Attachment V. Absolute Requirements for Permanent Peace: "Frequency of People's Participation in Politics and Voting" vs. the Constitutional Standards

1. "Switzerland" boasts the world’s highest per capita income in a century with a population of more than 8 million, for example, excluding referendums, each person needs to vote "5.41 times" every year

Election items

Voting date

Nos

National House Election

2003.10.19, 2007.10.21, 2011.10.23, 2015.10.18, 2019.10.20

5

Federal House Election

2003.12.10, 2006.06.14, 2007.10.21, 2007.11.25, 2007.12.12, 2008.12.10, 2009.09.16, 2010.09.22, 2011.10.23, 2011.11.27, 2011.12.14, 2015.10.18, 2015.11.22, 2015.12.09, 2017.12.20, 2019.10.20, 2019.11.17

17

Zurich Cantonal Assembly

2003.04.06, 2007.04.15, 2011.04.03, 2015.04.12, 2019.03.24

5

Zurich cantonal government elections

2003.04.06, 2006.07.09, 2007.04.15,2009.11.29, 2011.04.03, 2015.04.12, 2019.03.24

7

Zurich City Council election

2006.02.12, 2010.03.07, 2014.02.09, 2018.03.04

4

Zurich City Council Election

2006.02.12, 2010.03.07, 2014.02.09, 2018.03.04

4

Election of city government officials and city administrators

2006.02.12, 2010.03.07, 2014.02.09, 2018.03.04

4

Election of Justice of Peace

2006.11.26, 2007.06.17, 2007.11.25, 2009.02.08, 2009.03.29, 2015.03.08, 2017.11.26, 2019.09.01

8

School authorities election

2004.05.16, 2004.09.26, 2005.02.27, 2005.06.05, 2006.05.21, 2007.06.17, 2007.11.25, 2008.02.24, 2008.06.01, 2008.09.28, 2009.05.17, 2010.06.13, 2010.09.26, 2013.06.09, 2014.05.18, 2014.07.06, 2015.11.22, 2017.02.12, 2017.05.21, 2018.06.10, 2018.07.15, 2019.05.19, 2019.09.01

23

Zurich district council members by-election

2006.02.12

1

Zurich District Court by-election

2006.09.24, 2007.03.11

2

Zurich Regional Constituency By-election

2006.09.24

1

Roman Catholic Church elections

2007.03.11

1

Evangelical Reformed Church Election

2007.03.11

1

Parish/District council election

2006.02.12, 2010.03.07, 2014.02.09, 2018.03.04

4

Election of Governor of the Zurich Region

2009.02.08

1

Public testifier

2006.02.12, 2010.03.07, 2014.02.09, 2018.03.04

4

City of Zurich: https://www.stadt-zuerich.ch/

The Comparison of Referendum in European Democracies: Issues, Timings and Results, Issues and results of Swiss referendums (1940-2007), Average 6.1 per year

issue type

Passed

Did not pass

Total

Frequency

Average voter turnout (%)

Number of times

Average voter turnout (%)

Number of times

Passing rate (%)

Average voter turnout (%)

Constitution and Institutions

64

41.7

45

47.0

109

58.7

43.9

Sovereignty and territory

8

49.1

5

53.5

13

61.5

50.8

Morality and life

38

41.3

57

45.9

95

40.0

44.0

Economy and Society

90

43.8

103

44.7

193.

46.6

44.3

Issues that cannot be answered

0

 

0

 

0

   

Total

200

42.9

210

45.7

410

48.8

44.3

Source: C2D (Center for Research in Direct Democracy)

2. With a population of over 8 million, Switzerland has had the world’s highest per capita income for a century and stands as an example. Excluding election votes, each person must vote "3.82 times" in referendums each year

Year

Voting dates

No of Issues

2003

February 9, May 18, September 7, November 30

30

2004

February 8, May 16, September 26, November 28

23

2005

February 27, June 5, September 25, November 27

22

2006

May 21, September 24, November 26

14

2007

March 11, June 17, November 25

19

2008

February 24, June 1, September 28, November 30

35

2009

February 28, May 17, September 27, November 29

25

2010

March 7, June 13, September 26, November 28

30

2011

February 13, May 15, September 4, November 27

37

2012

March 11, June 17, September 23, November 25

38

2013

March 3, June 9, September 22, November 24

29

2014

February 9, May 18, September 28, November 30

24

2015

March 8, June 14, November 22

18

2016

February 28, June 5, September 25, November 27

31

2017

February 12, May 21, September 24, November 26

29

2018

June 10, September 23, November 25

31

2019

February 10, March 4, May 19, September 1, November 17

15

Source: PPP and Zurich Statistics Office: https://www.stadt-zuerich.ch/prd/de/index/statistik/publikationen-angebote/datenbanken-anwendungen/abstimmungsdatenbank.html

portal/de/index/politik_u_recht/abstimmungen_u_wahlen/archiv_wahlen.html

3. Electronic Voting System of Switzerland

State name

System

Zurich Union System (The Consortium System)

T The system was first developed by Canton of Zurich. Nine Cantons continue to participate in development. Since 2010, Fribourg, Solothurn, Canton of Aargaus, Schaffhausen, Gaozhou, St. Gallen and Canton of Grisons have been conducting experiments based on this system. Since 2015, the cantons of Zurich and Glarus have also adopted this system.

