

Council of State 

Appointed

135.        

Pakistan

National Assembly 

Mixed, Parallel, Majority vote in single-member constituencies to serve 5-year terms. Directly elected

 

Pakistan

Senate 

Indirect vote to serve 6-year terms. Half of membership is renewed every three years. 

136.        

Palau

House of Delegates

Plurality/Majority, FPTP, Majority

 

Palau

Senate

Majority

137.        

Palestine

Legislative Council 

Mixed, Parallel, A closed-list proportional representation system

138.        

 Panama

National Assembly

Plurality/Majority and PR/ "#FPTP, #List PR", Open list proportional representation

139.        

 Papua New Guinea

National Parliament

 Plurality/Majority, AV, An alternative voting system

140.        

Paraguay

Chamber of Deputies 

PR, List PR, Closed-list proportional representation system

 

Paraguay

Chamber of Senators

Closed-list proportional representation system

141.        

 Peru

Congress of the Republic 

PR, List PR, Open list proportional representation

142.        

Philippines

House of Representatives 

Mixed, Parallel, Plurality vote

 

Philippines

Senate

Block voting.

143.        

Poland

Sejm

PR, List PR, Proportional open list

 

Poland

Senate

Majority

144.        

 Portugal

Assembly of the Republic 

PR, List PR, Proportional party list

145.        

Qatar

Consultative Assembly

In transition, Mixed: Monarch and Popular vote

146.        

Republic of China

Legislative Yuan

Mixed, Parallel: Parallel voting

147.        

Romania

Chamber of Deputies 

PR, List PR, Elected through a modified mixed-member proportional system to serve 4-year terms

 

Romania

Senate 

Elected through a modified mixed-member proportional system

148.        

Russia

State Duma

Mixed, Parallel, Parallel (First-past-the-post voting for 225 members and proportional party list for 225 members)

 

Russia

Federation Council 

Delegated from the executive and legislative bodies of the federal subjects

149.        

Rwanda

Chamber of Deputies

PR, List PR, Mixed: closed-list proportional representation and indirectly elected by special interest groups

 

Rwanda

Senate 

Mixed: elected by regional governing councils, President and by the Political Organizations

150.        

 Saint Kitts and Nevis

National Assembly

 FPTP, Mixed: Plurality vote and elected by governor general

151.        

Saint Lucia

House of Assembly

Plurality/Majority, FPTP, Plurality vote in single-member constituencies to serve 5-year terms.

 

Saint Lucia

Senate

Appointed

152.        

 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

House of Assembly

Plurality/Majority, FPTP, Mixed: Plurality vote and elected by governor general

153.        

Samoa

Parliament

Plurality/Majority, FPTP, Mixed:  plurality vote in in single-member constituencies and multi-member constituencies

154.        

San Marino

Grand and General Council 

 PR, List PR, A party-list proportional representation system 

155.        

São Tomé and Príncipe

National Assembly 

PR, List PR, Closed-list proportional representation system

156.        

Saudi Arabia

Consultative Assembly 

Not Applicable, No Direct election, PR, List PR, Monarch

157.        

Senegal

National Assembly 

Mixed, Parallel: Plurality vote and Proportional representation

158.        

Serbia

National Assembly 

PR, List PR, Closed-list proportional representation system

159.        

Seychelles

National Assembly

 Mixed, Parallel, Plurality vote in single-member constituencies

160.        

Sierra Leone

Parliament

 Plurality/Majority, FPTP, Plurality vote in single-member constituencies plus indirect vote

161.        

Singapore

Parliament 

Plurality/Majority #FPTP #PBV, Plurality vote in single-member constituencies

162.        

Slovakia

National Council 

PR, List PR,  A flexible-list proportional representation system

163.        

Slovenia

National Assembly 

PR, List PR, Open list proportional representation with a 4% election threshold

 

Slovenia

National Council

First-past-the-post indirect elections held within 'functional' interest organizations and 'local' interest communities by electoral bodies (electors).

164.        

Solomon Islands

National Parliament

 Plurality/Majority, FPTP, Plurality vote in single-member constituencies

165.        