The Geneva System: As the name suggests, Canton of Geneva has developed its own system.

Canton of Basel-Stadt (since 2009), Canton of Lucerne (since 2010) and Canton of Berne (since 2012) have also conducted trials with electronic voting.

The Neuchatel System

The Neuchâtel system is only used in Neuchatel itself. It is different from the other two systems: the combination of business such as electronic voting is provided from the “Guichet Unique” online portal.

Source: The Swiss Authorities Online. Compiled by Permanent Peace Partnership.

4. For local governments or federal states take California, which has the highest per capita income among the 50 US states, as an example. The population is more than 40 million, and each voter goes to the polls on average 6 times each year

A. At the state level──California state elections

For 20 consecutive years (from 1996 to 2015), there were 120 voting days in total. Voting items include federal elections, state elections and referendums, county elections and referendums, city elections and referendums, public school elections and referendums.

Year

Voting dates

2015

March 03, March 10, March 17, May 19, November 03

2014

March 04, March 25, June 03, August 05, August 12, November 04, December 09

2013

March 03, March 05, March 12, May 14, May 21, June 23, July 23, September 17, September 24, November 05, November 19, December 03

2012

January 17, March 13, June 05, November 06, December 03

2011

February 15, March 08, May 17, July 12, November 08

2010

April 13, May 04, May 25, June, June 08, November 02

2009

March 03, March 24, April 21, May 05, May 19, June 23, June 30, July 14, September 01, September 22, November 03, December 08

2008

February 05, June 03, November 04, November 28, December 09

2007

March 06, May 15, June 05, June 12, June 26, August 21, September 25, November 06, December 11

2006

March 07, April 04, June 06, November 07

2005

March 08, May 17, November 08

2004

March 02, November 02

2003

January 28, March 04, April 15, May 20, June 03, September 23, October 07, November 04

2002

March 05, June 04, November 05, November 26

2001

March 06, April 10, April 20, May 15, June 05, September 11, October 23, November 06, December 11

2000

January 11, March 07, June 06, June 20, November 07

1999

March 03, April 13, April 20, June 08, November 02, December 14

1998

January 13, April 14, June 02, July 28, November 03

1997

April 01, June 01, June 03, November 04, November 18

1996

March 26, November 05, November 22

Sources: PPP and

(1). https://www.sos.ca.gov/elections/voting-resources/voter-information-guides/;

(2). https://ballotpedia.org/Local_ballot_measures,_California;

(3). http://www.joincalifornia.com/page/10

B. Municipal ── Los Angeles City Citizens elections

Mayor, City Council, Council Committee, City Superintendent, City Attorney

Year

Voting dates

2015

March 03, March 10, March 17, May 19, November 03

2014

March 04, March 25, June 03, August 05, August 12, November 04, December 09

2013

March 03, March 05, March 12, May 14, May 21, June 23, July 23, September 17, September 24, November 05, November 19, December 03

2012

January 17, March 13, June 05, November 06, December 03

2011

February 15, March 08, May 17, July 12, November 08

2010

April 13, May 04, May 25, June, June 08, November 02

2009

March 03, March 24, April 21, May 05, May 19, June 23, June 30, July 14, September 01, September 22, November 03, December 08

2008

February 05, June 03, November 04, November 28, December 09

2007

March 06, May 15, June 05, June 12, June 26, August 21, September 25, November 06, December 11

2006

March 07, April 04, June 06, November 07

2005

March 08, May 17, November 08

2004

March 02, November 02

2003

January 28, March 04, April 15, May 20, June 03, September 23, October 07, November 04

2002

March 05, June 04, November 05, November 26

2001

March 06, April 10, April 20, May 15, June 05, September 11, October 23, November 06, December 11