Somalia

House of the People

Not Applicable. No direct election. List PR, Appointed by president

 

Somalia

Upper House of the Federal Parliament

Popular vote

166.        

South Africa

National Assembly

PR, List PR, Closed-list proportional representation system

 

South Africa

National Council of Provinces

Nominated by regional legislatures

167.        

South Sudan

Southern Sudan Legislative Assembly

In transition, PR, List PR, Appointed

168.        

Spain

Congress of Deputies 

PR, List PR, Proportional closed list

 

Spain

Senate (Senado)

Mixed: Plurality vote in multi-member constituencies and 49 members are appointed by regional legislatures 

169.        

Sri Lanka

Parliament

 PR, List PR, Open list proportional representation

170.        

Sudan

National Assembly 

Mixed, Parallel: Popular vote to serve 6-year terms.

 

Sudan

Council of States 

Indirect vote to serve 6-year terms. Two members are elected by the legislature of each of 25 states

171.        

Suriname

National Assembly 

PR, List PR,  An open-list proportional representation system

172

Sweden

Parliament 

PR, List PR, A flexible-list proportional representation system 

173.        

Switzerland

National Council

PR, List PR, Open list proportional representation in multi-member constituencies

 

Switzerland

Council of States 

Mixed: Elected by plurality vote in single-member constituencies, plurality vote in multi-member constituencies and the list proportional representation in multi-member constituencies

174.        

Syria

People's Assembly

Plurality/Majority, FPTP,  A closed-list proportional representation system 

175.        

Tajikistan

Assembly of Representatives

Mixed, Parallel, This is essentially a mixed electoral system with proportional and majoritarian tiers.

 

Tajikistan

National Assembly 

Appointed

176.        

Tanzania

National Assembly (Bunge)

Plurality/Majority, FPTP, Plurality vote in single-member constituencies

177.        

Thailand

House of Representatives 

Mixed, MMP, Mixed-member proportional representation, 350 are first-past-the-post and 150 is party-list

 

Thailand

Senate 

Mixed, Parallel, Appointed by the Royal Thai Military

178.        

Togo

National Assembly 

PR, List PR, A closed-list proportional representation system

179.        

Tonga

Legislative Assembly 

Plurality/Majority, FPTP,  Elected by hereditary state rulers

180.        

Trinidad and Tobago

House of Representatives

Plurality/Majority, FPTP, Appointed

 

Trinidad and Tobago

Senate

Plurality vote in single-member constituencies

181.        

Tunisia

Assembly of the Representatives of the People

PR, List PR, A closed-list proportional representation system.

182.        

Republic of Turkey

Grand National Assembly of Turkey

 A closed-list proportional representation system

183.        

Turkmenistan

Assembly 

Plurality/Majority, FPTP, Majority voting in single member constituencies.

 

Turkmenistan

People's Council 

Indirect election and appointed

184.        

Tuvalu

Parliament

 Plurality/Majority, FPTP,BV, Plurality vote in multi-member constituencies 

185.        

Uganda

Parliament

Plurality/Majority, FPTP, Elected by plurality vote in single-member constituencies 

186.        

Ukraine

Supreme Council 

 Mixed, Parallel, A closed-list proportional representation system

187.        

United Arab Emirates

Federal National Assembly 

PR, List PR, 20 members are appointed by hereditary state rulers and 20 members are indirectly elected by an electoral college

188.        

United Kingdom

House of Commons

Plurality/Majority, FPTP, First-past-the-post voting in single member constituencies.

 

United Kingdom

House of Lords

Elected by and from hereditary peers using preferential voting

189.        

United States

House of Representatives

Plurality/Majority, FPTP, Depends on the state, mainly First-past-the-post voting, in single-member constituencies.

 

United States

Senate

Depends on the state, mainly First-past-the-post voting. 1/3 of Senate goes up for election every two years. Each state has two Senators.

190.        

Uruguay

Chamber of Representatives

PR, List PR, Elected through a closed-list proportional representation system to serve 5-year terms.

 

Uruguay

Chamber of Senators 

Elected through a closed-list proportional representation system

191.        

Uzbekistan

Legislative Chamber

Plurality/Majority, TRS, Elected by absolute majority vote in single-member constituencies

 

Uzbekistan

Senate 

Plurality/Majority, FPTP, Elected by regional governing councils and President

192.        

Vanuatu

Parliament 

Other, SNTV, transferable vote and there are 17 multi-member constituencies.

193.        

Vatican City

Pontifical Commission 

Appointed by the Pope

194.        

Venezuela

National Assembly 

Mixed, Parallel, Elected by majority vote and by proportional representation

195.        

Vietnam

National Assembly 

Plurality/Majority, FPTP, Elected by absolute majority vote through a two-round system 

196.        

Yemen

House of Representatives 

Plurality/Majority, FPTP, Elected by plurality vote in single-member constituencies

 

Yemen

Shura Council

In the Shura Council: 111 members are appointed by the president.

197.        

Zambia

 National Assembly

Plurality/Majority, FPTP, Elected by plurality vote in single-member constituencies

198.        

Zimbabwe

House of Assembly

Mixed, Parallel, Elected by plurality vote in single-member constituencies and proportional representation at the provincial level

 

Zimbabwe

Senate

Mixed: elected by proportional representation, regional governing councils

Scheduler: PPP, Source: https://www.lawlove.org/en, International IDEA(https://www.idea.int/data-tools/data/electoral-management-design)、ACE project (https://www.aceproject.org/ace-en/topics/es/esd/esd01/esd01e/default)

2. Comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of various major Parliamentary election systems

Main

Minor

Advantages

Disadvantages

A. Majority multiple voting system

1) Majority voting

(a) First past the Post (FPTP)

•Allows voters to choose between candidates.

•Strong geographical representation.

•Easy to understand.

•In the presidential system, more likely to provide strong legislative support for the president.

•In a parliamentary system, easily produces a one-party majority government instead of a coalition cabinet.

•Makes accountability (geographical responsibility) easier to implement.

•Easier to lead to rotation of political parties.

•The electoral process is relatively easy to control.

•Not conducive to the party members who are in charge of the political party.

•Not conducive to rise of a third force.

•Beneficial for one party to grow up alone.

•No law to provide political and clear choices for the elected people.

•Excludes a small number of groups (such as blacks and women) from being fairly represented.

•Without mainstream public opinion, you can still get political support.

•Formation of political party members is due more to people and interests than ethnic groups, ideas and values.

•Easy to form local factional politics.

•Easy to cause the opposition between the opposition and the establishment of a society.

•Creates a lot of waves to select tickets.

(b) Single Non-Transferable Vote (SNTV)

•Allows voters to choose between candidates.

•Strong geographical representation.

•Easy to understand.

•To the detriment of extremist political parties.

•Not conducive to the rise of a third force.

•Conducive to one-party dominance.

•Unable to provide voters with a clear choice of political parties.

•Excludes minorities (such as blacks and women) from being fairly represented.

•Ignores mainstream public opinion, we can still gain the ruling power by stabilizing the foundation.

•Political parties are formed from interpersonal and interest relations rather than ethnic groups, ideas and values.

•Easier to form local factional politics.

•Easy to cause serious resistance from opposition parties and create social opposition.

•Creates a large number of wasteful votes.

Limited Voting (LV)

•Protection of minority interests being represented is more secure

•Electoral system is easy for voters to understand and relatively easy to count.

•Regional interests are valued, and the responsibility for this is clear.

• Contributed to the development of party politics, especially bipartisan politics.

•Not conducive to rise of a third force.

•Conducive to one-party dominance.

•Unable to provide voters with a clear choice of political parties.

•Produces a high distortion of ratio of votes to seats.

•Problems with competition between the same party and the same constituency undermine the internal management of disciplined political parties.

•Encourages the emergence of local factions and political parties.

•Candidates or elected people try their best to vote for local voters, which is a breeding ground for client politics and bribery.

•Contributes to the development of party politics, especially bipartisan politics.