2000

January 11, March 07, June 06, June 20, November 07

1999

March 03, April 13, April 20, June 08, November 02, December 14

1998

January 13, April 14, June 02, July 28, November 03

1997

April 01, June 01, June 03, November 04, November 18

1996

March 26, November 05, November 22

C. Referendums and elections at the district level (counties, counties, cities...)【not included in these statistics】

5. United States Online Voter Registration System

Registration Requirements for General Voters

1. American Citizen

2. 18 years of age and above

3. Completing general voter registration at the place of residence or online voter registration

Sources of Constitution

undefined

Constitutional Amendment § 14 (Equal Protection Clause), Constitutional Amendment

§ 15, Constitutional Amendment §17, Constitutional Amendment §19, Constitutional

Amendment §23, Constitutional Amendment §24, Constitutional Amendment §26

Federal Law

Voting Rights Act of 1965, Voting Accessibility for the Elderly and Handicapped Act, Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act Military and Overseas Voter Empowerment Act, National Voter Registration Act of 1993, Help America Vote Act of 2002

State

Year Enacted

Bill Number

Year Implemented

Website

Alabama

n/a

No legislation required

2016

Alabama Votes

Alaska

n/a

No legislation required

2015

Alaska Online Voter Registration

Arizona

n/a

No legislation required

2002

Arizona Online Voter Registration

California

2011

SB 397

2012

California Online Voter Registration

Colorado

2009

HB 1160

2010

Go Vote Colorado

Connecticut

2012

HB 5024

2014

Connecticut Online Voter Registration

Delaware

n/a

No legislation required

2014

I Vote Delaware

District of Columbia

n/a

No legislation required

2015

D.C. Voter Registration Form

Florida

2015

SB 228

2017

Register to Vote Florida

Georgia

2012

SB 92

2014

Georgia Online Voter Registration

Hawaii

2012

HB 1755

2015

Hawaii Online Voter Registration 

Idaho

2016

SB 1297

2017

Idaho Online Voter Registration

Illinois

2013

HB 2418

2014

Illinois Online Voter Registration

Indiana

2009

HB 1346

2010

Indiana Online Voter Registration

Iowa

n/a

No legislation required

2016

Iowa Online Voter Registration

Kansas

n/a

No legislation required

2009

Kansas Online Voter Registration

Kentucky

n/a

No legislation required

2016

Kentucky Online Voter Registration

Louisiana

2009

HB 520

2010

Louisiana Online Voter Registration

Maine

2021

HB 804

2023 (anticipated)

 

Maryland

2011

HB 740

2012

Maryland Online Voter Registration

Massachusetts

2014

HB 3788

2015

Massachusetts Online Voter Registration

Michigan

2018

SB 425

2019

Michigan Online Voter Registration

Minnesota (a)

2014

HF 2096

2013

Minnesota Votes

Missouri (b)

n/a

No legislation required

2014

Vote Missouri

Nebraska

2014

LB 661

2015

Nebraska Online Voter Registration

Nevada

2011

AB 82

2012

Nevada Online Voter Registration

New Jersey

2020

SB 589

2020

New Jersey Online Voter Registration

New Mexico

2015

SB 643

2016

New Mexico Online Voter Registration

New York (c)

2019

AB 2005 (2019)

2011 (no legislation at the time)

New York Electronic Voter Registration 

North Carolina

n/a

No legislation required

2020

North Carolina Voter Registration Application

Ohio

2016

SB 63

2017

Ohio Online Voter Registration

Oklahoma (d)

2015

SB 313

2018 (Phase I)

Oklahoma Online Voter Registration

Oregon

2009

HB 2386

2010

Oregon Online Voter Registration

Pennsylvania

2002

SB 607

2015

Pennsylvania Online Voter Registration

Rhode Island

2016

SB 2513

2017

Rhode Island Online Voter Registration

South Carolina

2012

HB 4945

2012

South Carolina Online Voter Registration

Tennessee

2016

SB1626/HB1472

2017

Tennessee Online Voter Registration

Utah

2009

SB 25

2010

Utah Online Voter Registration

Vermont

n/a

No legislation required

2015

Vermont Online Voter Registration

Virginia

2013

HB 2341

2013

Virginia Online Voter Registration

Washington

2007

HB 1528

2008

Washington Online Voter Registration

West Virginia

2013

SB 477

2015

West Virginia Online Voter Registration

Wisconsin

2016

SB 295

2017

Wisconsin Online Voter Registration

(a) Minnesota in 2013 made online voter registration available without enabling legislation but the legislature in 2014 authorized the state's system.
(b) In Missouri, residents can register to vote online and electronically provide a signature using a mobile device, tablet computer or touchscreen computer, but not a standard desktop computer. The state reviews the information and prints out the registration form, which it sends to the person's local elections office for verification.
(c) New York first established an online voter registration system in 2011, but the registration system at the time was not fully paperless. Voters could submit a voter registration application online, through a system run by the Department of Motor Vehicles, but paper was exchanged between the motor vehicle system and the statewide database. In 2019 AB 2005 was enacted, requiring an electronic voter registration transmittal system and creating a fully online voter registration system.
(d) In Oklahoma, the first phase of implementation allows previously registered voters to update their address of residence (if it is in the same county as their previous address), mailing address or party affiliation online. Voters who are not registered must complete and submit a paper registration form.