Bloc Voting (BV)

•Respects the will of voters to vote for individual candidates.

•Allows candidates from all parties to mix together to promote minority representation.

•Regional interests are paid full attention, and responsibility for this is clearer.

•Political party coherence and organizational capacity have a high impact on election results

•Distortion of ratio of votes and seats of political parties is conducive to one-party dominance.

•The combination of political parties is mostly based on political manipulation, rather than on ethnic groups and ideas.

•Beneficial to political parties with strong social resources and organizational ability.

•Encourages members of the same political parties in the same constituency to compete with each other.

•Easily replaced by factions and corruption within political parties.

(e) Party Bloc Voting (PBV)

•Respects the will of voters to vote for individual candidates.

•Allows candidates from all parties to mix together to promote minority representation.

•Regional interests are paid full attention, and responsibility for this is clearer.

•Political party coherence and organizational capacity have a high impact on election results

•Distortion of ratio of votes and seats of political parties is conducive to one-party dominance.

•The combination of political parties is mostly based on political manipulation, rather than on ethnic groups and ideas.

•Beneficial to political parties with strong social resources and organizational ability.

•Encourages members of the same political parties in the same constituency to compete with each other.

•Easily replaced by factions and corruption within political parties.

2) Majority first

(a) Alternative Voting (AV)

•Candidates pay more attention to the overall and comprehensive public interest.

•Voters can use tactics to vote for the next most vocal party to take power.

•Can contribute to the rise of the third force.

•Easy to adopt a national policy of inclusiveness and compromise in the middle.

•Can prevent the emergence of extreme political parties.

•A candidate who is too compromising is likely to lose the election.

•Transfer of votes may bring opposite results from voters' original intention.

•Candidate with the highest public opinion may still lose the election.

•Easy to create a large number of wasteful votes.

(b) The Two-Round System (TRS)

•Gives voters a second new choice.

•Encourages trade-offs and compromises between political parties and candidates, and it is not easy to adopt radical ideology.

•Voters don't have to rank candidates, so TRS is easier to understand.

•Scope of the selected area is appropriate.

•Two rounds of competition usually require expensive and challenging management.

•By-election is usually required.

•There is a long time between the election and the announcement of the results.

•To produce the most disproportionate results.

•Severe political party infighting may lead to political party division.

•On entering the second round candidates insist on their own opinions, which may undermine social stability and differentiation.

(c) Borda Count (BC)

•Quality of election results depends to a great extent on whether constituencies are reasonably divided.

•System design is complicated and requires higher understanding ability of voter

B: Proportional Representation System

1) List Proportional Representation with small districts (List PR)

(a) List proportional representation

•Political parties can adjust the list of members of Congress at any time and the loyalty of party members.

•Strengthens discipline within political parties.

•Can attract supporters' eyes.

•Principle of transparency in the nomination of political parties does not conform to the proportional representation system.

•Destroys supporters' trust in political parties.

•Improper expansion of power at the top of political parties.

(b) List proportional representation-small constituencies

•Regional interests can still be represented.

•Guarantees the representation of ethnic minorities (race, sex) in Congress.

•Tolerates existence of extremist political parties.

•No need to hold by-elections.

•Voter turnout is likely to be higher.

•In the presidential system, legislative support for the president is weak.

•Parliamentary system is more likely to be a coalition government or minority government.

•Tolerates the existence of extremist political parties.

•Regional interest linkages are sometimes too high.

(c) List proportional representation-large constituencies

•Outcome of the election depends on the candidate's personal characteristics rather than the party's policies, especially when multiple candidates are put forward by the same political party and the same constituency.

•Political parties do not need to endorse candidate policies, and their political responsibilities are unclear.

•Candidates are highly dependent on geographical organizations, so they strive to operate constituency sites. After being elected, regional interests override the interests of political parties and countries.

•Elections have become distributive politics induced by regional interests. The leader of sending valve increases his inner-party leadership strength, and the politics of sending valve within the political party comes into being.

•Candidates only need to get a small proportion of votes to be elected. Political parties (factions) will not easily adjust relevant organizations and policies in order to ensure the existing seats. It is quite common for candidates to be re-elected, which indirectly leads to the difficulty of regime alternation.

•In such a political environment, even candidates with controversial images are easy to rely on faction forces to be elected.

•Party politics is severely suppressed, and the elected people lack the sensitivity to major changes in the situation at home and abroad, and are incapable of proposing appropriate countermeasures (Zhou Yuren, 2001).

•In the presidential system, legislative support for the president is weak.

•Weak geographical representation.

•Accountability issues.

•In the presidential system, legislative support for the president is weak.

2) Proportional representation (PR)

•The incentive mechanism of proportional representation system is to maximize the national vote, and the Congress includes members of majority and minority groups.

•The result of avoiding the distortion of the ratio between the total number of people elected and the number of votes obtained in the majority system promotes a more representative legislature.

•Guarantees representation of ethnic minorities (race, sex) in Congress.

•List proportional representation system encourages political parties to put forward a balanced list of candidates, which contributes to better representation and social stability.

•Incidence of invalid votes is extremely low.

•Promotes more efficient government with compromise of interests

•Tolerates the existence of extremist political parties.

•Party politics shows its importance and can contribute to sound developments.

•Voters are unable to determine whether their geographical interests are represented.

•Mutual suspicion and mistrust in coalition governments will lead to incompetent governments.

•Tolerates the existence of extremist political parties.

•Independent candidates who do not form a party have little room for existence.

•When democratization within political parties is insufficient, power in the hands of high-ranking cadres is excessively expanded and consolidated.

•Flexibility in voting is low.

3) Single Transferable Voting (STV)

•Under normal circumstances, STV elections tend to produce major political parties and form a relatively stable and legitimate government.

•STV can make those who don't get the most seats in the election win the ruling position.

•It can promote the development of party politics when the size of constituencies is extremely reasonable.

•STV needs recalculation of residual transfer values, which is very complicated.

•Votes under STV can only be counted at the counting center. Because votes are not counted directly at polling stations, the integrity of counting votes is a great test.

•STV often has intra-party competition and bipartisan competition at the same time, and candidates bribe specific voter groups under excessive pressure.

•Advantages of the original intrinsic proportional representation system have been distorted.

•Under extreme pluralism, minority parties have greater blackmail capital.

C. Mixed systems

1) Mixed Member Proportional (MMP)

•Includes the interests of both regional and party politics.

•You can create two types of representatives.

•Higher accountability of political parties.

•Proportion of invalid votes is very small.

•Includes space for small parties (extreme parties).

•May be easier to reach consensus than other alternatives.

•Compared with the list proportional representation system, hinders development of sound party politics.

•Complicated seat calculation system.

•Difficult to divide the proper size of the constituency.

•By-election is usually required.

•Strategic voting distorts the proportion.

•No guarantee of overall proportionality.

•Encourages emergence of extremist political parties.

•Formal by-election is usually required.

2) Parallel Systems (PS)

•You can create two types of representatives.

•Inclusive of regional and party politics.

•Ensure minority representatives

•Easier to reach consensus than other alternatives.

•Complicated systems.

•Boundaries of constituencies need to be properly divided.

•By-election is usually required.

•Not easy to arrange absentee voting compared with the proportional representation system of listed political parties.

•Compared with the proportional representation system of listed political parties, political parties are more fragmented.

3) The additional member system (AMS)

•Fully shows the proportion of regional interests.

•Facilitates flexibility in the total number of members of Congress from year to year.

•Avoids formation of excessively rigid party proportional politics.

•Destroys the original intention of giving priority to the proportional representation system of political parties.

•Political unpredictability and stability result in varying numbers of members of Congress from year to year.

•Causes unfair numbers of people passing functions and powers to parliament.

Source: Compiled by the Association ACE “Electoral Systems”: https://aceproject.org/main/english/es/es.html、IDEA “Electoral Systems”: https://www.idea.int/data-tools/tools/interactive-electoral-systems-quota-types、Fair Vote “Electoral Systems”: https://www.fairvote.org/electoral_systems#research_electoralsystems101