6. Non-registration voting systems among US states

(1) Obtaining electronic ballots: The US federal requirements under the Federal Military and Overseas Voter Empowerment Act (MOVE) require states to provide at least one electronic format email, fax or online delivery system to provide UOCAVA voters with blank absentee ballots; or, use the online federal written absentee ballot provided by the Federal Voting Assistance Program (FVAP) provided by the federal government

(2) Ways to return electronic ballots

State

Email

Fax

Web portal

 

Mail-in

ID

Description

Alabama

       

UOCAVA voters

n 2016, Alabama implemented a portal for UOCAVA voters to return ballots. The system will only be implemented as a pilot project initially set for March 1, 2016.

Alaska

 

   

UOCAVA voters

 

Arizona

 

 

UOCAVA voters

 

California

 

   

UOCAVA voters

In 2017 California promulgated AB 1013, allowing voters with disabilities or military/ overseas voters to vote using a certified, remotely accessible mail voting system. These regulations will take effect on January 1, 2020, or one year after the Secretary of State has certified an acceptable system. The requirement to provide remote access to the mail voting system does not apply to counties that conduct all-mail voting elections

Colorado

 

UOCAVA voters, and only if more secure methods (such as mailing) are not available or feasible

 

Delaware

   

UOCAVA voters

 

District of Columbia

   

UOCAVA voters

 

Florida

 

   

UOCAVA voters

In 2016 the state of Florida issued SB 184, which created a military and overseas voting assistance working group to study barriers to military voting overseas as well as the feasibility and cost of developing an online voting system

Hawaii

     

Besides UOCAVA voters, all permanent absentee voters who have not received mailed ballots within five days of the election.

In 2016 Hawaii promulgated the HB 1654 Act allowing all permanent absentee voters to request that their absentee ballots be sent to a temporary address during the election cycle. If the request is made within five days of the election, absentee ballots can be sent and returned by electronic transmission (or mail).

Idaho

   

Only citizens directly affected by “national or local emergency” declared by Secretary of State

 

Indiana

   

UOCAVA voters

 

Iowa

   

Only UOCAVA voters in areas eligible for emergency hazard pay or active military personnel located outside the US

 

Kansas

   

UOCAVA voters

 

Louisiana

 

   

UOCAVA Voters and Voters with Disabilities

In 2016 Louisiana HB 614 allowed electronic distribution of blank ballots to voters with disabilities and fax return of ballots by these voters.

Maine

   

UOCAVA voters

In 2015, Maine passed SB 552, which authorizes the Secretary of State to authorize a method for electronically receiving UOCAVA voters’ absentee votes (possibly expanding the Songback method available to these voters. They can currently fax or E-mail back ballots marked by the voter)

Massachusetts

   

UOCAVA voters

 

Mississippi

   

UOCAVA voters

 

Missouri

 

UOCAVA voters serving in a “hostile fire zone”

 

Montana

   

UOCAVA voters

 

Nebraska

   

UOCAVA voters

 

Nevada

   

 UOCAVA voters

 

New Jersey

   

UOCAVA voters; they must also send physical photocopies of ballots by mail

 

New Mexico

   

UOCAVA voters

 

North Carolina

   

UOCAVA voters

 

North Dakota

 

 

UOCAVA voters

 

Oklahoma

 

   

UOCAVA voters

 

Oregon

   

UOCAVA voters

 

Rhode Island

 

   

UOCAVA voters

 

South Carolina

   

UOCAVA voters

 

Texas

 

   

Only those eligible for hostile fire/ imminent hazard pay or active military personnel (or their family members) in an area designated by the US President as a theater of operations

 

Utah

   

UOCAVA voters and voters with disabilities

 

Virginia

       

 

In 2014 Virginia passed SB 11 requiring the State Electoral Commission to develop secure electronic voting returns for UOCAVA voters

Washington

   

UOCAVA voters

 

West Virginia

 

UOCAVA voters

West Virginia used blockchain technology to provide mobile voting applications in 2018, a first in the US.

Source:https://www.ncsl.org/research/elections-and-campaigns/internet-voting.aspx

Tabulate:Permanent Peace Partnership

7. Legislatures follow the Constitutional Standards rules on partial re-election every year. Parliamentary elections cannot be held on the same day as central-level elections. On average, there will be no more than two elections a year.